# Publications in 1996

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Graphs are commonly used to model the structure of internetworks, for the study of problems ranging from routing to resource reservation. A variety of graph models are found in the literature, including regular topologies such as rings or stars, "well-known"...

The MDM2 oncoprotein is a cellular inhibitor of the p53 tumor suppressor in that it can bind the transactivation domain of p53 and downregulate its ability to activate transcription. In certain cancers, MDM2 amplification is a common event and contributes...

In this paper, a new approach for handling fuzzy AHP is introduced, with the use of triangular fuzzy numbers for pairwise comprison scale of fuzzy AHP, and the use of the extent analysis method for the synthetic extent value Si of the pairwise comparison....

A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based method is described in which small organic molecules that bind to proximal subsites of a protein are identified, optimized, and linked together to produce high-affinity ligands. The approach is called “SAR by...

Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which have recently been recognized as useful pharmaceutical excipients. The molecular structure of these glucose derivatives, which approximates a truncated cone or torus, generates a hydrophilic exterior surface...

A common task in signal processing is the estimation of the parameters of a probability distribution function. Perhaps the most frequently encountered estimation problem is the estimation of the mean of a signal in noise. In many parameter estimation...

The impact of recent precision measurements of DIS structure functions and inclu- sive jet production at the Tevatron on the global QCD analysis of parton distribution functions is studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on exploring the range...

Scientific and practical applications of supported lipid-protein bilayers are described. Membranes can be covalently coupled to or separated from solids by ultrathin layers of water or soft polymer cushions. The latter systems maintain the structural...

Attila Mekis, J. Chen, I. Kurland, Shanhui Fan, Pierre R. Villeneuve, John D. Joannopoulos

C. Michael Gibson, Christopher P. Cannon, William L. Daley, J.Theodore Dodge, Barbara B. Alexander, Susan J. Marble, Carolyn H. McCabe, Lori Raymond, Terry Fortin, W. Kenneth Poole, Eugene Braunwald

Mice lacking p27 Kip1 have been created by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. These mice are larger than the control animals, with thymus, pituitary, and adrenal glands and gonadal organs exhibiting striking enlargement. CDK2 activity is elevated...

State of the art, real-time, rate-adaptive, multimedia applications adjust their transmission rate to match the available network capacity. Unfortunately, this source-based rate-adaptation performs poorly in a heterogeneous multicast environment because...

Hilda Borko, Ralph T. Putnam

We examine how the structure and content of individuals' networks in the workplace affect intraorganizational mobility. Consistent with prior research, we find that an individual's mobility is enhanced by having a large, sparse network of informal ties...

What happens when a firm switches from paying hourly wages to paying piece rates? The theory developed below predicts that average productivity rises, that the firm will attract a more able work force and that the variance in output across individuals...

Connors Af, Theodore Speroff, Neal V. Dawson, Charles Thomas, Frank E. Harrell, D. P. Wagner, Norman A. Desbiens, Lee Goldman, Albert W. Wu, Robert M. Califf, William Fulkerson, Humberto Vidaillet, Steven K. Broste, Paul E. Bellamy, Lynn J, Knaus Wa

Khs Campbell, J. McWhir, William A. Ritchie, Ian Wilmut

Most empirical studies of the static CAPM assume that betas remain constant over time and that the return on the value-weighted portfolio of all stocks is a proxy for the return on aggregate wealth. The general consensus is that the static CAPM is unable...

D. C. Erwin, Odartey Ribeiro

Peggy Aldrich Kidwell

Keisuke Kuida, Timothy S. Zheng, Songqing Na, Chia-Yi Kuan, Di Yang, Hajime Karasuyama, Pasko Rakic, Richard A. Flavell

The paper describes the engineering and design of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), using back-to-back PWM voltage-source converters in the rotor circuit. A vector-control scheme for the supply-side PWM converter results in independent control...

Maurizio Ferrera

A new memory structure using threshold shifting from charge stored in nanocrystals of silicon (≊5nm in size) is described. The devices utilize direct tunneling and storage of electrons in the nanocrystals. The limited size and capacitance of the nanocrystals...

Agent software is a rapidly developing area of research. However, the overuse of the word ‘agent’ has tended to mask the fact that, in reality, there is a truly heterogeneous body of research being carried out under this banner. This overview paper...

Experimental tumors contain a significant fraction of microregions that are chronically or transiently hvpoxic. Experimental evidence showing that hypoxia (und suhsequent reoxygenation) muy huve a profound impact on malignant progression and on responsiveness...

In 1988, we undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), modified-release dipyridamole, and the two agents in combination for secondary prevention of ischemic...

The cell cycle inhibitor p16INK4a is inactivated in many human tumors and in families with hereditary melanoma and pancreatic cancer. Tumor-associated alterations in the INK4a locus may also affect the overlapping gene encoding p19ARF and the adjacent...

John T. Cacioppo, Richard E. Petty, Jeffrey Feinstein, W.Blair G. Jarvis

The hypothesis that leptin (OB protein) acts in the hypo- thalamus to reduce food intake and body weight is based primarily on evidence from leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice. To investigate whether leptin exerts similar effects in normal animals, we administered...

Objective. —To identify the sentinel lymph node(s) (SLN[s]) (the first node[s] draining the primary tumor in the regional lymphatic basin) in patients with invasive breast cancer and to test the hypothesis that the histologic characteristics of the...

We offer simple quasi-likelihood methods for estimating regression models with a fractional dependent variable and for performing asymptotically valid inference. Compared with log-odds type procedures, there is no difficulty in recovering the regression...

For many years, theories of collaborative learning tended to focus on how individuals function in a group. More recently, the focus has shifted so that the group itself has become the unit of analysis. In terms of empirical research, the initial goal...

Andrew J. Elliot, Judith M. Harackiewicz

We present the automated techniques we have developed for new software that optimally detects, deblends, measures and classies sources from astronomical images: SExtractor (Source Extractor). We show that a very reliable star/galaxy separation can be...

A new dynamical correlation functional is constructed subject to a small number of simple, yet key, requirements not all satisfied by existing functionals in the literature. The new functional gives good atomic correlation energies, and, in conjunction...

Brian Warner, Scott J. Kenyon

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. The structural...

DIOPATHIC thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP, also I known as primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura) is a hematologic disorder for which appropriate diagnostic and treatment strategies are uncertain. In 1994, the American Society of Hematology (ASH) established...

Several new architectures have been developed for supporting multimedia applications such as digital video and audio. However, quality-of-service (QoS) routing is an important element that is still missing from these architectures. In this paper, we consider...

Background Acute changes in cerebral function after elective coronary bypass surgery are a difficult clinical problem. We carried out a multicenter study to determine the incidence and predictors of — and the use of resources associated with — perioperative...

This paper examines if the stock market prices discretionary accruals. Evidence reveals that, on average, the market attaches value to discretionary accruals. This evidence is consistent with two alternative scenarios: (1) managerial discretion improves...

Alan J. Whitmarsh, Rj Davis

Clayton M. Christensen

A new formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, known as extended irreversible thermodynamics, has fuelled increasing attention. The basic features of this formalism and several applications are reviewed. Extended irreversible thermodynamics includes...

The organizational problem firms face is the utilization of knowledge which is not, and cannot be, known by a single agent. Even more importantly, no single agent can fully specify in advance what kind of practical knowledge is going to be relevant, when...

Population genetics studies using microsatellites, and data on their molecular dynamics, are on the increase. But, so far, no consensus has emerged on which mutation model should be used, though this is of paramount importance for analysis of population...

By combining electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR),optical absorption, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, a strong correlation is observed between the green 510 nm emission, the free‐carrier concentration, and the density of singly ionized oxygen...

TCP may experience poor performance when multiple packets are lost from one window of data. With the limited information available from cumulative acknowledgments, a TCP sender can only learn about a single lost packet per round trip time. An aggressive...

We examine how the learning, along several dimensions (environment, task, process, skills, goals), that takes place in strategic alliances between firms mediates between the initial conditions and the outcomes of these alliances. Through a longitudinal...

Based on the real world image sequence's characteristic of center-biased motion vector distribution, a new four-step search (4SS) algorithm with center-biased checking point pattern for fast block motion estimation is proposed in this paper. A halfway-stop...

The crystal structure of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A resolution with an R value of 19.9 percent reveals 13 subunits, each different from the other, five phosphatidyl ethanolamines, three phosphatidyl glycerols and two cholates, two hemes...

Luigi Naldini, Ulrike Blömer, Fred H. Gage, Didier Trono, Inder M. Verma

In this collection of writings, Nobel laureate Friedrich A. Hayek discusses topics from moral philosophy and the methods of the social sciences to economic theory as different aspects of the same central issue: free markets versus socialist planned economies....

This article takes initial steps in evaluating contending models of EU governance. We argue that the sovereignty of individual states is diluted in the European arena by collective decision-making and by supranational institutions. In addition, European...

This paper considers the locational choice of firms in an upstream and a downstream industry. Both industries are imperfectly competitive, with firms subject to increasing returns. There are transport costs between the two locations. Depending on the...

The relative organization of genes and repetitive DNAs in complex eukaryotic genomes is not well understood. Diagnostic sequencing indicated that a 280-kilobase region containing the maize Adh1 -F and u22 genes is composed primarily of retrotransposons...

: A quantum system consisting of two subsystems is {\it separable\/} if its density matrix can be written as $\rho=\sum_A w_A\,\rho_A'\otimes \rho_A''$, where $\rho_A'$ and $\rho_A''$ are density matrices for the two subsytems. In this Letter, it is shown...

This study examines the relationship between interfirm asset specificity and performance in the auto industry. More specifically, I examine the extent to which differences in supplier–automaker asset specialization may explain performance differences...

Katherine Xin, Jone L. Pearce

The progress made in understanding the insula in the decade following an earlier review ( Augustine, Neurol. Res. , 7 (1985) 2–10) is examined in this review. In these ten years, connections have been described between the insula and the orbital cortex,...

Cynthia Barnhart, George L. Nemhauser, Pamela H. Vance

The purpose of this article is to quantify the relation of fitness to risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality within strata of other predictors of early mortality. The authors use U.S. data on 25341 men and 7080 women collected between...

L. Joseph Melton

Ulrich Güldener, Susanne Heck, Thomas Fiedler, Jens Beinhauer, Johannes H. Hegemann

In this paper, I outline a perspective on organizational transformation which proposes change as endemic to the practice of organizing and hence as enacted through the situated practices of organizational actors as they improvise, innovate, and adjust...

The reactions of RuCl2(PPh3)3 with a number of diazoalkanes were surveyed, and alkylidene transfer to give RuCl2(CHR)(PPh3)2 (R = Me (1), Et (2)) and RuCl2(CH-p-C6H4X)(PPh3)2 (X = H (3), NMe2 (4), OMe (5), Me (6), F (7), Cl (8), NO2 (9)) was observed...

With an analytical and rigorous approach to problem solving and programming techniques, this book is oriented toward engineering. Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs emphasizes the central role played by different approaches to dealing with...

Understanding and predicting ecosystem functioning (e.g., carbon and water fluxes) and the role of soils in carbon storage requires an accurate assess- ment of plant rooting distributions. Here, in a compre- hensive literature synthesis, we analyze rooting...

The simultaneous and unequivocal discernment of all human chromosomes in different colors would be of significant clinical and biologic importance. Whole-genome scanning by spectral karyotyping allowed instantaneous visualization of defined emission spectra...

Ingmar Skoog, Lars Nilsson, G Persson, Bodil Lernfelt, Sten Landahl, Bo Palmertz, L-A Andreasson, Anders Odén, A. Svanborg

M.D. Turton, Donal O'Shea, I. Gunn, S. A. Beak, C. M. B. Edwards, Karim Meeran, S. J. Choi, G. M. Taylor, M. M. Heath, P.D. Lambert, J. P. H. Wilding, D. M. Smith, Mohammad A. Ghatei, Joe Herbert, Stephen R. Bloom

The business value of information technology (IT) has been debated for a number of years. While some authors have attributed large productivity improvements and substantial consumer benefits to IT, others report that IT has not had any bottom line impact...

Decision support applications involve complex queries on very large databases. Since response times should be small, query optimization is critical. Users typically view the data as multidimensional data cubes. Each cell of the data cube is a view consisting...

Publisher SummaryThis chapter describes the essence of the catalytic chemistry of heteropoly compounds in solution and in the solid state. The catalytic properties of heteropoly compounds have drawn wide attention, owing to the versatility of these compounds...

John R. Anderson, Lynne M. Reder, Herbert A. Simon

This paper successfully tests on a sample of 71 countries for the period 1960â€“85 the following hypotheses. Income inequality, by fuelling social discontent, increases sociopolitical instability. The latter, by creating uncertainty in the politico-economic...

Most of the proteins that are used in mitochondria are imported through the double membrane of the organelle. The information that guides the protein to mitochondria is contained in its sequence and structure, although no direct evidence can be obtained....

Attention has been paid to active filters for power conditioning which provide the following multifunctions: reactive power compensation; harmonic compensation; flicker/imbalance compensation; and voltage regulation. Active filters in a range of 50 kVA-60...

Cilk (pronounced “silk”) is a C-based runtime system for multithreaded parallel programming. In this paper, we document the efficiency of the Cilk work-stealing scheduler, both empirically and analytically. We show that on real and synthetic applications,...

Douglas Philp, J. Fraser Stoddart

Parental Psychological Control: Revisiting a Neglected Construct

Measurements of two-photon fluorescence excitation (TPE) spectra are presented for 11 common molecular fluorophores in the excitation wavelength range 690 nm < λ < 1050 nm. Results of excitation by ∼100-fs pulses of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser...

Cross-cultural perspectives have brought renewed interest in the social aspects of the self and the extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of their relationships to others and to social groups. This article provides a conceptual review...

The STAT1 transcription factor is activated in response to many cytokines and growth factors. To study the requirement for STAT1 in vivo, we disrupted the Stat1 gene in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in mice. Stat1 −/− ES cells were unresponsive...

The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been widely used for remote sensing of vegetation for many years. This index uses radiances or reflectances from a red channel around 0.66 μm and a near-IR channel around 0.86...

Summary Background Oestrogen use by postmenopausal women has many health benefits, but findings on the effect of oestrogen in Alzheimer’s disease are conflicting. Oestrogen promotes the growth and survival of cholinergic neurons and could decrease cerebral...

The authors propose a method for the reduction of peak-to-average transmit power ratio of multicarrier modulation systems, called selected mapping, is presented, which is appropriate for a wide range of applications. Significant gains can be achieved...

The P2Z receptor is responsible for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent lysis of macrophages through the formation of membrane pores permeable to large molecules. Other ATP-gated channels, the P2X receptors, are permeable only to small cations. Here,...

In cultures of embryonic striatum, we previously reported that EGF induces the proliferation of single precursor cells, which give rise to spheres of undifferentiated cells that can generate neurons and glia. We report here that, in vitro, these embryonic...

This paper investigates the impact of competition on the productivity performance of companies. The key hypothesis is that firms which operate in a more competitive environment have a higher levels of productivity and/or higher rates of productivity growth....

The primary disadvantage of current design techniques for model predictive control (MPC) is their inability to deal explicitly with plant model uncertainty. In this paper, we present a new approach for robust MPC synthesis which allows explicit incorporation...

InGaN multi-quantum-well (MQW) structure laser diodes (LDs) fabricated from III-V nitride materials were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrates. The mirror facet for a laser cavity was formed by etching of III-V nitride...

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulation of cells leads to the activation of multiple signaling pathways, one of which involves Stat6. We have generated Stat6-deficient mice by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to determine the role of this transcription...

Objective. —To determine if the high mortality in acute renal failure is explained by underlying illnesses (comorbidity).Design. —Cohort analytic study.Setting. —An 826-bed general hospital providing primary, secondary, and tertiary care.Patients....

Yoshinori Iwahashi, Jingtao Wang, Zenji Horita, Minoru Nemoto, Terence G. Langdon

Selected aspects of recent progress in the study of supercooled liquids and glasses are presented in this review. As an introduction for nonspecialists, several basic features of the dynamics and thermodynamics of supercooled liquids and glasses are described....

In this paper we examine tests for cointegration which allow for the possibility of regime shifts. We propose augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips type tests designed to test the null of no cointegration against the alternative of cointegration...

Matthias Wilm, Andrej Shevchenko, Tony Houthaeve, Stephen Breit, Lothar Schweigerer, Theodore Fotsis, Matthias Mann

Partho Ghosh, Ursula Utz, Qing R. Fan, William E. Biddison, Wiley Dc

Background: The green-fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has recently been used as a universal reporter in a broad range of heterologous living cells and organisms. Although successful in some plant transient expression assays...

Dmitry I. Gabrilovich, Hailei L. Chen, Khaled R. Girgis, H. Thomas Cunningham, Geralyn M. Meny, Sorena Nadaf, Denise Kavanaugh, David P. Carbone

Robert H. Fletcher, Suzanne W. Fletcher, Edward H. Wagner

H. Y. Hwang, S.-W. Cheong, B. Batlogg

This article presents managers with a framework for measuring the strength of a brand. It specifically examines ten sets of measures grouped into five categories: loyalty, perceived quality, associations, awareness, and market behavior. Employing these...

A new approach to low-complexity channel estimation in orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is proposed. A low-rank approximation is applied to a linear minimum mean-squared error (LMMSE) estimator that uses the frequency correlation...

Fresh fracture surfaces of the martian meteorite ALH84001 contain abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These fresh fracture surfaces also display carbonate globules. Contamination studies suggest that the PAHs are indigenous to the meteorite....

We present the Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP). In WRP, routing nodes communicate the distance and second-to-last hop for each destination. WRP reduces the number of cases in which a temporary routing loop can occur, which accounts for its fast convergence...

The electrical characteristics of field‐effect transistors using solution cast regioregular poly(3‐hexylthiophene) are discussed. We demonstrate that both high field‐effect mobilities (ca. 0.045 cm2/V s in the accumulation mode...

Sumantra Ghoshal, Peter Moran

Weatherall Dj, J. G. G. Ledingham, David A. Warrell

James T. Austin, Jeffrey B. Vancouver

P. Vandamme, Bruno Pot, M. Gillis, P. De Vos, Karel Kersters, Jean Swings

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