CiteWeb

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Publications in 2015

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The Functions and Reproduction of Migrant Labor: Comparative Material from Southern Africa and the United States

For a capatalist economy to function, its labor force must be maintained; that is, workers must receive a historically determined minimal day-to-day subsistence. It must also be renewed; that is, vacancies must be filled. A system of migrant labor is...

School Programs and Teacher Practices of Parent Involvement in Inner-City Elementary and Middle Schools

This study uses data from 171 teachers in 8 inner-city elementary and middle schools to examine the connections between school programs of parent involvement, teachers' attitudes, and the practices that teachers use to involve parents of their own students....

Void ratio evolution inside shear bands in triaxial sand specimens studied by computed tomography

A study of strain localization in triaxial tests on sand, using computed tomography is reported. The inception and the development of the localization are detected and described, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The complex geometrical structures...

The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology

The cultural pattern peculiar to a social group functions for its members as an unquestioned scheme of reference. It determines the strata of relevance for their "thinking as usual" in standardized situations and the degree of knowledge required for handling...

School Context, Principal Leadership, and Student Reading Achievement

In this article, we explore the nature and extent of the school principal's effects on reading achievement in a sample of 87 U.S. elementary schools. Our study responded to prior critiques of the literature in school administration by formulating and...

Does Better Nutrition Raise Farm Productivity

Household-level data from Sierra Leone are used to test whether higher caloric intake enhances family farm labor productivity. This is the notion behind the efficiency wages hypothesis, which has found only weak empirical support. A farm production function...

Marx's Theory of Metabolic Rift: Classical Foundations for Environmental Sociology1

This article addresses a paradox: on the one hand, environmental sociology, as currently developed, is closely associated with the thesis that the classical sociological tradition is devoid of systematic insights into environmental problems; on the other...

Becoming a Marihuana User

An individual will be able to use marihuana for pleasure only when he 1. learns to smoke it in a way that will produce real effects; 2. learns to recognize the effects and connect them with drug use; and 3. learns to enjoy the sensations he perceives....

Theoretical Foundations for Centrality Measures

Three measures of actors' network centrality are derived from an elementary rocess model of social influence. The measures are closely related to, and cast new light on, widely used measures of actors' centrality; for example, the essential social organization...

Institutional Emergence in an Era of Globalization: The Rise of Transnational Private Regulation of Labor and Environmental Conditions1

Why have systems of “transnational private regulation” recently emerged to certify corporate social and environmental performance? Different conceptions of institutional emergence underlie different answers to this question. Many scholars argue that...

Recommendations for Cardiac Chamber Quantification by Echocardiography in Adults: An Update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging

The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the previously published guidelines for cardiac chamber...

On the Evolution and Adaptive Significance of Postnatal Growth Rates in the Terrestrial Vertebrates

Even among similar-sized organisms a disparity often exists between different species' relative postnatal growth rates. Some authors have interpreted these differences in an adaptive light. That is, some organisms may grow faster than others because it...

Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science

We review the key processes controlling the net water circulation in shallow straits. The circulation is mainly barotropic, driven by the difference in mean sea level and tides on either side of the strait, the wind, the meandering of the currents in...

The Structure of Intergenerational Exchanges in American Families

Intergenerational support is analyzed using data from the National Survey of Families and Households. The authors find evidence that a systematic latent structure of intergenerational exchange characterizes the giving and receiving of support. Overall,...

Advertising as a Signal

A great deal of advertising appears to convey no direct credible information about product qualities. Nevertheless, such advertising may indirectly signal quality if there exist market mechanisms that produce a positive relationship between product quality...

Job Queues and Layoffs in Labor Markets with Flexible Wages

Models of a heterogeneous labor market are presented in which a worker's acceptance wage is an increasing function of his ability, and in which firms have imprecise information concerning the labor endowment of particular workers.Because the expected...

Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging

The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the previously published guidelines for cardiac chamber...

The Perception of Breathlessness in Asthma1–3

We studied the perception of breathlessness as a function of air flow obstruction in 45 asthmatic subjects using a category scaling technique. Air flow obstruction and breathlessness were induced by inhalations of histamine acid phosphate in twofold-increasing...

In Sickness and in Health: Risk Sharing within Households in Rural Ethiopia

Much of the literature on consumption smoothing and on risk sharing has focused on the ability of the household as a unit to protect its consumption. Little is known about the ability of individual members of the household to keep consumption smooth over...

Sexual Dimorphism in Mammals: Avian Models and Unanswered Questions

Current models for the evolution of polygyny and sexual dimorphism are largely derived from data on passerine birds. These models are less appropriate for taxa such as mammals, in which males emphasize mating strategies, than for those such as passerines,...

Soils : genesis and geomorphology

Randall J. Schaetzl, Michael L. Thompson

Experiments on the Provision of Public Goods. I. Resources, Interest, Group Size, and the Free-Rider Problem.

For an experiment on the problem of collective action, randomly selected high school students were randomly assigned to groups which were confronted with an investment opportunity. Each subject could invest resources provided by the experimenter in either...

Successful Aging: A Life-Course Perspective on Women's Multiple Roles and Health

Panel data from a sample of 313 women who were wives and mothers in 1956 and were interviewed both in 1956 and in 1986 are used to consider the pathways that lead to health and social integration. Possible relationships were explored between the number,...

Nitroxide-mediated polymerization

Nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) is a controlled/living radical polymerization (CLRP) technique that enables the design of well-defined, functional and complex macromolecular architectures. This comprehensive review covers all aspects, features...

limma powers differential expression analyses for RNA-sequencing and microarray studies

limma is an R/Bioconductor software package that provides an integrated solution for analyzing data from gene expression experiments. It contains rich features for handling complex experimental designs and for information borrowing to overcome the problem...

Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory

The empirical literature on executive compensation generally fails to specify a model of executive pay on which to base hypotheses regarding its determinants. In contrast, this paper analyzes a simple principal-agent model to determine how well it explains...

Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals.

Dong Shi, Adinolfi, Riccardo Comin, Mingjian Yuan, Erkki Alarousu, Andrei Buin, Yin Chen, Sjoerd Hoogland, Alexander Rothenberger, Khabiboulakh Katsiev, Yaroslav Losovyj, Xin Zhang, P. A. Dowben, Omar F. Mohammed, Edward H. Sargent, Osman M. Bakr

Counterfactual Models of Neighborhood Effects: The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty on Dropping Out and Teenage Pregnancy1

This article investigates the causal effects of neighborhood on high school dropping out and teenage pregnancy within a counterfactual framework. It shows that when two groups of children, identical at age 10 on observed factors, experience different...

Axiomatic and game-theoretic analysis of bankruptcy and taxation problems: An update

When a firm goes bankrupt, how should its liquidation value be divided among its creditors? This essay is an introduction to the literature devoted to the formal analysis of such problems. We present the rules that are commonly used in practice or discussed...

The Ecology of Inequality: Minorities and the Concentration of Poverty, 1970-1980

This article examines trends in the geographic concentration of poverty among whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 60 U.S. mentropolitan areas from 1970 to 1980. It describes changes in the distributional structure of income, the extent of income...

Post-Collisional Alkaline Granites

Alkaline (A-type and highly fractionated felsic I-type) granites that may have formed in post-collisional plate tectonic environments are present in the Alaskan Cordillera, the New England and Lachlan Fold Belts of Australia, and the Arabian-Nubian Shield....

Fear of Crime and Neighborhood Change

Crime rates and the quality of life do not necessarily change in direct response to changes in the physical and social characteristics of neighborhoods. Developments that have an indirect effect on increasing crime rates and fear of crime include neighborhood...

Food Habits, Energetics, and the Population Biology of Mammals

Data presented in this paper suggest that a complex interaction occurs between the physiological parameters of mammals and the growth and fluctuation of their populations: The Malthusian parameter rm increases with rate of metabolism, which in turn varies...

Collateral Consequences of Imprisonment for Children, Communities, and Prisoners

Analyses of the effects of America's experiment with vastly increased use of imprisonment as a penal sanction typically focus on crime reduction and public spending. Little attention has been paid to collateral effects. Imprisonment significantly reduces...

A Dual-Processual Theory for the Evolution of Mesoamerican Civilization

Richard E. Blanton, Gary M. Feinman, Stephen A. Kowalewski, Peter N. Peregrine

On the Relative Abundance of Species

1. A distinction is made between opportunistic and equilibrium species. 2. There is little ecological interest in the relative abundances of opportunistic species, but such species abundances should frequently have a log-normal distribution. 3. The relative...

Toward a Subcultural Theory of Urbanism

Wirth's (1938) theory of urban life has been eclipsed in recent years by a perspective that denies the importance of ecological factors. This view, though more accurate than Wirth's, fails to account for the pervasive "unconventionality" (deviance, invention,...

Distinguishing Panics and Information-based Bank Runs: Welfare and Policy Implications

In this paper, the authors contrast panics and information-based bank runs in an effort to provide a robust and empirically plausib le model of how bank runs are triggered. The model of information-bas ed runs is characterized by two-sided asymmetric...

Behavioral Aspects of Animal Domestication

Since the survival and well-being of humankind is so inextricably bound to our domestic animals and plants, it is important that we understand the domestication process and its biological consequences. The objective of this review is to discuss available...

An elasto-plastic critical state framework for unsaturated soil

Data from a series of controlled suction triaxial tests on samples of compacted speswhite kaolin were used in the development of an elasto–plastic critical state framework for unsaturated soil. The framework is defined in terms of four state variables:...

Quality indicators for colonoscopy

Douglas K. Rex, Philip Schoenfeld, Jonathan Cohen, Irving M. Pike, Douglas G. Adler, M. Brian Fennerty, John G. Lieb, Walter G. Park, Maged K. Rizk, Mandeep S. Sawhney, Nicholas J. Shaheen, Sachin Wani, David S. Weinberg

Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology

Sue Richards, Nazneen Aziz, Sherri J. Bale, David P. Bick, Soma Das, Julie M. Gastier-Foster, Wayne W. Grody, Madhuri Hegde, Elaine Lyon, Elaine Spector, Karl V. Voelkerding, Heidi L. Rehm

'Til Death Do Us Part: Marital Disruption and Mortality

Both men and women appear to benefit from being married. This article uses data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the extent to which three key factors--financial well-being living arrangements and marital history--account for...

College Entry by Blacks since 1970: The Role of College Costs, Family Background, and the Returns to Education

College enrollment of black eighteen-nineteen-year-old high school graduates declined from 1980 through 1984 and then rebounded. This paper presents data from a time series of cross-sections of eighteen-nineteen-year-old youths from 1973 through 1988...

Animal Mating Systems: A Synthesis Based on Selection Theory

Following principles used by A. J. Bateman, we identify the relationship between fecundity and mating success as the central feature in the operation of mating systems. Using selection theory from the field of quantitative genetics, we define the sexual...

A Positive Model of Private Charity and Public Transfers

This paper explores a model where private charity and public transfers are determined simultaneously. In political equilibrium, the government "overprovides" public transfers, transferring more to the poor than altruistic taxpayers prefer. At this equilibrium,...

Futures Trading and Investor Returns: An Investigation of Commodity Market Risk Premiums

The long-standing controversy over whether speculators in a futures market earn a risk premium is analyzed within the context of the capital asset pricing model recently developed by Sharpe, Lintner, and others. Under that approach the risk premium required...

Supervision, Loss of Control, and the Optimum Size of the Firm

We show that limitation of firm size caused by loss of control across hierarchic levels depends crucially on the nature of the supervision process. If the employees cannot identify the times at which their performance is monitored, there is no limit imposed...

Can the Market Add and Subtract? Mispricing in Tech Stock Carve-outs

Recent equity carve‐outs in U.S. technology stocks appear to violate a basic premise of financial theory: identical assets have identical prices. In our 1998–2000 sample, holders of a share of company A are expected to receive x shares of company...

Real Exchange Rates under the Gold Standard

Purchasing power parity is one of the most important equilibrium conditions in international macroeconomics. Empirically, it is also one of the most hotly contested. Numerous recent studies, for example, have sought to determine the validity of purchasing...

Inflation and Relative Price Variability

The paper develops a natural measure of the amount of relative price variability. The variance of relative price change is shown to be correlated with the rate of change in the price level using data for consumer goods in both the Netherlands and the...

From Servitude to Service Work: Historical Continuities in the Racial Division of Paid Reproductive Labor

R E C E N T SCHO L A R S H I P on African American, Latina, Asian American, and Native American women reveals the complex interaction of race and gender oppression in their lives. These studies expose the inadequacy of additive models that treat gender...

Reproductive Effort and Terminal Investment in Iteroparous Animals

Though it has been widely predicted that in animals in which reproductive value declines with age, reproductive effort should increase toward the end of the lifespan, analysis of changes in reproductive effort are impeded by fundamental difficulties in...

Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children

Patient AccessPatients and/or caregivers may access this content for use in relation to their own personal healthcare or that of a family member only. Terms and conditions will apply.

EVOLUTION IN STEPPE WITH FEW LARGE, HOOVED MAMMALS

The morphology of rhizomatous and caespitose grasses reflects the two extremes to which perennial grasses have evolved at least in partial response to continuous high versus low selection pressure by large congregating mammals. In North America steppe...

Uncertainty, Trust, and Commitment Formation in the United States and Japan1

A theory of trust proposed by Yamagishi and Yamagishi provides the basis for the prediction that (1) social uncertainty promotes commitment formation between particular partners and (2) high trusters tend to form committed relations less frequently than...

Drugs and Crime

The essays in this volume share a common assumption-that the sale and possession of certain drugs, in particular heroin and cocaine, will continue to be illegal. The authors of these essays made that assumption because they were asked to. I do not know...

Adaptation and the Goals of Evolutionary Research

Adaptation is and has always been a sloppery concept. Even among contemporary evolutionary biologists there is no consensus about how to identify adaptive traits. Most definition of adaptation incorporate elements of history. Among these, some require...

A Collaborative Model for Helping Middle Grade Science Teachers Learn Project-Based Instruction

We describe our collaborative work on project-based instruction with middle school teachers. Grounded in constructivist theory, project-based instruction affords many possibilities for transforming classrooms into active learning environments. To make...

High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains

The performance of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite planar solar cells has steadily improved. One outstanding issue is that grain boundaries and defects in polycrystalline films degrade their output. Now, two studies report the growth of millimeter-scale...

Evolution of Body Size: Consequences of an Energetic Definition of Fitness

We develop a general model for the effect of body size on fitness. We define fitness as reproductive power, the rate of conversion of energy into offspring. Reproductive power is assumed to be limited by a two-step process: first, the rate of acquisition...

Gastrointestinal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

There is growing recognition that gastrointestinal dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Virtually all parts of the gastrointestinal tract can be affected, in some cases early in the disease course. Weight loss is common but poorly understood...

Biodiversity, Stability, and Productivity in Competitive Communities

: Three markedly different models of multispecies competition—one mechanistic, one phenomenological, and one statistical—all predict that greater diversity increases the temporal stability of the entire community, decreases the temporal stability...

The Real Self: From Institution to Impulse.

It is proposed that people variously recognize their real selves either in feelings and actions of an institutional and volitional nature, such as ambition, morality, and altruism, or in the experience of impulse, such as undisciplined desire and the...

Slow and Fast Light

Recent research has established that it is possible to exercise extraordinary control of the velocity of propagation of light pulses through a material system. Both extremely slow propagation (much slower than the velocity of light in vacuum) and fast...

Retraction Note: TREEFINDER: a powerful graphical analysis environment for molecular phylogenetics

Most analysis programs for inferring molecular phylogenies are difficult to use, in particular for researchers with little programming experience. TREEFINDER is an easy-to-use integrative platform-independent analysis environment for molecular phylogenetics....

The discovery of addiction. Changing conceptions of habitual drunkenness in America.

The modern conception of alcoholism as a progressive, addictive disease dates from the late 18th century. By the mid-1800s it had become an integral part of American Temperance thought, as did the belief that total abstinence offered the only remedy for...

Effects of Obesity on Respiratory Function1–3

SUMMARY Obesity, because it alters the relationship between the lungs, chest wall, and dia­ phragm, has been expected to alter respiratory function. We studied 43 massively obese but otherwise normal, nonsmoking, young adults with spirometry, lung volume...

Associated and non-associated visco-plasticity and plasticity in soil mechanics

The visco-plastic model is established as a realistic general description of soil behaviour as well as a computationally convenient fiction for solving any properly formulated plasticity problem. The Paper focuses attention on simple elastic-ideally plastic...

Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites

As more and more marketers incorporate social media as an integral part of the promotional mix, rigorous investigation of the determinants that impact consumers’ engagement in eWOM via social networks is becoming critical. Given the social and communal...

Coupling of hydraulic hysteresis and stress–strain behaviour in unsaturated soils

Consideration of the different roles of pore air pressure, pore water pressure within bulk water and pore water pressure within meniscus water suggests that the degree of saturation will have a significant influence on the stress–strain behaviour of...

Job Matching and On-the-Job Training

Conventional analysis predicts that workers pay part of their on-the-job training costs by accepting a lower starting wage and subsequently realize a return to this investment in the form of greater wage growth. Missing from the conventional treatment...

Crime Places in Crime Theory

John E. Eck, David Weisburd

Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) Guidelines 2014 for treatment of colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of death in Japan, where it accounts for the largest number of deaths from malignant neoplasms in women and the third largest number in men. Many new treatment methods have been developed over the last few decades. The...

The Role and the Person

As a complement to the familiar idea of self-conception, the concept of role-person merger is proposed as a more behavioral approach to understanding the social construction of personality than has been taken previously. Person and role are said to be...

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Flag City Country School Latitude (°) +N/-S Longitude (°) +E/-W Buenos Aires Argentina Instituto Mario Madeddu -34.736 -58.431

Free to Trade: Democracies, Autocracies, and International Trade

Relatively little research has focused on whether countries' political institutions affect their international trade relations. We address this issue by analyzing the relationship between regime type and trade policy. In a formal model of commercial policy,...

Volume, Shape, and Roundness of Rock Particles

The present paper deals with the fundamental principles, conceptions, and ideas upon which some new sedimentological research methods are based.

Development projects observed

Albert O. Hirschman, Cass R. Sunstein, Michele Alacevich

In Defense of Proper Functions

I defend the historical definition of "function" originally given in my Language, Thought and Other Biological Categories (1984a). The definition was not offered in the spirit of conceptual analysis but is more akin to a theoretical definition of "function"....

Persistent Effects of Job Displacement: The Importance of Multiple Job Losses

This article examines the long-term wage and earnings losses of displaced workers, using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Consistent with previous research, I find that the effects of displacement are quite persistent, with earnings...

Some Aspects of Effective Stress in Saturated and Partly Saturated Soils

Synopsis The meaning of the principle of effective stress and the equations used to express it for both saturated and partly saturated soils are re-examined. The importance of stress path in both cases is apparent, and ways of plotting the results of...

Violence and the Police

A case-study of a municipal police force in the United States suggests that the illegal use of violence by the police is a consequence of their occupational experience and that the policeman's colleague group sanctions such usage. Policemen see this use...

A History of Continents in the past Three Billion Years

The end-Paleozoic Pangea appears to have contained three continents that had grown in the Precambrian and remained intact until Mesozoic rifting: Ur, formed at ~3 Ga and accreted to most of East Antarctica in the middle Proterozoic to form East Gondwana;...

Issues in Multiple Regression

Controlling for variables implies conceptual distinctness between the control and zero-order variables. However, there are different levels of distinctness, some more subtle than others. These levels are determined by the theoretical context of the research....

Auditing Standards, Legal Liability, and Auditor Wealth

There has been an enormous increase in auditing and accounting standards and in litigation against auditors. This paper examines some of the consequences of these changes by developing a model of the audit market relating auditors' liability to auditing...

Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4

Maximum likelihood or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimates of the parameters in linear mixed-effects models can be determined using the lmer function in the lme4 package for R. As for most model-fitting functions in R, the model is described...

Functional Neuroimaging Evidence for Hyperarousal in Insomnia

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the neurobiological basis of poor sleep and daytime fatigue in insomnia. METHOD: [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was used to assess regional cerebral glucose metabolism of seven patients with insomnia...

Natal Philopatry Among Solitary Mammals

Although many studies treat the causes and consequences of dispersal in mammalian populations, less attention has been given to the individuals that do not leave their birthplaces. Yet natal philopatry, which we define as continued residence on the natal...

Interspecific Competition, Environmental Gradients, Gene Flow, and the Coevolution of Species' Borders.

: Darwin viewed species range limits as chiefly determined by an interplay between the abiotic environment and interspecific interactions. Haldane argued that species' ranges could be set intraspecifically when gene flow from a species’ populous center...

Minority Proximity to Whites in Suburbs: An Individual-Level Analysis of Segregation

In this article we rely on a novel method of constructing individual-level ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions in part by using aggregate data. Applying this method we analyze the process determining proximity to non-Hispanic whites separately for...

Homoplasy: The Result of Natural Selection, or Evidence of Design Limitations?

Similarity in morphological form may arise from common ancestry (failure to evolve), from parallel evolution, from convergence, or from reversal to an apparently ancestral condition. Homoplasy from convergence, parallelism, and reversal is common, and...

Continuities in transnational migration: an analysis of nineteen Mexican communities.

Researchers working in Mexican communities have observed both regularities and inconsistencies in the way that transnational migration develops over time. This article presents a theory that accounts for these uniformities and discrepancies and proposes...

Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines

A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants was undertaken in order to incorporate new evidence and to update the recommendations where appropriate....

Ecological Causes of Adaptive Radiation

According to the naturalists of the first half of this century, adaptive radiation is the outcome of three ecological processes: phenotypic differentiation of populations by resource-based divergent natural selection, phenotypic differentiation through...

Social Structure from Multiple Networks. II. Role Structures

Role structures in small populations are given operational meaning as algebras generated from the sociometric blockmodels of Part I by Boolean multiplication (matrix multiplication employing binary arithmetic). Many different sociometric structures can...

China's Evolving Managerial Labor Market

Recent reforms of Chinese state-owned enterprises strengthened a nascent managerial labor market by incorporating incentives suggestive of competitive Western labor markets. Poorly performing firms were more likely to have a new manager selected by auction,...

Why Fruits Rot, Seeds Mold, and Meat Spoils

When an animal eats "spoiled" or "rotten" food of any kind, it runs a largely unknown risk (except in the case of grains) of being injured by toxins or microbe-produced antibiotics, getting food with lowered nutrient content, and infecting itself with...

Planck 2013 results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-gaussianity

The development of Planck has been supported by: ESA; CNES and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MICINN and JA (Spain); Tekes, AoF and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada);...

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