# Publications in 2015

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The failure of many divorced fathers to comply with court-mandated child support awards has been identified as a major reason why a growing number of children live in poverty in female-headed households. This paper presents a model that seeks to explain...

This paper surveys recent theoretical work characterizing markets whose participants act on the basis of sketchy and incomplete information. Its focus is market equilibrium. Models of what is usually called disequilibrium behavior do not make sense and...

BackgroundPatients with advanced squamous-cell non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have disease progression during or after first-line chemotherapy have limited treatment options. This randomized, open-label, international, phase 3 study evaluated...

Elizabeth Hoffman, Matthew L. Spitzer

This paper provides a critique of the household production function approach and its application to the allocation of time. It is argued that many applications of the model, especially those making use of implicit "commodity prices," require that the...

Envy is a pan-human phenomenon, universally feared, at least subconsciously, as a particularly dangerous emotion, since it implies hostility and aggression capable of destroying individuals and even societies. Especially in Western society, man has rather...

In 2012, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) published a position statement on the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (1,2). This was needed because of an increasing...

Lester G Telser

Equilibrium models in population biology have demonstrated that accurate predictions of species diversity can be made without reference to particular taxa. We have extended the use of equilibrium models to examine patterns of phyletic diversification...

Corrupt agents (officials or gangsters) exact money from firms. Corruption affects the number of firms in a free‐entry equilibrium. The degree of deep competition in the economy increases with lower overhead costs relative to profits and with a tendency...

Of the three southern continents, South America was more isolated during the Tertiary than Africa, less isolated than Australia. Its record of Cenozoic mammalian life is better than that of either. This record suggests that around the beginning of the...

Pyroclastic fall and flow deposits occupy two distinct fields on an $Md_{\phi}/\sigma_{\phi}$ plot (Inman parameters), and a contoured diagram is given based on 1,600 samples to facilitate comparison of mechanical analyses. Analyses which plot where the...

The Colorado River in its course from central Texas to the Gulf of Mexico carries quartz, chert, and limestone pebbles which can be traced for distances of up to 270 miles from their source. Limestone is so soft that it reaches its limiting roundness...

W. Richard Webb, Nestor L. Müller, David P. Naidich

The study of criminality will benefit from a developmental perspective that employs analyses of within-subject changes. A review of the evidence shows continuity in offending between adolescence and adulthood and continuity between prepubertal conduct...

Critics of identity politics decry the celebration of difference within identity movements, yet many activists underscore their similarities to, rather than differences from, the majority. This article develops the idea of "identity deployment" as a form...

Using a diagnostic protocol based on the anatomy and distribution of cough receptors and afferent nerves, we sought to determine the causes and outcome of specific therapy of chronic persistent cough in 49 consecutive and unselected patients. A specific...

The internal marketing concept specifies that an organisation’s employees are its first market. Themes such as ‘internal advertising’ and ‘internal branding’ have recently entered the marketing lexicon. One component of internal marketing that...

Chicago housewives comprise four types of shoppers: economic, personalizing, ethical, and apathetic. The personalization and moralization of customer-clerk relationships cannot be inferred from conventional proposition about the anonymity of city life,...

This article adds to the empirical literature on tournament theory as a theory of executive compensation. The author tests several propositions of tournament models on a rich data set containing information about 2,600 executives in 210 Danish firms during...

Breeding bird censuses were made in Puerto Rico, Panama, and temperate United States, and a profile of foliage density was made for each. Using information theory formulae both diversity indices and measurements of difference between censuses and difference...

The importance of the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been well recognized and emphasized in the field of economic development.1 Although recent writings on this subject seem to accept the hypothesis that financial development...

Different techniques for preparing organic carbonates for mass spectrometric analysis may give slightly different results depending upon the material used and the grain size to which it is reduced. Two deep-sea cores from the central Caribbean have been...

Jens Lehmann, Robert Isele, Max Jakob, Anja Jentzsch, Dimitris Kontokostas, Pablo N. Mendes, Sebastian Hellmann, Mohamed Morsey, Patrick van Kleef, Sören Auer, Christian Bizer

Exploring the relationship between human behaviour and economic analysis, Microeconomics and Behaviour establishes the fundamentals of intermediate microeconomics in a clear and narrative style and develops economic intuition about the world around us....

Quantitative genetic models of phenotypic evolution in small isolated populations are presented, from the initial founding event to continued random genetic drift and natural selection toward a new optimum phenotype. The basic features of complex morphologies...

A significant change in the composition of turbidites deposited at active tectonic settings is seen at the Archean/post-Archean transition. In comparison to post-Archean active margin turbidites, Archean greenstone turbidites exhibit more uniform Th/Sc...

Public opinion on government policy is group-centric: that is, strongly influenced by the attitudes citizens possess toward the social groups perceived as the beneficiaries of the policy. Though common-place, this mode of political thinking is not inevitable....

We observed 223 largely suburban or rural public school kindergarten classrooms in 3 states to describe classroom activities and child-teacher interactions involving 1 child per classroom. We also observed global classroom quality and assessed its relation...

Diel vertical migration is a common phenomenon among aquatic organisms belonging to numerous phyla, and many hypotheses have been advanced to explain the selective advantages of such behavior. In this paper we discuss observations of the diel vertical...

While it has long been known that religious affiliation is associated with many aspects of family life the previously held notion that family behavior has no influence on religious activity and commitment and that all empirical association reflects the...

This article examines three hypotheses about the relation between age and the stability of sociopolitical attitudes. The hypotheses are (1) the impressionable-year hypothesis, which states that the youngest adults have the least stable attitudes; (2)...

Methods During a 2-year period at four centers in Catalonia, Spain, we randomly assigned 206 patients who could be treated within 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute ischemic stroke to receive either medical therapy (including intravenous alteplase...

This article contributes to a more systematic understanding of movement outcomes by analyzing how organizational, tactical, political, and framing variables interact and combine to account for differences in the outcomes attained by 15 homeless social...

When current market price depends partly on the expected rate of market price change, it is possible that the market will launch itself onto a price bubble with price being driven by arbitrary, self-fulfilling elements in expectations. The purpose of...

The authors investigate the coevolution of organizations and institu‐tions—they study how institutional definitions, rules, and expectations unfold in tandem with the organizational structures and processes that embody those institutions. The research...

Based on data from an 18-year follow-up of Wisconsin high school seniors, this paper describes the process of occupational achievement among men and women from labor market entry to mid-life. In contrast to several earlier studies, there are marked sex...

Contests are situations in which an individual's reward depends on his performance relative to others. Students are graded on a curve; the candidate with the most votes gets the political office; the underling who performs best is promoted to the executive...

The use of solar energy to produce molecular hydrogen and oxygen (H2 and O2 )f rom overall water splitting is a promising means of renewable energy storage. In the past 40 years, various inorganic and organic systems have been developed as photocatalysts...

This study reports the results obtained with mechanical ventilation in severe respiratory failure secondary to status asthmaticus. Of the 159 patients with status asthmaticus admitted to the Intensive Respiratory Unit over a 5-yr period, 26 required mechanical...

Research on public knowledge has found that the public knows little about crime or the criminal justice system including crime-related statistics such as crime rates, recidivism rates, and average sentences. Members of the public have little familiarity...

We develop a model of vintage human capital in which each technology requires vintage-specific skills. We examine the properties of a stationary equilibrium for our economy. The stationary equilibrium is characterized by an endogenous distribution of...

Purpose To provide recommendations about prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. Prophylaxis in the outpatient, inpatient, and perioperative settings was considered, as were treatment and use of anticoagulation...

Ecological analysis is a promising approach to the study of urban social stratification, for differences in the residential distributions of occupations groups are found to parallel the differences among them in socio-economic status and recruitment....

Two opposing hypotheses seek to explain why black-white residential segreration persists despite open housing laws. One perspective argues that discriminatory practices in the marketing of real estate are responsible. Another view contends that it is...

We discuss the decline in early adolescents' academic motivation after the transition to middle grade schools and review work on how school and classroom environments in traditional middle grade schools could be responsible for these declines. We suggest...

The gift‐exchange game has established that, in the laboratory, higher wages offered by an employer lead to considerably more costly effort provision. However, it is unclear whether this behavior reflects reciprocity or other forms of social preferences....

This paper argues that contracts with payment based on a ranking of employee performance can provide performance incentives even under asymmetric information that prevents payment based on individual performance only being enforceable. Such contracts...

The paper investigates whether compensation among local jurisdiction is, by itself, sufficient to ensure efficient provision of local public goods. Jurisdictions have fixed boundaries, and each has an entrenched government with the power to tax and supply...

The rate of nonparticipation in market work among prime-aged males in the United States has risen persistently during the postwar period. The rate among males aged 45-54, for example, has risen from 4.2 percent to 8.4 percent from 1948 to 1976, with similar...

Nonhierarchial sequences of interference competitive abilities, competitive networks, have been observed in Jamaican cryptic coral reef environments and also appear to exist in Jamaican open reef surface environments. These competitive networks are both...

The authors show how comparisons between the within-twin correlations of human capital outcomes across identical and nonidentical twins can be used to identify the variability in the individual-specific component of endowments and the responsiveness of...

The selection pressures imposed by invertebrate are of primary significance in the evolution of cladoceran life histories. Small-sized cladoceran species are vulnerable to invertebrates throughout their lives, but minimize the adverse effects of juvenile...

This paper addresses world-system/dependency theories of differential economic growth among nations. We grant that such perspectives have considerable analytic potential but have serious reservations concerning their current empirical status. Our croticisms...

Numerous climate models predict that the geography of the supercontinent Pangea was conducive to the establishment of a "megamonsoonal" circulation. In general, geologic evidence supports the hypothesis of a megamonsoon that reached maximum strength in...

A meta-analysis of naturalistic studies of the academic performance-delinquency relationship and of intervention studies aimed both at improving academic performance and reducing delinquency found that children with lower academic performance offended...

: Plastids (chloroplasts) are endosymbiotic organelles derived from previously free‐living cyanobacteria. They are dependent on their host cell to the degree that the majority of the proteins expressed in the plastid are encoded in the nuclear genome...

A negative correlation between sediment yield and weathering history, as measured by the chemical alteration (CIA) of the suspended sediment, is observed for many of the world's major rivers and other regions of denudation. The weathering history is a...

Morton found that the average emphasized frequency in the songs of tropical bird species in low-forest habitats was lower than that of species in grassland or edge habitats. He suggested that this was due to a frequency window around 1585-2500 Hz in low-forest...

The macro-level approach reemerged as a salient criminological paradigm in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Prompted by new theories and reformulations of existing ones, over 200 empirical studies explored ecological correlates of crime. Few efforts have...

: The discipline of evolutionary protistology has emerged in the past 30 yr. There is as yet no agreed view of how protists are interrelated or how they should be classified. The foundations of a stable taxonomic superstructure for the protists and other...

Objective: Alcoholics experiencing highly threatening or chronic psychosocial stress following treatment are more likely to relapse than abstaining individuals not experiencing such stress. Expanding upon this stress-relapse hypothesis, we predicted that...

Spatially averaged erosion rates of small catchments can be accurately inferred from the concentrations of cosmogenic nuclides in stream sediment. Here we test this technique at two catchments by comparing erosion rates inferred from cosmogenic nuclides...

Our principal results fall into three main classes. First, a large number of formulae from the classical theory of special functions are given appropriate generalizations. Some of these turn out to have applications to lattice-point problems and to the...

Nancy Fraser, Linda Gordon

Mark Robson, Angela R. Bradbury, Banu Arun, Susan M. Domchek, James M. Ford, Heather Hampel, Stephen M. Lipkin, Sapna Syngal, Dana S. Wollins, Noralane M. Lindor

The rare earth content of alkali-rich, silica-undersaturated basalts erupted onto oceanic and continental plates is consistent with their derivation by slight amounts of partial melting of hydrous garnet peridotite at the top of the asthenosphere, within...

Prediction equations for DLCO and diffusing capacity per unit of lung volume (DL/VA) were generated from 245 normal subjects (122 women and 123 men) using a standardized technique for measuring DLCO Measurements were made at an altitude of 1,400 meters....

A comparative study of well mapped active and ancient pull-apart basins suggests a qualitative model for their continuous development. Pull-aparts evolve from incipient to extremely developed basins through a sequence of closely related states. New and...

Experiments with climate models are used to illustrate how earth's climate could be expected to change if surface uplift occurred. The experiments contrast two climate simulations: one with all continents at sea level and one with present-day mountains...

Previous research has typically ignored the spatial dimension of marriage markets, focusing instead on highly aggregated data or on individual models of entry into marriage. A basic premise of this study is that national marriage rates are played out...

Baselevel is the imaginary horizontal level or surface to which sub-aerial erosion proceeds. It is sea level. Controversy surrounds the effect of baselevel change on river behavior, the rejuvenation of landscapes, and the delivery of sediment to the shelf-slope...

Trend data for causes of child death are crucial to inform priorities for improving child survival by and beyond 2015. We report child mortality by cause estimates in 2000–13, and cause-specific mortality scenarios to 2030 and 2035.

Malcolm A. Grant

The Internet has led to the creation of a digital society, where (almost) everything is connected and is accessible from anywhere. However, despite their widespread adoption, traditional IP networks are complex and very hard to manage. It is both difficult...

Joseph J. Schwab

We note the need for a measure of economic segmentation based on current empirical data for a range of theoretically relevant indicators. Drawing on a dual economy interpretation of the relationship between economic organization and labor market structure,...

Alluvial fans were studied in the field, largely in the desert regions of California, and in the laboratory. Field study consisted of detailed mapping of parts of four fans and reconnaissance work on over one hundred additional fans. Features mapped included...

Antibiotic resistance is spreading faster than the introduction of new compounds into clinical practice, causing a public health crisis. Most antibiotics were produced by screening soil microorganisms, but this limited resource of cultivable bacteria...

Lars E. O. Svensson

It is currently popular to identify monetary policy shocks with innovations in some measure of reserves or in the federal funds rate. These assumptions about the interest elasticity of the supply of or demand for reserves imply monetary policy shocks...

Petrologic studies and application of well-calibrated mineralogic thermometers and barometers reveal several important features common to many granulite terrains: (1) "Peak" metamorphic pressure and temperature conditions cluster around values of 7.5...

Although a substantial body of literature exists on the country-of-origin bias, the issue of whether or not such perceptions are uniform across product classes has not been resolved. This study examines how quality perceptions of consumers vary across...

Standard models of diffusion assume spatial and temporal homogeneity. This article develops a class of diffusion models that nicorporate spatial and temporal heterogeneity by turning to the individual level within an event-history framework. These models...

How the organization of teachers' work affects students in their early years of high school is the focus of this study. A nationally representative sample of 11,692 high school sophomores in 820 U. S. high schools and 9,904 of those students' teachers...

Antoine Louveau, Igor Smirnov, Timothy J. Keyes, Jacob D. Eccles, Sherin J. Rouhani, J. David Peske, Noël C. Derecki, David Castle, James W. Mandell, Kevin S. Lee, Tajie H. Harris, Jonathan Kipnis

NCBI’s CDD, the Conserved Domain Database, enters its 15 th year as a public resource for the annotation of proteins with the location of conserved domain footprints. Going forward, we strive to improve the coverage and consistency of domain annotation...

Synopsis The consequences of the assumption that soil is an isotropic, elasto-plastic, continuous medium are examined. A new energy equation is proposed, well supported by experimental evidence, from which a stress-strain relationship is developed for...

The thermodilution (TD) method of determining cardiac output (CO) is widely used in clinical practice, but its reliability in this setting is not well understood and may be poor. This is especially true when dealing with unstable patients and using commercial...

Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Janis E. Jacobs

Jing‐De Chen, Chaohua Cui, Yan-Qing Li, Lei Zhou, Qing-Dong Ou, Chi Li, Yongfang Li, Jian-Xin Tang

This article links longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with information on respondents' census tracts to examine patterns of annual residential mobility between poor and nonpoor neighborhoods. Education and marriage increase the...

The history of sediment and its movement in the Atlantic drainage demonstrate some of the difficulties of modeling sediment on a river-basin scale. Soil erosion was accelerated by a factor of at least 10 when European settlers cleared forests and planted...

This paper describes the development and validation of a short, reliable, and valid self-report scale to measure status consumption, the tendency to purchase goods and services for the status or social prestige that they confer on their owners. Items...

This article studies the regional variation in earnings inequality in contemporary urban China, focusing on the relationship between the pace of economic reforms and earnings determination. Through a multilevel analysis, it shows that economic growth...

The association between the sex of children and their parents' risk of marital disruption is examined using the June 1980 Current Population Survey. The finding is that sons reduce the risk of marital disruption by 9% more than do daughters. This difference...

The life course is shaped by the interaction of cultural and social structural features with physical and psychological attributes of the individual and by the commitments and purposive efforts of the individual. In modern society, rationality and functionality...

This lecture describes the latest findings with respect to the long-term performance of modern municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill barrier systems. Field data relating to the clogging of leachate collection systems and the latest techniques for predicting...

Human capital theorists have traditionally argued that individuals invest in education until the marginal gain in productivity is equal to the marginal opportunity cost. However, the observed correlations among income, education, and ability measures...

This article examines the relationship between work and welfare in poor, female-headed families by tracing the process through wich single mothers work their way off welfare. Analysis is based on montly data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)...

Contrary to a recent claim, the inclusion of a product term in a multiple regression is a legitimate way to test for interaction. The unstandardized coefficient and the t-test for the product term are unaffected by the addition of arbitrary constants...

Eric L. Charnov, William M. Schaffer

A multicomponent melting-mixing model for the origin of volcanic arc basalt magmas implies signifi cant recycling of K, Rb, Ba, and other elements in the crust-upper mantel system. The model accounts for chemical differences in alkali, alkaline earth,...

Patrick Williams, Laura Chrisman

Collective action usually depends on a "critical mass" that behaves differently from typical group members. Sometimes the critical mass provides some level of the good for others who do nothing, while at other times the critical mass pays the start-up...

Sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles can be divided into two convenient classifications: genotypic (GSD) and environmental (ESD). While a number of types of GSD have been identified in a wide variety of reptilian taxa, the expression of ESD in the form...

OVERVIEW:2007 is Research-Technology Management's 50th year of publication. To mark the occasion, each issue has reprinted one of RTM's most frequently referenced articles. The articles were identified by N. Thongpapanl and Jonathan D. Linton in their...

Linda M. Anderson, Carolyn M. Evertson

Much of the male-female wage differential exists because men and women are assigned to different jobs. Within narrow job categories, there is no male-female differential. Only a tortured taste theory of discrimination can reconcile these facts. We argue...

This paper asks whether the continued accumulation, or mild dissaving, observed among the retired can be explained by uncertain lifetime. In the absence of annuities, after an initial period influenced by borrowing constraints, under constant relative...

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