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Sociology

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What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home and school*

"Ways of taking" from books are a part of culture and as such are more varied than current dichotomies between oral and literate traditions and relational and analytic cognitive styles would suggest. Patterns of language use related to books are studied...

Beyond Social Capital: Spatial Dynamics of Collective Efficacy for Children

Robert J. Sampson, Jeffrey D. Morenoff, Felton Earls

Work Group Demography, Social Integration, and Turnover

Charles A. O'Reilly, David F. Caldwell, William Barnett

Questions of Cultural Identity

Jessica Jacobson, Stuart Hall, Paul du Gay

Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods

This article assesses the sources and consequences of public disorder. Based on the videotaping and systematic rating of more than 23,000 street segments in Chicago, highly reliable scales of social and physical disorder for 196 neighborhoods are constructed....

US SOCIOECONOMIC AND RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH: Patterns and Explanations

This chapter reviews recent studies of socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in health. It traces patterns of the social distribution of disease over time and describes the evidence for both a widening SES differential in health status and...

On Organizational Becoming: Rethinking Organizational Change

Traditional approaches to organizational change have been dominated by assumptions privileging stability, routine, and order. As a result, organizational change has been reified and treated as exceptional rather than natural. In this paper, we set out...

Understanding the Intentions of Others: Re-Enactment of Intended Acts by 18-Month-Old Children

Investigated was whether children would re-enact what an adult actually did or what the adult intended to do. In Experiment 1 children were shown an adult who tried, but failed, to perform certain target acts. Completed target acts were thus not observed....

The Community Question: The Intimate Networks of East Yorkers

The Community Question has set the agenda for much or much of sociology. It is the question of how large-scale social systemic divisions of labor affect the organization and content of primary ties. Network analysis is proposed as a useful approach to...

Joint Book Reading Makes for Success in Learning to Read: A Meta-Analysis on Intergenerational Transmission of Literacy

The current review is a quantitative meta-analysis ofthe available empirical evidence related to parent-preschooler reading and several outcome measures. In selecting the studies to be included in this meta-analysis, we focused on studies examining thefrequency...

Innovation in services

The purpose of this article is to lay the foundations of a theory that can be used to interpret innovation processes in the service sector. The hypothesis underpinning this article is based on Lancaster's definition of the product (in both manufacturing...

Persuasion With Case Studies

This article presents some helpful suggestions on how researchers can write an interesting and convincing paper based on case-based research. A single case study, unless the subject is extremely interesting, will be hard to make interesting enough to...

Conceiving and Researching Transnationalism

A review of recent research across several disciplines not surprisingly finds a wide variety of descriptions surrounding meanings, processes, scales and methods concerning the notion of 'transnationalism'. Here, several clusters or themes are suggested...

Network Dynamics and Field Evolution: The Growth of Interorganizational Collaboration in the Life Sciences1

A recursive analysis of network and institutional evolution is offered to account for the decentralized structure of the commercial field of the life sciences. Four alternative logics of attachment—accumulative advantage, homophily, follow‐the‐trend,...

The Sacred and the Profane in Consumer Behavior: Theodicy on the Odyssey

Two processes at work in contemporary society are the secularization of religion and the sacralization of the secular. Consumer behavior shapes and reflects these processes. For many, consumption has become a vehicle for experiencing the sacred. This...

Life‐Threatening Disparities: The Treatment of Black and White Cancer Patients

Louis A. Penner, Susan Eggly, Jennifer J. Griggs, Willie Underwood, Heather Orom, Terrance L. Albrecht

Empirical strategies in labor economics

This chapter provides an overview of the methodological and practical issues that arise when estimating causal relationships that are of interest to labor economists. The subject matter includes identification, data collection, and measurement problems....

Language, truth and logic

Classic introduction to objectives and methods of schools of empiricism and linguistic analysis, especially of the logical positivism derived from the Vienna Circle, [i]Language, Truth, and Logic[/i] is a work of philosophy by Alfred Jules Ayer, published...

How a Cockpit Remembers Its Speeds

Cognitive science normally takes the individual agent as its unit of analysis. In many human endeavors, however, the outcomes of interest are not determined entirely by the information processing properties of individuals. Nor can they be inferred from...

A Dark Side of the American Dream: Correlates of Financial Success as a Central Life Aspiration

Aspiring for financial success is an important aspect of capitalist cultures. Three studies examine the hypothesis that values and expectancies for wealth and money are negatively associated with adjustment and well-being when they are more central to...

Typology of sociotechnical transition pathways

Contributing to debates about transitions and system changes, this article has two aims. First, it uses criticisms on the multi-level perspective as stepping stones for further conceptual refinements. Second, it develops a typology of four transition...

CONTEXT AND ACTION IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FIRM

The article focuses on the context and action in the transformation of the firm. The article addresses James MacGregor Burns's assertion that effective leadership is evident by the achievement of real and intended change. The author claims that change...

Effective Schools: A Review

Stewart C. Purkey, Marshall S. Smith

Objectivity as Strategic Ritual: An Examination of Newsmen's Notions of Objectivity

The newspapermen studied believe they may mitigate such continual pressures as deadlines, possible libel suits, and anticipated reprimands of superiors by being able to claim that their work is "objective." This article examines three factors which help...

Loosely Coupled Systems: A Reconceptualization

Diverse applications of the concept of loose coupling are embodied in five recurring voices that focus separately on causation, typology, effects, compensations, and outcomes. Each has a tendency to drift away from a dialectical interpretation of loose...

Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950–1990

Adam Przeworski, Michael E. Alvarez, Jose Antonio Cheibub, Fernando Limongi

Understanding the Influence of National Culture on the Development of Trust

Patricia M. Doney, Joseph P. Cannon, Michael R. Mullen

Network-based research in entrepreneurship A critical review

Network-based research in entrepreneurship is reviewed and critically examined in three areas: content of network relationships, governance, and structure. Research on the impact of network structure on venture performance has yielded a number of important...

Bridging Space Over Time: Global Virtual Team Dynamics and Effectiveness

Global virtual teams are internationally distributed groups of people with an organizational mandate to make or implement decisions with international components and implications. They are typically assigned tasks that are strategically important and...

FROM THE EDITORS: WHAT GROUNDED THEORY IS NOT

Editor’s Note. Three years ago, I invited Robert (Bob) Gephart to write a “From the Editors” column designed to help authors improve their chances of success when submitting qualitative research to AMJ. Judging from the increasing number of qualitative...

Different Strokes from Different Folks: Community Ties and Social Support'

Community ties with friends and relatives are a principal means by which people and households get supportive resources. Quantitative and qualitative data from the second East York study are used to evaluate six potential explanations of why different...

Understanding and Validity in Qualitative Research

Qualitative researchers rely — implicitly or explicitly — on a variety of understandings and corresponding types of validity in the process of describing, interpreting, and explaining phenomena of interest. In this article, Joseph Maxwell makes explicit...

Super-diversity and its implications

Diversity in Britain is not what it used to be. Some thirty years of government policies, social service practices and public perceptions have been framed by a particular understanding of immigration and multicultural diversity. That is, Britain’s immigrant...

Toward a Democratic Civil Peace? Democracy, Political Change, and Civil War, 1816-1992

The “third wave of democratization” (Huntington 1991; Vanhanen 2000) has raised hopes for a more peaceful world. The thesis of the democratic peace suggests that the spread of democracy will promote a decline in interstate warfare (Doyle 1986; Russett...

Market, Hierarchy, and Trust: The Knowledge Economy and the Future of Capitalism

Recent conceptualizations of trends in the structure of U.S. industry have focused on the relative importance of markets, hierarchies, and hybrid intermediate forms. This paper advances the discussion by distinguishing three ideal-typical forms of organization...

Four essays on liberty

Berlin, Isaiah, Sir

A Review of Discourse Analysis in Literacy Research: Equitable Access

Lesley A. Rex, Mike Bunn, Bethany A. Davila, Hannah A. Dickinson, Amy Carpenter Ford, Chris Gerben, Melinda J. McBee Orzulak, Heather Thomson

Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor

Time-diary data from representative samples ofAmerican adults show thatthenumber ofoverall hours ofdomestic labor (excluding child care andshopping) has continued to decline steadily and predictably since 1965. This finding is mainly due todramatic declines...

Factors predicting the subjective well-being of nations.

Ed Diener, Marissa L. Diener, Carol Diener

Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition

The authors present a new approach to culture and cognition, which focuses on the dynamics through which specific pieces of cultural knowledge (implicit theories) become operative in guiding the construction of meaning from a stimulus. Whether a construct...

Social Entrepreneurship Reserach: a Source of Explanation, Prediction and Delight

Social entrepreneurship, as a practice and a field for scholarly investigation, provides a unique opportunity to challenge, question, and rethink concepts and assumptions from different fields of management and business research. This article puts forward...

The Role of Networks in the Entrepreneurial Process

The extent to which the entrepreneur interacts with the networks in his local environment during the process of starting a new firm was studied. This study was based on the premise that, during this process, he is seeking not only the resources of equipment,...

Planning in the Face of Power

Information is a source of power in the planning process. This article begins by assessing five perspectives of the planner's use of information: those of the technician, the incremental pragmatist, the liberal advocate, the structuralist, and the “progressive.”...

Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950-1990

Scott Mainwaring, Adam Przeworski, Michael E. Alvarez, Jose Antonio Cheibub, Fernando Limongi

The Psychology of Social Impact

The author proposes a theory of social im- pact specifying the effect of other persons on an in- dividual. According to the theory, when other people are the source of impact and the individual is the target, impact should be a multiplicative function...

Management control systems design within its organizational context: findings from contingency-based research and directions for the future

Contingency-based research has a long tradition in the study of management control systems (MCS). Researchers have attempted to explain the effectiveness of MCS by examining designs that best suit the nature of the environment, technology, size, structure,...

Bounded rationality : the adaptive toolbox

In a complex and uncertain world, humans and animals make decisions under the constraints of limited knowledge, resources, and time. Yet models of rational decision making in economics, cognitive science, biology, and other fields largely ignore these...

On kinship structure female autonomy and demographic behavior in India.

The main states of India are broadly grouped into 2 demographic regimes. In contrast to states in the north southern states are characterized by lower marital fertility later age at marriage lower infant and child mortality and comparatively low ratios...

Cultural Capital and School Success: The Impact of Status Culture Participation on the Grades of U.S. High School Students.

Ethnographers and other students of interaction have documented the impact of status factors on students' success in school. Yet survey research data consistently show the absence of family background measure effects on high school grades. It is argued...

Social Capital, Structural Holes and the Formation of an Industry Network

The formation of a network is determined by the opposition of two forces. The first is the reproduction of network structure as a general social resource for network members. The second is the alteration of network structure by entrepreneurs for their...

Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion

We hypothesize that there is a general bias, based on both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to negative entities (e.g., events, objects, personal traits). This is manifested in 4 ways: (a) negative potency...

Just what is critical race theory and what's it doing in a nice field like education?

Critical race theory (CRT) first emerged as a counterlegal scholarship to the positivistand liberal legal discourse of civil rights. This scholarly tradition argues against the slow pace of racial reform in the United States. Critical race theory begins...

US SOCIOECONOMIC AND RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH: Patterns and Explanations

This chapter reviews recent studies of socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in health. It traces patterns of the social distribution of disease over time and describes the evidence for both a widening SES differential in health status and...

The World Health Organisation Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL)- Development and general psychometric properties

This paper reports on the field testing, empirical derivation and psychometric properties of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life assessment (the WHOQOL). The steps are presented from the development of the initial pilot version of the instrument...

College Sophomores in the Laboratory: Influences of a Narrow Data Base on Social Psychology's View of Human Nature

For the 2 decades prior to 1960, published research in social psychology was based on a wide variety of subjects and research sites. Content analyses show that since then such research has overwhelmingly been based on college students tested in academic...

The paradox of redistribution and strategies of equality : Welfare State institutions, inequality, and poverty in the western countries

the structure of welfare state institutions. (2) A trade-off exists between the degree of low-income targeting and the size of redistributive budgets. (3) Outcomes of market-based distribution are often more unequal than those of earnings-related social...

Patriarchal Terrorism and Common Couple Violence: Two Forms of Violence against Women

This article tackles two distinct types of couple violence occurring within families in the US and other Western countries. A review of data from a large sample survey and of qualitative and quantitative data collected from womens shelters indicates...

Why Do Brands Cause Trouble? A Dialectical Theory of Consumer Culture and Branding

Brands are today under attack by an emerging countercultural movement. This study builds a dialectical theory of consumer culture and branding that explains the rise of this movement and its potential effects. Results of an interpretive study challenge...

Handbook of organizational measurement

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate...

Where's the learning in service-learning?

Janet Eyler, Dwight E. Giles, Alexander W. Astin

HIV and AIDS-related Stigma and Discrimination - A Conceptual Framework and Implications for Action

Internationally, there has been a recent resurgence of interest in HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, triggered at least in part by growing recognition that negative social responses to the epidemic remain pervasive even in seriously affected...

Identity regulation as organizational control: Producing the appropriate individual

This paper takes the regulation of identity as a focus for examining organizational control. It considers how employees are enjoined to develop self-images and work orientations that are deemed congruent with managerially defined objectives. This focus...

Physical Place and Cyberplace: The Rise of Personalized Networking

Computer networks are social networks. Social affordances of computer-supported social networks - broader bandwidth, wireless portability, globalized connectivity, personalization - are fostering the movement from door-to-door and place-to-place communities...

From sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems: Insights about dynamics and change from sociology and institutional theory

In the last decade ‘sectoral systems of innovation’ have emerged as a new approach in innovation studies. This article makes four contributions to the approach by addressing some open issues. The first contribution is to explicitly incorporate the...

Uncertainty and Quality in Science for Policy

Silvio Funtowicz, Jerome R. Ravetz

Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital? Social Networks, Participation, and Community Commitment

How does the Internet affect social capital? Do the communication possibilities of the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement interpersonal contact, participation, and community commitment? Our evidence comes from a 1998 survey of 39,211 visitors...

The Dynamic Nature of Conflict: A Longitudinal Study of Intragroup Conflict and Group Performance

In a longitudinal study, we found that higher group performance was associated with a particular pattern of conflict. Teams performing well were characterized by low but increasing levels of process conflict, low levels of relationship conflict, with...

The psychology of sunk cost

Ohio University The sunk cost effect is manifested in a greater tendency to continue an endeavor once an investment in money, effort, or time has been made. Evidence that the psychological justification for this behavior is predicated on the desire not...

Genres of Organizational Communication: A Structurational Approach to Studying Communication and Media

Drawing on rhetorical theory and structuration, this article proposes genres of organizational communication as a concept useful for studying communication as embedded in social process rather than as the result of isolated rational actions. Genres (e.g.,...

Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: a functional approach.

The authors applied functionalist theory to the question of the motivations underlying volunteerism, hypothesized 6 functions potentially served by volunteerism, and designed an instrument to assess these functions (Volunteer Functions Inventory; VFI)....

Grounded theory in practice

Christine Mattley, Anselm L. Strauss, Juliet M. Corbin

The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States.

associations between perceived discrimination and mental health; and the extent to which differential exposure and differential emotional reactivity to perceived discrimination accountfor the well-known associations between disadvantaged social status...

Dismantling the Divide Between Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge

Dismantling the Divide Between Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge

CHANGING OBLIGATIONS AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

In an exploratory longitudinal study of business school alumni, we investigated changes in employment obligations as perceived by employees. During the first two years of employment, employees came to perceive that they owed less to their employers while...

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