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Publications in 2015

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Cancer statistics, 2015

Each year the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected...

Analysis of panel data

This book provides a comprehensive, coherent, and intuitive review of panel data methodologies that are useful for empirical analysis. Substantially revised from the second edition, it includes two new chapters on modeling cross-sectionally dependent...

A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies

The distinct element method is a numerical model capable of describing the mechanical behaviour of assemblies of discs and spheres. The method is based on the use of an explicit numerical scheme in which the interaction of the particles is monitored contact...

Rules Rather than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans

Even if there is an agreed-upon, fixed social objective function and policymakers know the timing and magnitude of the effects of their actions, discretionary policy, namely, the selection of that decision which is best, given the current situation and...

The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach

The transaction cost approach to the study of economic organization regards the transaction as the basic unit of analysis and holds that an understanding of transaction cost economizing is central to the study of organizations. Applications of this approach...

Herbivores and the Number of Tree Species in Tropical Forests

A high number of tree species, low density of adults of each species, and long distances between conspecific adults are characteristic of many low-land tropical forest habitats. I propose that these three traits, in large part, are the result of the action...

American apartheid : segregation and the making of the underclass

This article argues that racial segregation is crucial to explaining the emergence of the urban underclass during the 1970s. A strong interaction between rising rates of poverty and high levels of residential segregation explains where, why and in which...

Nominal Rigidities and the Dynamic Effects of a Shock to Monetary Policy

We present a model embodying moderate amounts of nominal rigidities which accounts for the observed inertia in inflation and persistence in output. The key features of our model are those that prevent a sharp rise in marginal costs after an expansionary...

World Society and the Nation‐State

The authors analyze the nation‐state as a worldwide institution constructed by worldwide cultural and associational processes, developing four main topics: (1) properties of nation‐states that result from their exogenously driven construction, including...

Fundamentals of human neuropsychology

Bryan Kolb, Ian Q. Whishaw

Urbanism as a Way of Life

The urbanization of the world, which is one of the most impressive facts of modern times, has wrought profound changes in virtually every phase of social life. The recency and rapidity of urbanization in the United States accounts for the acuteness of...

Brock biology of microorganisms

Michael T. Madigan, John M. Martinko, Jack Parker

The Costs and Returns of Human Migration

The purpose of this discussion is to develop the concepts and tools with which to determine the influence of migration as an equilibrating mechanism in a changing economy. Some of the important costs and returns to migration--both public and private--are...

Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social Structure

This essay proposes an emotion-management perspective as a lens through which to inspect the self, interaction, and structure. Emotion, it is argued, can be and ofter is subject to acts of management. The individual often works on inducing or inhibiting...

Business research methods

Alan Bryman, Emma Bell

Focus groups : theory and practice

David W. Stewart, Prem N. Shamdasani

Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory

Past analysis of social movements and social movement organizations has normally assumed a close link between the frustrations or grievances of a collectivity of actors and the growth and decline of movement activity. Questioning the theoretical centrality...

A General Hypothesis of Species Diversity

Originally published in American Naturalist , (Vol.113,No.9 ),(January, 1979),Pp.81-101 by The University of Chicago.

The bullwhip effect in supply chains

Hau L. Lee, V. Padmanabhan, Seungjin Whang

World-Wide Delivery of River Sediment to the Oceans

New data and new estimates from old data show that rivers with large sediment loads (annual discharges greater than about $15 \times 10^{6}$ tons) contribute about $7 \times 10^{9}$ tons of suspended sediment to the ocean yearly. Extrapolating available...

Technology Adoption in the Presence of Network Externalities

We analyze technology adoption in industries where network externalities are significant. The pattern of adoption depends on whether technologies are sponsored. A sponsor is an entity that has property rights to the technology and hence is willing to...

Privacy and freedom

Alan F. Westin

The neurology of eye movements

R. John Leigh, David S. Zee

Where Do Interorganizational Networks Come From?1

Organizations enter alliances with each other to access critical re‐sources, but they rely on information from the network of prior alli‐ances to determine with whom to cooperate. These new alliances modify the existing network, prompting an endogenous...

Aggregate Dynamics and Staggered Contracts

Staggered wage contracts as short as 1 year are shown to be capable of generating the type of unemployment persistence which has been observed during postwar business cycles in the United States. A contract multiplier causes business cycles to persist...

Occupational Choice and the Process of Development

This paper models economic development as a process of institutional transformation by focusing on the interplay between agents' occupational decisions and the distribution of wealth. Because of capital market imperfections, poor agents choose working...

The relaxation response.

Herbert Benson, John F. Beary, Mark P. Carol

Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies: Evaluation Number 18

J. P. D. Abbatt, Robert E. Huie, C. E. Kolb, Vladimir L. Orkin, S. P. Sander, J. R. Barker, Michael J. Kurylo, D. M. Wilmouth

Marine Benthic Diversity: A Comparative Study

In this paper a methodology is presented for measuring diversity based on rarefaction of actual samples. By the use of this technique, a within-habitat analysis was made of the bivalve and polychaete components of soft-bottom marine faunas which differed...

Human Migration and the Marginal Man

Migrations, with all the incidental collision, conflicts, and fusions of peoples and of cultures which they occasion, have been accounted among the decisive forces in history. Every advance in culture, it has been said, commences with a new period of...

Media Discourse and Public Opinion on Nuclear Power: A Constructionist Approach

Media discourse and public opinion are treated as two parallel systems of constructing meaning. This paper explores their relationship by analyzing the discourse on nuclear power in four general audience media: television news coverage, newsmagazine accounts,...

Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An...

Geomorphic/Tectonic Control of Sediment Discharge to the Ocean: The Importance of Small Mountainous Rivers

Analysis of data from 280 rivers discharging to the ocean indicates that sediment loads/yields are a log-linear function of basin area and maximum elevation of the river basin. Other factors controlling sediment discharge (e.g., climate, runoff) appear...

Wages, Rents, and the Quality of Life

This study focuses on the role of wages and rents in allocating workers to locations with various quantities of amenities. The theory demonstrates that if the amenity is also productive, then the sign of the wage gradient is unclear while the rent gradient...

What Is Agency?1

This article aims (1) to analytically disaggregate agency into its several component elements (though these are interrelated empirically), (2) to demonstrate the ways in which these agentic dimensions interpenetrate with forms of structure, and (3) to...

Social Contagion and Innovation: Cohesion versus Structural Equivalence

Two classes of network models are used to reanalyze a sociological classic often cited as evidence of social contagion in the diffusion of technological innovation: Medical Innovation. Debate between the cohesion and structural equivalence models poses...

Empirical Correction Factors for the Electron Microanalysis of Silicates and Oxides

Given suitable correction factors, the use of pure oxides and binary oxide phases as standards would make electron microanalysis independent of chemical analyses and problems of sample inhomogeneity. Ziebold and Ogilvie (1964) have shown that the calibration...

Advanced International Trade: Theory and Evidence

Trade is a cornerstone concept in economics worldwide. This updated second edition of the essential graduate textbook in international trade brings readers to the forefront of knowledge in the field and prepares students to undertake their own research....

Varieties of Capitalism

Scholarship on varieties of capitalism (VofC) explores the ways in which the institutions structuring the political economy affect patterns of economic performance or policy making and the distribution of well-being. Contesting the claim that there is...

Forward Exchange Rates as Optimal Predictors of Future Spot Rates: An Econometric Analysis

This paper examines the hypothesis that the expected rate of return to speculation in the forward foreign exchange market is zero; that is, the logarithm of the forward exchange rate is the market's conditional expectation of the logarithm of the future...

Simultaneous Inference in General Parametric Models

Simultaneous inference is a common problem in many areas of application. If multiple null hypotheses are tested simultaneously, the probability of rejecting erroneously at least one of them increases beyond the pre-specified significance level. Simultaneous...

The Structure of Ill Structured Problems

The boundary between well structured and ill structured ~roblems is vague, fluid and not susceptible to formalization. Any problem solving process w'iii appear ill structured if the problem solver is a serial machine that has access to a ~w:-y iarge...

The CAGE Questionnaire: Validation of a New Alcoholism Screening Instrument

The CAGE questionnaire, a new brief alcoholism screening test, was administered to all patients (N = 366; 39 percent alcoholic) admitted to a psychiatric service over a one-year period. The authors indicate that the CAGE questionnaire is not a sensitive...

CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006

: This report gives the 2014 self-consistent set of values of the constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA). These values are based on a least-squares adjustment...

Social Structure from Multiple Networks. I. Blockmodels of Roles and Positions

Networks of several distinct types of social tie are aggregated by a dual model that partitions a population while simultaneously identifying patterns of relations. Concepts and algorithms are demonstrated in five case studies involving up to 100 persons...

Valuation : measuring and managing the value of companies

Tim Koller, Marc Goedhart, David Wessels, McKinsey

Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2015 Update A Report From the American Heart Association

Dariush Mozaffarian, Emelia J. Benjamin, Alan S. Go, Donna K. Arnett, Michael J. Blaha, Mary Cushman, Sarah D. de Ferranti, Jean-Pierre Després, Heather J. Fullerton, Virginia J. Howard, Mark D. Huffman, Suzanne Judd, Brett Kissela, Daniel T. Lackland, Judith H. Lichtman, Lynda D. Lisabeth, Simin Liu, Rachel H. Mackey, David B. Matchar, Darren K. McGuire, Emile R. Mohler, Claudia S. Moy, Paul Muntner, Michael E. Mussolino, Khurram Nasir, Robert W. Neumar, Graham Nichol, Latha Palaniappan, Dilip K. Pandey, Mathew J. Reeves, Carlos J. Rodriguez, Paul D. Sorlie, Joel Stein, Amytis Towfighi, Tanya N. Turan, Salim S. Virani, Joshua Z. Willey, Daniel Woo, Robert W. Yeh, Melanie B. Turner

Prices of State-Contingent Claims Implicit in Option Prices

Douglas T. Breeden, Robert H. Litzenberger

The Community Question: The Intimate Networks of East Yorkers

The Community Question has set the agenda for much or much of sociology. It is the question of how large-scale social systemic divisions of labor affect the organization and content of primary ties. Network analysis is proposed as a useful approach to...

A Status-Based Model of Market Competition

This article explores the significance of status processes for generating and reproducing hierarchy among producers in a market. It develops a conception of a market as a status order in which each producer's status position circumscribes the producer's...

A Theory of Oligopoly

George J. Stigler

Magnitude and Frequency of Forces in Geomorphic Processes

The relative importance in geomorphic processes of extreme or catastrophic events and more frequent events of smaller magnitude can be measured in terms of (1) the relative amounts of "work" done on the landscape and (2) in terms of the formation of specific...

Effective Schools: A Review

Stewart C. Purkey, Marshall S. Smith

EAU Guidelines on Renal Cell Carcinoma: 2014 Update

The European Association of Urology Guideline Panel for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) has prepared evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for RCC management.

Objectivity as Strategic Ritual: An Examination of Newsmen's Notions of Objectivity

The newspapermen studied believe they may mitigate such continual pressures as deadlines, possible libel suits, and anticipated reprimands of superiors by being able to claim that their work is "objective." This article examines three factors which help...

Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana

In this article a theory of motivations to send remittances is described and tested with data from Botswana. Altruism is one of the motivations tested and found to be an insufficient explanation for remittances among migrants in Botswana. A refinement...

Innovation and entrepreneurship

The book features contemporary applications such as services (public and private), innovation for sustainability, social entrepreneurship, innovation for development, and creating and capturing value from innovation and entrepreneurship. The book also...

Collective Labor Supply and Welfare

This paper develops a general, "collective" model of household labor supply in which agents are characterized by their own (possibly altruistic) preferences and household decisions are only assumed to be Pareto efficient. An alternative interpretation...

Quantitative Risk Management: Concepts, Techniques and Tools

This book provides the most comprehensive treatment of the theoretical concepts and modelling techniques of quantitative risk management. Whether you are a financial risk analyst, actuary, regulator or student of quantitative finance, Quantitative Risk...

Assimilation, Changes in Cohort Quality, and the Earnings of Immigrants

This paper reexamines the empirical basis for two "facts" that seem to be found in most cross-section studies of immigrant earnings: (1) the earnings of immigrants grow rapidly as they assimilate into the United States; and (2) this rapid growth leads...

Radiative Forcing and Climate Change

Aviation causes climate change as a result of its emissions of CO2, oxides of nitrogen, aerosols, and water vapor. One simple method of quantifying the climate impact of past emissions is radiative forcing. The radiative forcing due to changes in CO2...

Market Liquidity and Performance Monitoring

This paper studies the value of the stock market as a monitor of managerial performance. It shows that the stock price incorporates performance information that cannot be extracted from the firm's current or future profit data. The additional information...

Overconfidence and Speculative Bubbles

Motivated by the behavior of asset prices, trading volume, and price volatility during episodes of asset price bubbles, we present a continuous‐time equilibrium model in which overconfidence generates disagreements among agents regarding asset fundamentals....

The Professionalization of Everyone

A popular generalization is that occupations are becoming "professionalized". The label is loosely applied to increasing specialization and transferability of skill, the proliferation of objective standards of work, the spread of tenure arrangements,...

Statistical moments in pharmacokinetics.

Kiyoshi Yamaoka, Terumichi Nakagawa, Toyozo Uno

Market Networks and Corporate Behavior

Data on market relations between a large population of corporations and investment banks are used to study the organizationmarket interface-the pattern of direct market ties between a firm and its banks. Forms of interfaces range from a long-term, exclusive...

Nutrient Cycling and Nutrient Use Efficiency

Forest ecosystems systematically produce more litterfall dry mass per unit of nitrogen in sites with less aboveground nitrogen circulation. This pattern is observed both within and among tropical, temperate deciduous, coniferous, Mediterranean, and fertilized...

On the Evolution of Mating Systems in Birds and Mammals

Predictions from a theory assuming mate selection on the part of females, which maximizes reproductive success of individuals, are found to accord closely, though not completely, with known mating patterns. These predictions are that (1) polyandry should...

Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400-1434

We analyze the centralization of political parties and elite networks that underlay the birth of the Renaissance state in Florence. Class revolt and fisical crisis were the ultimate causes of elite consolidation, but Medicean political control was produced...

Children of immigration

Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, Carola Suárez-Orozco

Navigating the Patent Thicket: Cross Licenses, Patent Pools, and Standard Setting

In several key industries, including semiconductors, biotechnology, computer software, and the Internet, our patent system is creating a patent thicket: an overlapping set of patent rights requiring that those seeking to commercialize new technology obtain...

Recombinant Property in East European Capitalism

Recombinant property is a form of organizational hedging in which actors respond to uncertainty by deversifying assets, redefining and recombining resources. It is an attempt to hold resources that can be justified by more than one legitimating principle....

Liquidity Risk, Liquidity Creation, and Financial Fragility: A Theory of Banking

Loans are illiquid when a lender needs relationship‐specific skills to collect them. Consequently, if the relationship lender needs funds before the loan matures, she may demand to liquidate early, or require a return premium, when she lends directly....

Phylogenies and the Comparative Method: A General Approach to Incorporating Phylogenetic Information into the Analysis of Interspecific Data

This article considers the statistical issues relevant to the comparative method in evolutionary biology. A generalized linear model (GLM) is presented for the analysis of comparative data, which can be used to address questions regarding the relationship...

Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a report summarizing its recommendations for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In 2008, the ACS, the American Gastroenterological...

The internet of things: a survey

In recent year, the Internet of Things (IoT) has drawn significant research attention. IoT is considered as a part of the Internet of the future and will comprise billions of intelligent communicating `things'. The future of the Internet will consist...

Competition in the British Electricity Spot Market

The British electricity supply industry has, with the exception of Nuclear Electric, now been privatized. Bulk supplies of electricity are traded between two dominant generators and many suppliers in an unregulated `pool'. The generators submit a supply...

The Mark of a Criminal Record1

With over 2 million individuals currently incarcerated, and over half a million prisoners released each year, the large and growing number of men being processed through the criminal justice system raises important questions about the consequences of...

An Equilibrium Theory of the Distribution of Income and Intergenerational Mobility

The theory of inequality and intergenerational mobility presented in this essay assumes that each family maximizes a utility function spanning several generations. Utility depends on the consumption of parents and on the quantity and quality of their...

Manifesto for a Relational Sociology1

Sociologists today are faced with a fundamental dilemma: whether to conceive of the social world as consisting primarily in substances or processes, in static "things" or in dynamic, unfolding relations. Rational‐actor and norm‐based models, diverse...

Homophily, Selection, and Socialization in Adolescent Friendships.

Longitudinal sociometric data on adolescent friendship pairs, friends-to-be, and former friends are examined to assess levels of homophily on four attributes (frequency of current marijuana, use, level of educational aspirations, political orientation,...

Social Theory, Social Research, and a Theory of Action

After an extraordinarily promising beginning in 1937 with The Structure of Social Action, Talcott Parsons abandoned his attempt to ground social theory in a theory of purposive action. The functionalism that resulted moved in one direction, while social...

Sticky prices in the United States

It has often been argued that prices are sticky in the United States. However, the empirical papers that have claimed to support this view have not reflected any formal behavioral theory. This paper presents a theory that justifies price stickiness, namely,...

Networks, Dynamics, and the Small‐World Phenomenon1

The small‐world phenomenon formalized in this article as the coincidence of high local clustering and short global separation, is shown to be a general feature of sparse, decentralized networks that are neither completely ordered nor completely random....

Syndication Networks and the Spatial Distribution of Venture Capital Investments1

Sociological investigations of economic exchange reveal how institutions and social structures shape transaction patterns among economic actors. This article explores how interfirm networks in the U.S. venture capital (VC) market affect spatial patterns...

The Role of Time and Energy in Food Preference

A model which relates optimal food preference relationships and caloric yield per unit time of potential food sources is derived. It is suggested, on the basis of this model, that: 1) Food preferences can be adequately described only if a number of factors...

Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self‐Employment

Possible explanations for earnings differentials in self‐employment and paid employment are investigated. The empirical results suggest that the nonpecuniary benefits of self‐employment are substantial: Most entrepreneurs enter and persist in business...

Phylogenetic Analysis and Comparative Data: A Test and Review of Evidence

The question is often raised whether it is statistically necessary to control for phylogenetic associations in comparative studies. To investigate this question, we explore the use of a measure of phylogenetic correlation, l, introduced by Pagel (1999),...

Staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Space in Tourist Settings

The problem of false consciousness and its relationship to the social structure of tourist establishments is analyzed. Accounts of travelers are examined in terms of Erving Goffman's front versus back distinction. It is found that tourists try to enter...

Handbook of mathematics

I. N. (Ilʹi︠a︡ Nikolaevich) Bronshteĭn

Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Various anticancer treatments, especially those directed toward the pelvis, can damage blood vessels and reduce circulation of blood to the penis and/or damage the autonomic nervous system, resulting in higher rates of erectile dysfunction in survivors...

Face and Favor: The Chinese Power Game

Western research on interpersonal behavior patterns and rules of exchange needs to move beyond the assumption of isolated individuals socialized to make rational decisions on the basis of self-interest. A review of recent research shows that Chinese society...

The Categorical Imperative: Securities Analysts and the Illegitimacy Discount

This article explores the social processes that produce penalties for illegitimate role performance. It is proposed that such penalties are illuminated in markets that are significantly mediated by product critics. In particular, it is argued that failure...

Where Do Markets Come From

Production markets have two sides: producers are a fully connected clique transacting with buyers as a separate but aggregated clique. Each producer is a distinctive firm with a distinctive product. Each side continually minotors reactions of the other...

The co-occurrence of alcoholism with other psychiatric disorders in the general population and its impact on treatment.

It is apparent from previous studies in clinical populations that there is a high comorbidity rate between alcoholism and other psychiatric diagnoses. However, this may simply be an expression of Berkson's bias (i.e., an increased tendency for persons...

Motives for Private Income Transfers

Private income transfers are becoming increasingly recognized as a key aspect of the U.S. economy. The majority of private income transfers occur inter vivos (i.e., between living persons), but very little is known about this type of transfer behavior....

The Epidemic Theory of Ghettos and Neighborhood Effects on Dropping Out and Teenage Childbearing

Why are the social problems of ghettos so bad? This article proposes that ghettos are communities that have experienced epidemics of social problems. One important implication of this theory is that the pattern of neighborhood effects on social problems...

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