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Sociology

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Marital Disruption: Structual and Temporal Dimensions

The authors integrate "the disparate threads of the current marital disruption literature and [provide] an integrated framework for subsequent analysis. [They] focus on the study of intracohort life cycle development and comparative cohort careers. ...

Diversity Rhetoric and the Managerialization of Law1

This article examines the rise of diversity rhetoric in U.S. management and how that rhetoric reframes ideas inherent in civil rights law. Quantitative and qualitative content analyses of the professional management literature (mid‐1980s–mid‐1990s)...

Health Communication on the Internet: An Effective Channel for Health Behavior Change?

This article which offers a theoretical rationale for using the Internet for public health communications opens by citing research findings indicating that the mass media are important for creating awareness but interpersonal interactions are essential...

All about me: Disclosure in online social networking profiles: The case of FACEBOOK

The present research examined disclosure in online social networking profiles (i.e., FACEBOOK(TM)). Three studies were conducted. First, a scoring tool was developed in order to comprehensively assess the content of the personal profiles. Second, grouping...

Path Dependence or Path Creation

We discuss the assumptions that underlie path dependence, as defined by Vergne and Durand, and then provide the outlines of an alternative perspective which we label as path creation. Path creation entertains a notion of agency that is distributed and...

Reconsidering Culture and Poverty

Mario Luis Small, David J. Harding, Michèle Lamont

The Contentiousness of Markets: Politics, Social Movements, and Institutional Change in Markets

While much of economic sociology focuses on the stabilizing aspects of markets, the social movement perspective emphasizes the role that contentiousness plays in bringing institutional change and innovation to markets. Markets are inherently political,...

The virtual census: representations of gender, race and age in video games

Dmitri Williams, Nicole Martins, Mia Consalvo, James D. Ivory

Structuring Failure and Success: Understanding the Variability in Latino School Engagement.

Why do some low-income immigrant and native-born Latino students do well in school while others do not? Why are low-income Latino students less successful in school than their White peers? What are the effects of institutional mechanisms on low-income...

Neoliberalism and the making of food politics in California

This article is a theoretical overview that introduces a special issue on neoliberalism and agro-food activism in California. Its primary purpose is to theorize how projects in opposition to neoliberalizations of the food and agricultural sectors seem...

Cultural considerations in adolescent suicide prevention and psychosocial treatment

David B. Goldston, Sherry Davis Molock, Leslie B. Whitbeck, Jessica L. Murakami, Luis H. Zayas, Gordon C. Nagayama Hall

Ending Corruption: The Interplay Among Institutional Logics, Resources, and Institutional Entrepreneurs

We draw from theories of institutions and collective identities to present a threefold framework of institutional change?involving institutional logics, resources, and so cial actors?that furthers our understanding of the mitigation of corruption. Those...

The discourse of denial: how white teacher candidates construct race, racism and ‘white privilege’

This qualitative study focuses on a representative sample from 200 teacher candidates' responses to Peggy McIntosh's article, ‘White privilege: unpacking the invisible knapsack’. The notion and understanding of whiteness and white privilege were explored...

Turning a Community into a Market: A Practice Perspective on Information Technology Use in Boundary Spanning

This paper examines how information technology (IT) transforms relations across fields of practice within organizations. Drawing on Bourdieu's practice theory, we argue that the production of any practice involves varying degrees of embodiment (i.e.,...

Debiasing Through Law

In many settings, human beings are boundedly rational. A distinctive and insufficiently explored legal response to bounded rationality is to attempt to debias through law by steering people in more rational directions. In many domains, existing legal...

The Role of Home Literacy Practices in Preschool Children's Language and Emergent Literacy Skills

This study examined how 4 specific measures of home literacy practices (i.e., shared book reading frequency, maternal book reading strategies, child’s enjoyment of reading, and maternal sensitivity) and a global measure of the quality and responsiveness...

The diverse and contested meanings of sustainable development

We provide a heuristic framework that can be used as a lens for understanding the arguments being presented in the papers which comprise this special issue on sustainable development and environmental issues in Great Britain. This framework can also be...

Phonological sensitivity: A quasi‐parallel progression of word structure units and cognitive operations

Jason L. Anthony, Christopher J. Lonigan, Kimberly A. Driscoll, Beth M. Phillips, Stephen R. Burgess

Social complexity and transitive inference in corvids

The social complexity hypothesis asserts that animals living in large social groups should display enhanced cognitive abilities along predictable dimensions. To test this concept, we compared highly social pinyon jays, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, with...

Practicing food democracy: a pragmatic politics of transformation

There is a tension regarding the potential of the alternative agro-food movement to create meaningful change. From one perspective, individual and organizational actors working to change the dominant food system need to be engaged on a daily basis in...

Let's ask them: a national survey of definitions of quality of life and its enhancement among people aged 65 and over.

This study aimed to explore older peoples’ definitions of, and priorities for, a good quality of life for themselves and their peers. Nine hundred and ninety-nine people aged 65 and over, living at home in Britain, were interviewed for the study. Good...

Defining the Eu Political Space An Empirical Study of the European Elections Manifestos, 1979-1999

ACE Descriptive models of the EU political space are fundamental components of both descriptions of EU politics and theories of EU policy making. But there is no consensus on which, if any, model accurately captures the EU political space. In this article,...

The Relation of Family and School Attachment to Adolescent Deviance in Diverse Groups and Communities

Sanford M. Dornbusch, Kristan Glasgow Erickson, Jennifer Laird, Carol A. Wong

The conceptual structure of research utilization

Despite the fact that the nursing literature is replete with calls to make the practice of nursing research based, little is known about the structure and function of research utilization. The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptual structure...

The Eyes of the Beholder : Understanding the Turn-Taking System in Quasi-Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

This article is a comparison of the turn-taking systems in computer-mediated communication (CMC) and oral conversation. Previous research on CMC has relied on printouts of conversations as data, whereas we used videotaped recordings of each participant's...

The Impact of Gender on the Review of the Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates: A National Empirical Study

The purpose of this study was to determine some of the factors that inuence outside reviewers and search committee members when they are reviewing curricula vitae, particularly with respect to the gender of the name on the vitae. The participants in this...

The Political Economy of International Trade Enduring Puzzles and an Agenda for Inquiry

James E. Alt, Jeffry Frieden, Michael J. Gilligan, Dani Rodrik, Ronald Rogowski

Firm-level Responses to Government Regulation: Theoretical and Research Approaches

Historically, the relationship between business firms and government has usually been approached in terms of its effects on the process of representative democracy (i.e., the implications of business political activity for the functioning of government)....

Racial Threat and Partisan Identification.

Power theory views relationships between groups as a function of their competitive positions in political, economic, and social arenas. In contexts where the threat posed by a minority group is high, the dominant group's response is predicted to be more...

Job Mobility and Career Processes

Renewed interest in the movement of people between jobs highlights the roles of time and opportunity structures in career development. Vacancy-driven models provide the background for many conceptions of the opportunity structure, with recent work on...

Group Size and Anonymity Effects on Computer-Mediated Idea Generation

Joseph S. Valacich, Alan R. Dennis, Jay F. Nunamaker

The Emergence of a Tool-Using Skill in Infancy

The use of a spoon for eating is one of the first tool-using skills acquired by most infants. The article provides a description and analysis of how the skill is built during the second year of life. A number of behavior categories were identified and...

Private Security: Implications for Social Control

Private security has become a pervasive feature of modern North American policing, both because of its rapid growth since 1960 and because it has invaded the traditional domain of the public police. Because this development has been viewed as an addendum...

The courts and social policy

Steven Barnet Boris, Donald L. Horowitz

Age structure dynamics in Asia and dependence on foreign capital.

Rising fertility and declining mortality have had a profound impact on Asian savings investment and foreign capital dependency since Coale and Hoover wrote in 1958. This article argues that much of the impressive rise in Asian savings rates since the...

Social Class and Parental Values

Middle-and working-class parents share a broadly common se of values-but not an identical set by any means. There appears to be a close fit between the actual workings-class situation and the values of working-class parents; between the actual middle-class...

Cooperation and Political Economic Performance in Affluent Democratic Capitalism1

Research on comparative political economic performance has traditionally followed two separate tracks, one concerned with collective economic gain (growth and efficiency) and the other focused on distribution and redistribution. Cooperative institutions...

The new enclosures: Critical perspectives on corporate land deals

The contributions to this collection use the tools of agrarian political economy to explore the rapid growth and complex dynamics of large-scale land deals in recent years, with a special focus on the implications of big land deals for property and labour...

The Struggle for District-Based Health Information Systems in South Africa

This article describes the initial period (1994-2001) of an ongoing action research project to develop health information systems to support district management in South Africa. The reconstruction of the health sector in postapartheid South Africa striving...

Assessing the Quality of Democracy: Freedom, Competitiveness and Participation in Eighteen Latin American Countries

This article explores the problem of conceptualising and measuring the quality of democracy in Latin America. The first part discusses the use of the concept and the need for an operational measure. It explores three dimensions of the quality of democracy:...

A Method of Automated Nonparametric Content Analysis for Social Science

The increasing availability of digitized text presents enormous opportunities for social scientists. Yet hand coding many blogs, speeches, government records, newspapers, or other sources of unstructured text is infeasible. Although computer scientists...

Barriers to distance education: A factor‐analytic study

This article reports on a large‐scale (n = 2,504), exploratory factor analysis that determined the underlying constructs that comprise barriers to distance education. The ten factors found were (1) administrative structure, (2) organizational change,...

Bourdieu and organizational analysis

Despite some promising steps in the right direction, organizational analysis has yet to exploit fully the theoretical and empirical possibilities inherent in the writings of Pierre Bourdieu. While certain concepts associated with his thought, such as...

A Statistical Model for Multiparty Electoral Data

compositions, campaign spending, and other features of the election campaign or aggregate areas. We also provide new graphical representations for data exploration, model evaluation, and substantive interpretation. We illustrate the use of this model...

A Meta-Analysis of National Research: Effects of Teaching Strategies on Student Achievement in Science in the United States

This project consisted of a meta-analysis of U.S. research published from 1980 to 2004 on the effect of specific science teaching strategies on student achievement. The six phases of the project included study acquisition, study coding, determination...

Making the difference in social Europe: deservingness perceptions among citizens of European welfare states

Summary Welfare states treat different groups of needy people differently. Such differential rationing may reflect various considerations of policymakers, who act in economic, political and cultural contexts. This article aims at contributing to a theoretical...

The ‘Third Wave’: education and the ideology of parentocracy

In this paper it will be argued that we are entering a ‘third wave’ in the socio‐historical development of British education and that similar trends are also evident in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. The ‘first wave’ can be characterised...

Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language...

Survey Measures of Web-Oriented Digital Literacy

This article presents survey measures of web-oriented digital literacy to serve as proxies for observed skill measures, which are much more expensive and difficult to collect for large samples. Findings are based on a study that examined users' digital...

DIRECT DEMOCRACY: New Approaches to Old Questions

▪ Abstract Until recently, direct democracy scholarship was primarily descriptive or normative. Much of it sought to highlight the processes' shortcomings. We describe new research that examines direct democracy from a more scientific perspective....

Integrative motivation in a globalizing world

This article reports on research into the motivation of Indonesian children aged 11–12 years old, as they begin formal study of English in an urban junior high school. The research used closed and open questionnaire items, backed up by class observations...

Reflections on a Half-Century of Organizational Sociology

For the past half-century, the study of organizations has been an active area within sociology. I provide an overview of the emergence of this specialty during the second half of the twentieth century, its relation to the larger field of organization...

Race and Race Theory

Race has always been a significant sociological theme, from the founding of the field and the formulation of classical theoretical statements to the present. Since the nineteenth century, sociological perspectives on race have developed and changed, always...

Reflections on participatory research

Participatory research approaches are increasingly popular with geographers in developed as well as developing countries, as critical qualitative methodologies which at their best work with participants to effect change. This paper adds to recent debates...

Emerging Land Markets in Rural and Urban China: Policies and Practices

This article examines the evolution of China's land system in the past two decades. Since the early 1980s, China has altered its land use arrangements and introduced new regulations to manage land use changes. In the process the adminis- trative allocation...

Prenatal Sex Determination and Sex‐Selective Abortion in Rural Central China

This study analyzes the practice of prenatal sex selection in rural central China. It examines the prevalence and determinants of prenatal sex determination by ultrasound scanning and subsequent sex-selective abortion. The data are derived from a survey...

Internalized homophobia and health issues affecting lesbians and gay men

factor in various aspects of ill-health, and may affect both the progression of illness and healthThis paper investigates the concept of internal- related decision-making processes with significant ized homophobia in both theory and research effect on...

Isms ' and the Structure of Social Attitudes

Social attitude measurement has been limited by inadequate structural models. In this study, broad, basic dimensions were sought, with the assumption that crucial variables are represented as terms ending in -ism (isms). 266 isms were extracted from a...

Review of nursing turnover research, 1977-1996

Turnover represents a major problem for health care services in terms of cost and quality of care given. As a result, turnover has been the subject of a large number of investigations. However, the variety of study populations, research methodologies,...

‘SocialExclusion’: An Alternative Concept for the Study of Deprivation?

Summary Arjan de Haan's article introduces the concept of social exclusion and compares it to notions of deprivation that are more common in development studies. He argues that although there is substantial overlap between the different concepts and...

THE DEMOCRATIC CLASS STRUGGLE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1948-1992*

We present evidence of a historic realignment in the relationship between class and voting behavior in U.S. presidential elections in the postwar period. We take advantage of recent advances in class analysis and statistical methodology to introduce a...

Metaphors and methodologies: living beyond the systems machine

Metaphors are the cognitive lenses we use to make sense of all situations. Intimately interconnected with the way we think, metaphors are fundamental in shaping reality. Building on work about metaphors in organizational life, this paper examines the...

Managing human resources and industrial relations

The book brings together for this first time an analysis of human resource management and industrial relations. Its pivotal theme is the interplay (and tensions) between individualism and collectivism.

FEMINIST POSTSTRUCTURALISM AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

In this article I suggest that feminist poststructuralism (Weedon, 1987) is of great potential value to feminist psychologists seeking more satisfactory ways of theorizing gender and subjectivity. Some key elements of this theoretical perspective are...

Stakeholder Participation and Utilization in Program Evaluation.

Field data from two case study evaluations are used to describe a set of dynamic linkages between stakeholder participation and utilization in program evaluation. Key elements of the participatory process employed are linked to cognitive, affective, and...

Rhetoric in Claims-Making: Constructing the Missing Children Problem

Claims-making about social problems is a persuasive activity, subject to rhetorical analysis. I use Toulmin's categories, which classify statements as grounds, warrants, and conclusions, to examine the rhetoric of claims made about the missing children...

The study of material culture today: Toward an anthropology of technical systems

… even the simplest techniques of any primitive society take on the character of a system that can be analyzed, in terms of a more general system. The techniques can be seen as a group of significant choices which each society—or each period within...

Social Class Segregation and Its Relationship to Pupils' Examination Results in Scotland

Social Class Segregation and Its Relationship to Pupils' Examination Results in Scotland

DETERMINANTS OF DIVORCE OVER THE MARITAL LIFE COURSE

Using data from the young and mature women samples of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey this paper examines how the determinants of divorce (and separation) vary by the duration of marriage. In general we find little evidence that the strength...

The Origins of English Individualism.

George C. Homans, Alan Macfarlane

Punishment in Organizations: A Review, Propositions, and Research Suggestions

The topic of punishment has received essentially no attention from organizational researchers. Our purpose in this paper is to review issues and questions concerning punishment, to review existing research to delimit variables that influence the effectiveness...

Body Ritual among the Nacirema

THE anthropologist has become so familiar with the diversity of ways in which different peoples behave in similar situations that he is not apt to be surprised by even the most exotic customs. In fact, if all of thelogically possible combinations of behavior...

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