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Sociology

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The theory of the leisure class

'Conspicuous consumption of valuable goods is a means of reputability to the gentleman of leisure.' In The Theory of the Leisure Class Thorstein Veblen sets out 'to discuss the place and value of the leisure class as an economic factor in modern life'....

Health Promotion by Social Cognitive Means

This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived...

Formations of class and gender : becoming respectable

Explanations of how identities are constructed are fundamental to contemporary debates in feminism and in cultural and social theory. Formations of Class & Gender demonstrates why class should be featured more prominently in theoretical accounts of gender,...

Motivational Beliefs, Values, and Goals

▪ Abstract This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success...

A Theory of Structure: Duality, Agency, and Transformation

"Structure" is one of the most important, elusive, and undertheorized concepts in the social sciences. Setting out from a critique and reformulation of Anthony Giddens's notion of the duality of structure and Pierre Bourdieu's notion of habitus, this...

Feminist Methods in Social Research

Shulamit Reinharz, Lynn Davidman

The Network Structure Of Social Capital

This is a review of argument and evidence on the connection between social networks and social capital. My summary points are three: (1) Research and theory will better cumulate across studies if we focus on the network mechanisms responsible for social...

Urbanism as a Way of Life

The urbanization of the world, which is one of the most impressive facts of modern times, has wrought profound changes in virtually every phase of social life. The recency and rapidity of urbanization in the United States accounts for the acuteness of...

The Power of Identity

From the Publisher:Manuel Castells describes the origins, purpose and effect of proactive movements, such as feminism and environmentalism, which aim to transform human relationships at their most fundamental level; and of reactive movements that build...

Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social Structure

This essay proposes an emotion-management perspective as a lens through which to inspect the self, interaction, and structure. Emotion, it is argued, can be and ofter is subject to acts of management. The individual often works on inducing or inhibiting...

Perceived Organizational Support: A Review of the Literature

The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees’ general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories...

Institutional Ecology, `Translations' and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907-39

Scientific work is heterogeneous, requiring many different actors and viewpoints. It also requires cooperation. The two create tension between divergent viewpoints and the need for generalizable findings. We present a model of how one group of actors...

Ego depletion : Is the active self a limited resource ?

Choice, active response, self-regulation, and other volition may all draw on a common inner resource. In Experiment 1, people who forced themselves to eat radishes instead of tempting chocolates subsequently quit faster on unsolvable puzzles than people...

Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory

Past analysis of social movements and social movement organizations has normally assumed a close link between the frustrations or grievances of a collectivity of actors and the growth and decline of movement activity. Questioning the theoretical centrality...

The origins of totalitarianism

Essai philosophique en trois parties, la premiere sur l'antisemitisme, la deuxieme sur l'imperialisme a la fin du XIXe s., la troisieme sur le totalitarisme stalinien et nazi

On the dimensionality of organizational justice: a construct validation of a measure.

This study explores the dimensionality of organizational justice and provides evidence of construct validity for a new justice measure. Items for this measure were generated by strictly following the seminal works in the justice literature. The measure...

Congress :the electoral connection /

David R. Mayhew, R foreword by Douglas Arnold

Sense of community: A definition and theory

For several years many of us at Peabody College have participated in the evolution of a theory of community, the first conceptualization of which was presented in a working paper (McMillan, 1976) of the Center for Community Studies. To support the proposed...

Caregiving and the Stress Process: An Overview of Concepts and Their Measures

Leonard I. Pearlin, Joseph T. Mullan, Shirley J. Semple, Marilyn M. Skaff

Qualitative Research Practice. A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers.

This textbook, edited by Jane RITCHIE and Jane LEWIS, is meant for both students and researchers, but be cause it primarily presents basic knowledge it is more sui table for students. It is intended to lead practitioners through the process of qualitative...

Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research

Margaret D. LeCompte, Judith Preissle Goetz

Global transformations : politics, economics and culture

Politics at the Edge was the theme of the 1999 PSA Annual Conference. This volume brings together nearly twenty of the liveliest, most thoughtful and original papers from over 200 which were presented at the conference. The major traditional strengths...

Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

In the midst of discussions about improving education, teacher education, equity, and diversity, little has been done to make pedagogy a central area of investigation. This article attempts to challenge notions about the intersection of culture and teaching...

Assessing “Neighborhood Effects”: Social Processes and New Directions in Research

▪ Abstract This paper assesses and synthesizes the cumulative results of a new “neighborhood-effects” literature that examines social processes related to problem behaviors and health-related outcomes. Our review identified over 40 relevant studies...

Multiple regression in behavioral research

Joe D. Francis, Fred N. Kerlinger, Elazar J. Pedhazur

Knowledge and Organization: A Social-Practice Perspective

While the recent focus on knowledge has undoubtedly benefited organizational studies, the literature still presents a sharply contrasting and even contradictory view of knowledge, which at times is described as "sticky" and at other times "leaky." This...

Qualitative Research Methods.

Pranee Liamputtong, Douglas Ezzy

On Studying Organizational Cultures

The article presents an overview of the longitudinal-processual theory of organizational formation. The ideological underpinnings of the method are described, highlighting its central focus on the factors and elements of an organization's creation and...

Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

Jelani Mandara, Carolyn B. Murray, James Telesford, Fatima Varner, Scott Richman

Science for the post-normal age

In response to the challenges of policy issues of risk and the environment, a new type of science-‘post-normal’-is emerging. This is analysed in contrast to traditional problem-solving strategies, including core science, applied science, and professional...

Explaining delinquency and drug use

Delbert S. Elliott, David Huizinga, Suzanne S. Ageton

Social identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes

The authors provide a comprehensive and readable account of social identity theory. They consider the way people derive their identity from the social groups to which they belong and the consequences of this.

Privacy and freedom

Alan F. Westin

Mind the Gap: Why Do People Act Environmentally and What Are the Barriers to Pro-Environmental Behavior?.

Numerous theoretical frameworks have been developed to explain the gap between the possession of environmental knowledge and environmental awareness, and displaying pro-environmental behavior. Although many hundreds of studies have been undertaken, no...

Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis

This paper discusses some principles of critical discourse analy- sis, such as the explicit sociopolitical stance of discourse analysts, and a focus on dominance relations by elite groups and institutions as they are being enacted, legitimated or otherwise...

Fools Rush in? The Institutional Context of Industry Creation

New organizations are always vulnerable to the liabilities of newness, but such pressures are especially severe when an industry is in its formative years. We focus on one set of constraints facing entrepreneurs in emerging industries-their relative lack...

Essence of decision : explaining the Cuban missile crisis

Essence of decision : explaining the Cuban missile crisis

What Americans know about politics and why it matters

Michael X. Delli Carpini, Scott Keeter

Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents

It is argued here that a category of performance called citizenship behavior is important in organizations and not easily explained by the same incentives that induce entry, conformity to contractual role prescriptions, or high production A study of 422...

Understanding Radical Organizational Change: Bringing Together the Old and the New Institutionalism

The complexity of political, regulatory, and technological changes confronting most organizations has made radical organizational change and adaptation a central research issue. This article sets out a framework for understanding organizational changes...

Accounting for Common Method Variance in Cross-Sectional Research Designs

Cross-sectional studies of attitude-behavior relationships are vulnerable to the inflation of correlations by common method variance (CMV). Here, a model is presented that allows partial correlation analysis to adjust the observed correlations for CMV...

The rise of the creative class: and how it's transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life

The Author explores the change in people's choices and attitudes and describes a society in which the creative ethos is increasingly dominant.

Trust as a Social Reality

Although trust is an underdeveloped concept in sociology, promising theoretical formulations are available in the recent work of Luhmann and Barber. This sociological version complements the psychological and attitudinal conceptualizations of experimental...

Research methods in social relations

Selltiz, C.Jahoda, M.Deutsch, M.Cook, S.W., S.J. Scherr, H. Medina Castro, Tripp, R.Woolley, J., R.G. Echeverría, Nordblom, T.L.Ahmed, A.K.H.Potts, G.R., S. Franzel, Ruiz P, Ruiz N, I.Puignau, J.P., J.P. Puignau, Actis, J.J.Puignau, J.P., Colazo, R.Puignau, J.P., Gastal, E.Tonina, T.Puignau, J.P., Morera J.Mora, A.Paredes, A.Phillips, W., Sagar, D.Farrington, J., Farooq, G.M.DeGraff, D.S., Jara A, M.Jara A, M.Ibarra, E.L., L.M. Butler, Vivallo Pinare, A.G.Fuentes, C.O.W., Quiróz, C.A.Ashby, J.Ramakrishna, B., Zorrilla Ríos, J.Ruiz, M.E.Ruiz, A., Ruiz Moreno A, Taylor A, Wernli, C.Ojeda, F.Ruiz, M.E.Ruiz, A., Rosero, O.Ruiz, M.E.Ruiz, A., Borel A, Riesco de la Vega, A.Ruiz, M.E.Vargas, A., Hart, R.D.Ruiz, M.E.Vargas, A.

Respondent-Driven Sampling: A New Approach to the Study of Hidden Populations

A population is “hidden” when no sampling frame exists and public acknowledgment of membership in the population is potentially threatening. Accessing such populations is difficult because standard probability sampling methods produce low response...

Is the Resource-Based “View” a Useful Perspective for Strategic Management Research? Yes

Here I examine each of the major issues raised by Priem and Butler (this issue) about my 1991 article and subsequent resource-based research. While it turns out that Priem and Butler's direct criticisms oi the 1991 article are unfounded, they do remind...

Development, Geography, and Economic Theory

Why do certain ideas gain currency in economics while others fall by the wayside? Paul Krugman argues that the unwillingness of mainstream economists to think about what they could not formalize led them to ignore ideas that turn out, in retrospect, to...

The second shift

Publisher Comments: Fifteen years after its first publication, The Second Shift remains just as important and relevant today as it did then. As the majority of women entered the workforce, sociologist and Berkeley professor Arlie Hochschild was one of...

Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research

R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Lisa A. Turner

Phenomenography — Describing conceptions of the world around us

Arguments are put forward in this paper in favour of research which has as its aim the finding and systematizing of forms of thought in terms of which people interpret significant aspects of reality. The kind of research argued for is complementary to...

Theoretical Propositions of Life-Span Developmental Psychology: On the Dynamics Between Growth and Decline

Life-span developmental psychology involves the study of constancy and change in behavior throughout the life course. One aspect of life-span research has been the advancement of a more general, metatheoretical view on the nature of development. The family...

HISTORICAL INSTITUTIONALISM IN COMPARATIVE POLITICS

▪ Abstract This article provides an overview of recent developments in historical institutionalism. First, it reviews some distinctions that are commonly drawn between the “historical” and the “rational choice” variants of institutionalism...

Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media.

Эта популярная книга, выдержавшая множество изданий, представляет собой резкую марксистскую критику ведущих (mainstream) масс медиа т.н. «демократических»...

Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?

Twenty years ago, in the pages of the Journal of Common Market Studies, Hedley Bull launched a searing critique of the European Community’s ‘civilian power’ in international affairs. Since that time the increasing role of the uropean Union (EU)in...

Tales of the field : on writing ethnography

Once upon a time ethnographers returning from the field simply sat down, shuffled their note cards, and wrote up their descriptions of the exotic and quaint customs they had observed. Today scholars in all disciplines are realizing how their research...

The methodology of Focus Groups: the importance of interaction between research participants

What are focus groups? How are they distinct from ordinary group discussions and what use are they anyway? This article introduces focus group methodology, explores ways of conducting such groups and examines what this technique of data collection can...

The sociology of Georg Simmel

Georg Simmel, Kurt H. Wolff

The Truly Disadvantaged

Renowned American sociologist William Julius Wilson takes a look at the social transformation of inner city ghettos, offering a sharp evaluation of the convergence of race and poverty. Rejecting both conservative and liberal interpretations of life in...

Framing as a Theory of Media Effects.

Framing as a Theory of Media Effects.

SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY

Richard M. Emerson

The sociology of religion

Max Weber, Ephraim Fischoff, Talcott Parsons

The transformation of American industrial relations

Thomas A. Kochan, Harry C. Katz, Robert B. McKersie

Global transformations : politics, economics and culture

Politics at the Edge was the theme of the 1999 PSA Annual Conference. This volume brings together nearly twenty of the liveliest, most thoughtful and original papers from over 200 which were presented at the conference. The major traditional strengths...

Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media.

Эта популярная книга, выдержавшая множество изданий, представляет собой резкую марксистскую критику ведущих (mainstream) масс медиа т.н. «демократических»...

Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical Mediation Analysis in the New Millennium

Understanding communication processes is the goal of most communication researchers. Rarely are we satisfied merely ascertaining whether messages have an effect on some outcome of focus in a specific context. Instead, we seek to understand how such effects...

The concept of power

What is “power”? Most people have an intuitive notion of what it means. But scientists have not yet formulated a statement of the concept of power that is rigorous enough to be of use in the systematic study of this important social phenomenon. Power...

The social psychology of creativity

Stephen Kahn, Teresa M. Amabile

Well-being over time in Britain and the USA

This paper studies happiness in the United States and Great Britain. Reported levels of well-being have declined over the last quarter of a century in the US; life satisfaction has run approximately flat through time in Britain. These findings are consistent...

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