CiteWeb

WorldWeb citation database

Publications in 2009

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Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences

Recent startling interest for lanthanide luminescence is stimulated by the continuously expanding need for luminescent materials meeting the stringent requirements of telecommunication, lighting, electroluminescent devices, (bio-)analytical sensors and...

A randomized trial of chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic cancer.

background The effect of adjuvant treatment on survival in pancreatic cancer is unclear. We report the final results of the European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer 1 Trial and update the interim results. methods In a multicenter trial using a two-by-two...

Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions.

Covalent posttranslational modification is an essential cellular regulatory mechanism by which the activity of proteins can be controlled. Advances in mass spectrometry made it possible for Choudhary et al. (p. [834][1], published online 16 July) to assess...

A comparison of etanercept and methotrexate in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis.

Background Etanercept, which blocks the action of tumor necrosis factor, reduces disease activity in patients with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis. Its efficacy in reducing disease activity and preventing joint damage in patients with active early...

The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Mission

The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more...

Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface

Recent experiments and theories have suggested that strong spin–orbit coupling effects in certain band insulators can give rise to a new phase of quantum matter, the so-called topological insulator, which can show macroscopic quantum-entanglement effects....

Effect of Oral Alendronate on Bone Mineral Density and the Incidence of Fractures in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Background Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a serious health problem, and additional treatments are needed. Methods We studied the effects of oral alendronate, an aminobisphosphonate, on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures and height loss...

Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease

Background Recent randomized clinical trials have suggested that estrogen plus progestin does not confer cardiac protection and may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this report, we provide the final results with regard to estrogen...

Fully homomorphic encryption using ideal lattices

We propose a fully homomorphic encryption scheme -- i.e., a scheme that allows one to evaluate circuits over encrypted data without being able to decrypt. Our solution comes in three steps. First, we provide a general result -- that, to construct an encryption...

Reappraisal of European guidelines on hypertension management: a European Society of Hypertension Task Force document

Giuseppe Mancia, Stéphane Laurent, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Ettore Ambrosioni, Michel Burnier, Mark Caulfield, Renata Cifkova, Denis Clement, Antonio Coca, Anna F. Dominiczak, Serap Erdine, Robert Fagard, Csaba Farsang, Guido Grassi, Hermann Haller, Antony Heagerty, Sverre E. Kjeldsen, Wolfgang Kiowski, Mallion Jm, Athanasios J. Manolis, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Peter Nilsson, Michael H. Olsen, Rahn Kh, Josep Redon, Rodicio Jl, Luis M. Ruilope, Roland E. Schmieder, Harry Struijker-Boudier, Pieter van Zwieten, Margus Viigimaa, Alberto Zanchetti

Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Tumors from BRCA Mutation Carriers

Background: The inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a potential synthetic lethal therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers with specific DNA-repair defects, including those arising in carriers of a BRCA1...

Ionic-liquid materials for the electrochemical challenges of the future

Michel Armand, Frank Endres, Douglas R. MacFarlane, Hiroyuki Ohno, Bruno Scrosati

Serum TSH, T4, and Thyroid Antibodies in the United States Population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

NHANES III measured serum TSH, total serum T4, antithyroperoxidase (TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin (TgAb) antibodies from a sample of 17,353 people aged ≥12 yr representing the geographic and ethnic distribution of the U.S. population. These data provide...

The Split Bregman Method for L1-Regularized Problems

The class of L1-regularized optimization problems has received much attention recently because of the introduction of “compressed sensing,” which allows images and signals to be reconstructed from small amounts of data. Despite this recent attention,...

Chronic Health Conditions in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

Background Only a few small studies have assessed the long-term morbidity that follows the treatment of childhood cancer. We determined the incidence and severity of chronic health conditions in adult survivors. Methods The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study...

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Natalizumab for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis

Background Natalizumab is the first α4 integrin antagonist in a new class of selective adhesion-molecule inhibitors. We report the results of a two-year phase 3 trial of natalizumab in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Methods Of a total of...

The Many Roles of Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Inflammation

In this review, the authors discuss the properties of chemokines and their receptors and highlight the roles of these chemoattractants in selected clinical disorders.

Introduction to Mathematical Logic

Retaining all the key features of the previous editions, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Fifth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set...

A metal-free polymeric photocatalyst for hydrogen production from water under visible light

Xinchen Wang, Kazuhiko Maeda, Arne Thomas, Kazuhiro Takanabe, Gang Xin, Johan Carlsson, Kazunari Domen, Markus Antonietti

Switching and Finite Automata Theory

Understand the structure, behavior, and limitations of logic machines with this thoroughly updated third edition. Many new topics are included, such as CMOS gates, logic synthesis, logic design for emerging nanotechnologies, digital system testing, and...

Relation of Body Fat Distribution to Metabolic Complications of Obesity

The importance of body fat distribution as a predictor of metabolic aberrations was evaluated in 9 nonobese and 25 obese, apparently healthy women. Plasma glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose loading were significantly higher in women with predominantly...

Relation between Renal Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Outcomes after Myocardial Infarction

Background The presence of coexisting conditions has a substantial effect on the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. Renal failure is associated with one of the highest risks, but the influence of milder degrees of renal impairment is less well defined....

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Surgery for Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy

Background Randomized trials of surgery for epilepsy have not been conducted, because of the difficulties involved in designing and implementing feasible studies. The lack of data supporting the therapeutic usefulness of surgery precludes making strong...

Infliximab Maintenance Therapy for Fistulizing Crohn's Disease

background Infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor, is an effective maintenance therapy for patients with Crohn’s disease without fistulas. It is not known whether infliximab is an effective maintenance therapy for patients with...

Longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes to form graphene nanoribbons

Dmitry V. Kosynkin, Amanda L. Higginbotham, Alexander Sinitskii, Jay R. Lomeda, Ayrat Dimiev, B. Katherine Price, James M. Tour

Misallocation and Manufacturing TFP in China and India

Resource misallocation can lower aggregate total factor productivity (TFP).We use microdata on manufacturing establishments to quantify the potential extent of misallocation in China and India versus the United States. We measure sizable gaps in marginal...

A Randomized Trial of Low-Dose Aspirin in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women

results During follow-up, 477 major cardiovascular events were confirmed in the aspirin group, as compared with 522 in the placebo group, for a nonsignificant reduction in risk with aspirin of 9 percent (relative risk, 0.91; 95 percent...

Internet Addiction: The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder

Anecdotal reports indicated that some on-line users were becoming addicted to the Internet in much the same way that others became addicted to drugs or alcohol, which resulted in academic, social, and occupational impairment. However, research among sociologists,...

Resilience and Sustainable Development: Building Adaptive Capacity in a World of Transformations

Emerging recognition of two fundamental errors under-pinning past polices for natural resource issues heralds awareness of the need for a worldwide fundamental change in thinking and in practice of environmental management. The first error has been an...

Advanced Heart Failure Treated with Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

Background Patients with advanced heart failure have improved survival rates and quality of life when treated with implanted pulsatile-flow left ventricular assist devices as compared with medical therapy. New continuous-flow devices are smaller and may...

A Serious Adverse Event after Successful Gene Therapy for X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

To the Editor: We recently reported (April 18 issue)1 the sustained correction of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease by ex vivo, retrovirally mediated transfer of the γc gene into CD34+ cells in four of five patients with the disease....

Long non-coding RNAs: insights into functions

In mammals and other eukaryotes most of the genome is transcribed in a developmentally regulated manner to produce large numbers of long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Here we review the rapidly advancing field of long ncRNAs, describing their conservation,...

Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine

Background Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis and death worldwide. Methods We studied healthy infants approximately 6 to 12 weeks old who were randomly assigned to receive three oral doses of live pentavalent human–bovine (WC3...

Regulation mechanisms and signaling pathways of autophagy.

Autophagy is a process of self-degradation of cellular components in which double-membrane autophagosomes sequester organelles or portions of cytosol and fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles for breakdown by resident hydrolases. Autophagy is upregulated in...

Postoperative Irradiation with or without Concomitant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

background We compared concomitant cisplatin and irradiation with radiotherapy alone as adjuvant treatment for stage III or IV head and neck cancer. methods After undergoing surgery with curative intent, 167 patients were randomly assigned to receive...

Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancers among patients with a familial risk of this disorder account for approximately one of five cases of this disease. Many cases can be prevented by the identification of those at risk and the use of appropriate colonoscopic screening....

Cardiac-Specific Troponin I Levels to Predict the Risk of Mortality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

Background In patients with acute coronary syndromes, it is desirable to identify a sensitive serum marker that is closely related to the degree of myocardial damage, provides prognostic information, and can be measured rapidly. We studied the prognostic...

Postoperative Radiotherapy in High-Risk Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer Who Receive Adjuvant Chemotherapy

Background Irradiation after mastectomy can reduce locoregional recurrences in women with breast cancer, but whether it prolongs survival remains controversial. We conducted a randomized trial of radiotherapy after mastectomy in high-risk premenopausal...

2009 Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults

Sharon A. Hunt, William T. Abraham, Marshall H. Chin, Arthur M. Feldman, Gary S. Francis, Theodore G. Ganiats, Mariell Jessup, Marvin A. Konstam, Donna Mancini, Keith Michl, John A. Oates, Peter S. Rahko, Marc A. Silver, Lynne Warner Stevenson, Clyde W. Yancy

Measurement of C-Reactive Protein for the Targeting of Statin Therapy in the Primary Prevention of Acute Coronary Events

Background Elevated levels of C-reactive protein, even in the absence of hyperlipidemia, are associated with an increased risk of coronary events. Statin therapy reduces the level of C-reactive protein independently of its effect on lipid levels. We hypothesized...

USE OF COLONOSCOPY TO SCREEN ASYMPTOMATIC ADULTS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER

Background and Methods The role of colonoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer is uncertain. At 13 Veterans Affairs medical centers, we performed colonoscopy to determine the prevalence and location of advanced colonic neoplasms and the risk of advanced...

Bivalirudin during Primary PCI in Acute Myocardial Infarction

Background Treatment with the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin, as compared with heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, results in similar suppression of ischemia while reducing hemorrhagic complications in patients with stable angina and...

Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides and Skin Infections in Atopic Dermatitis

Background The innate immune system of human skin contains antimicrobial peptides known as cathelicidins (LL-37) and β-defensins. In normal skin these peptides are negligible, but they accumulate in skin affected by inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis....

Effect of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor STI571 in a Patient with a Metastatic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are a group of mesenchymal neoplasms that arise from precursors of the connective-tissue cells of the gastrointestinal tract.1 They occur predominantly in middle-aged and older persons, and approximately 70 percent of the...

Antibiotics in the aquatic environment – A review – Part II

Although antibiotics have been used in large quantities for some decades, until recently the existence of these substances in the environment has received little notice. It is only in recent years that a more complex investigation of antibiotic substances...

Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel.

Background Clopidogrel requires transformation into an active metabolite by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes for its antiplatelet effect. The genes encoding CYP enzymes are polymorphic, with common alleles conferring reduced function. Methods We tested...

Comprehensive Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays

This paper proposes a method of modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays. The main objective is to find the parameters of the nonlinear I-V equation by adjusting the curve at three points: open circuit, maximum power, and short circuit. Given...

Evidence That Human Cardiac Myocytes Divide after Myocardial Infarction

Background The scarring of the heart that results from myocardial infarction has been interpreted as evidence that the heart is composed of myocytes that are unable to divide. However, recent observations have provided evidence of proliferation of myocytes...

Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition

Sonia J. Lupien, Bruce S. McEwen, Megan R. Gunnar, Christine Heim

Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse

Patrick O. McGowan, Aya Sasaki, Ana C. D'Alessio, Sergiy Dymov, Benoit Labonté, Moshe Szyf, Gustavo Turecki, Michael J. Meaney

A Practical Guide

Markov models are useful when a decision problem involves risk that is continuous over time, when the timing of events is important, and when important events may happen more than once. Representing such clinical settings with conventional decision trees...

Five-year follow-up of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in advanced Parkinson's disease

background Although the short-term benefits of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease have been well documented, the long-term outcomes of the procedure are unknown. methods We conducted a five-year...

The Contours of Positive Human Health

The primary objectives of this article are (a) to put forth an explicit operational formulation of positive human health that goes beyond prevailing "absence of illness" criteria; (b) to clarify that positive human health does not derive from extant medical...

Obesity and Diabetes in the Developing World — A Growing Challenge

Propelling an upsurge in cases of diabetes and hypertension is the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity. Drs. Parvez Hossain, Bisher Kawar, and Meguid El Nahas write that preventing obesity, diabetes, and hypertension will require fundamental...

Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Tolerance among Children and Adolescents with Marked Obesity

Background Childhood obesity, epidemic in the United States, has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents. We determined the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in a multiethnic cohort of...

Nasal Carriage as a Source of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

Background The consequences of infection with Staphylococcus aureus can be severe, so strategies for prevention are important. We examined S. aureus isolates from blood and from nasal specimens to determine whether the organisms in the bloodstream originated...

Amine Scrubbing for CO2 Capture

Amine scrubbing has been used to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas and hydrogen since 1930. It is a robust technology and is ready to be tested and used on a larger scale for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. The minimum work requirement...

Selective Publication of Antidepressant Trials and Its Influence on Apparent Efficacy

Summary) Background Evidence-based medicine is valuable to the extent that the evidence base is complete and unbiased. Selective publication of clinical trials -- and the outcomes within those trials -- can lead to unrealistic estimates of drug effectiveness...

Cognitive Tutors: Lessons Learned

This paper review the 10-year history of tutor development based on the ACT theory (Anderson, 1983,1993). We developed production system models in ACT ofhow students solved problems in LISP, geometry, and algebra. Computer tutors were developed around...

The B73 Maize Genome: Complexity, Diversity, and Dynamics

We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome...

Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in node-positive premenopausal women with breast cancer.

Background Radiotherapy after mastectomy to treat early breast cancer has been known since the 1940s to reduce rates of local relapse. However, the routine use of postoperative radiotherapy began to decline in the 1980s because it failed to improve overall...

Linear spatial pyramid matching using sparse coding for image classification

Recently SVMs using spatial pyramid matching (SPM) kernel have been highly successful in image classification. Despite its popularity, these nonlinear SVMs have a complexity O(n 2 ~ n 3 ) in training and O(n) in testing, where n is the training size,...

Stent Thrombosis in Randomized Clinical Trials of Drug-Eluting Stents

Background Definitions of stent thrombosis that have been used in clinical trials of drug-eluting stents have been restrictive and have not been used in a uniform manner. Methods We applied a hierarchical classification of stent thrombosis set by the...

Handbook of adolescent psychology

Richard M. Lerner, Laurence Steinberg

Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 Problem

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), primarily from human fossil fuel combustion, reduces ocean pH and causes wholesale shifts in seawater carbonate chemistry. The process of ocean acidification is well documented in field data, and the rate will...

Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene.

Tsung-Ta Tang, Zhao Hao, Michael C. Martin, Alex Zettl, Y. Ron Shen, Feng Wang

Annual Medical Spending Attributable To Obesity: Payer-And Service-Specific Estimates

In 1998 the medical costs of obesity were estimated to be as high as $ 78.5 billion, with roughly half financed by Medicare and Medicaid. This analysis presents updated estimates of the costs of obesity for the United States across payers (Medicare, Medicaid,...

From RECIST to PERCIST: Evolving Considerations for PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors

The purpose of this article is to review the status and limitations of anatomic tumor response metrics including the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and RECIST 1.1. This article also...

Overall Survival and Updated Results for Sunitinib Compared With Interferon Alfa in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

Purpose A randomized, phase III trial demonstrated superiority of sunitinib over interferon alfa (IFN- )i n progression-free survival (primary end point) as first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Final survival analyses and updated...

Functional brown adipose tissue in healthy adults.

Using positron-emission tomography (PET), we found that cold-induced glucose uptake was increased by a factor of 15 in paracervical and supraclavicular adipose tissue in five healthy subjects. We obtained biopsy specimens of this tissue from the first...

Osseointegrated Titanium Implants: Requirements for Ensuring a Long-Lasting, Direct Bone-to-Implant Anchorage in Man

A total of 2895 threaded, cylindrical titanium implants have been inserted into the mandible or the maxilla and 124 similar implants have been installed in the tibial, temporal or iliac bones in man for various bone restorative procedures. The titanium...

Membrane vesicles as conveyors of immune responses

Clotilde Théry, Matias Ostrowski, Elodie Segura

A Note on the Theme of Too Many Instruments

The difference and system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators are growing in popularity. As implemented in popular software, the estimators easily generate instruments that are numerous and, in system GMM, potentially suspect. A large instrument...

A tyrosine kinase created by fusion of the PDGFRA and FIP1L1 genes as a therapeutic target of imatinib in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

Background Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome involves a prolonged state of eosinophilia associated with organ dysfunction. It is of unknown cause. Recent reports of responses to imatinib in patients with the syndrome suggested that an activated kinase...

Prophylactic Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

background Patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy are at substantial risk for sudden death from cardiac causes. However, the value of prophylactic implantation of an implantable cardioverter–defibrillator (ICD) to prevent sudden death in such...

Analytic Combinatorics

Analytic Combinatorics is a self-contained treatment of the mathematics underlying the analysis of discrete structures, which has emerged over the past several decades as an essential tool in the understanding of properties of computer programs and scientific...

Bevacizumab Alone and in Combination With Irinotecan in Recurrent Glioblastoma

Purpose We evaluated the efficacy of bevacizumab, alone and in combination with irinotecan, in patients with recurrent glioblastoma in a phase II, multicenter, open-label, noncomparative trial. Patients and Methods One hundred sixty-seven patients were...

The Prevalence and Features of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in an Unselected Population

Notwithstanding the potential public health impact of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), estimates regarding its prevalence are limited and unclear. Between July 1998 and October 1999, 400 unselected consecutive premenopausal women (18–45 yr of age)...

Trastuzumab — Mechanism of Action and Use in Clinical Practice

Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) in breast cancer is associated with decreased overall survival. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2, is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for...

The Use of Estrogens and Progestins and the Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

To quantify the relation between the use of hormones and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women the authors extended their follow-up of the participants in the Nurses Health Study to 1992. The women were asked to complete questionnaires every...

Graphical Models in Applied Multivariate Statistics

The Wiley Paperback Series makes valuable content more accessible to a new generation of statisticians, mathematicians and scientists.Graphical models--a subset of log-linear models--reveal the interrelationships between multiple variables and features...

Transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal states: acquisition of malignant and stem cell traits.

Transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal states have crucial roles in embryonic development. Emerging data suggest a role for these processes in regulating cellular plasticity in normal adult tissues and in tumours, where they can generate multiple,...

Nurse-Staffing Levels and the Quality of Care in Hospitals

Background It is uncertain whether lower levels of staffing by nurses at hospitals are associated with an increased risk that patients will have complications or die. Methods We used administrative data from 1997 for 799 hospitals in 11 states (covering...

Data Analysis

The first part of this book is devoted to methods seeking relevant dimensions of data. The variables thus obtained provide a synthetic description which often results in a graphical representation of the data. After a general presentation of the discriminating...

A Clinical Trial of the Angiotensin-Converting–Enzyme Inhibitor Trandolapril in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Myocardial Infarction

Background Treatment with angiotensin-converting–enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduces mortality among survivors of acute myocardial infarction, but whether to use ACE inhibitors in all patients or only in selected patients is uncertain. Methods We screened...

The Inflammasomes: Guardians of the Body

The innate immune system relies on its capacity to rapidly detect invading pathogenic microbes as foreign and to eliminate them. The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provided a class of membrane receptors that sense extracellular microbes and trigger...

The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought

Food production requires application of fertilizers containing phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium on agricultural fields in order to sustain crop yields. However modern agriculture is dependent on phosphorus derived from phosphate rock, which is a non-renewable...

World Risk Society

World Risk Society

Outcome of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction in a Population-Based Study

Thirty-one percent of the patients had an ejection fraction of more than 50 percent. Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction were more likely to be older and female and to have a history of hypertension and atrial fibrillation. The...

C-Reactive Protein Levels and Outcomes after Statin Therapy

Background Statins lower the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP). Whether this latter property affects clinical outcomes is unknown. Methods We evaluated relationships between the LDL cholesterol and CRP levels...

Alternative Activation of Macrophages: An Immunologic Functional Perspective

Macrophages are innate immune cells with well-established roles in the primary response to pathogens, but also in tissue homeostasis, coordination of the adaptive immune response, inflammation, resolution, and repair. These cells recognize danger signals...

Explaining the Decrease in U.S. Deaths from Coronary Disease, 1980-2000

Background Mortality from coronary heart disease in the United States has decreased substantially in recent decades. We conducted a study to determine how much of this decrease could be explained by the use of medical and surgical treatments as opposed...

White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency

Sebastian Reineke, Frank Lindner, Gregor Schwartz, Nico Seidler, Karsten Walzer, Björn Lüssem, Karl Leo

Outcomes of Rapid Defibrillation by Security Officers after Cardiac Arrest in Casinos

Background The use of automated external defibrillators by persons other than paramedics and emergency medical technicians is advocated by the American Heart Association and other organizations. However, there are few data on the outcomes when the devices...

SOAP2: an improved ultrafast tool for short read alignment

Summary: SOAP2 is a significantly improved version of the short oligonucleotide alignment program that both reduces computer memory usage and increases alignment speed at an unprecedented rate. We used a Burrows Wheeler Transformation (BWT) compression...

Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications

The use of a latent heat storage system using phase change materials (PCMs) is an effective way of storing thermal energy and has the advantages of high-energy storage density and the isothermal nature of the storage process. PCMs have been widely used...

Palladium- and copper-catalyzed arylation of carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Olafs Daugulis, Hien-Quang Do, Dmitry Shabashov

MEME Suite: tools for motif discovery and searching

The MEME Suite web server provides a unified portal for online discovery and analysis of sequence motifs representing features such as DNA binding sites and protein interaction domains. The popular MEME motif discovery algorithm is now complemented by...

Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator, Bi2Te3

Topological insulators are a recently discovered state of matter, in which the bulk is an insulator while the surface is metallic with counterpropagating spin states. The surface states are protected by the topology, or structure, of the Fermi surface...

Prevalence of Prostate Cancer among Men with a Prostate-Specific Antigen Level ≤4.0 ng per Milliliter

background The optimal upper limit of the normal range for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of prostate cancer among men in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial who had a PSA level of 4.0 ng per...

A Randomized Trial of Letrozole in Postmenopausal Women after Five Years of Tamoxifen Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

background In hormone-dependent breast cancer, five years of postoperative tamoxifen therapy — but not tamoxifen therapy of longer duration — prolongs disease-free and overall survival. The aromatase inhibitor letrozole, by suppressing estrogen production,...

Changes in Energy Expenditure Resulting from Altered Body Weight

Background No current treatment for obesity reliably sustains weight loss, perhaps because compensatory metabolic processes resist the maintenance of the altered body weight. We examined the effects of experimental perturbations of body weight on energy...

A One-Year Trial of Lamivudine for Chronic Hepatitis B

Background and Methods In preliminary trials, lamivudine, an oral nucleoside analogue, has shown promise for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. We conducted a one-year, double-blind trial of lamivudine in 358 Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis...

Denosumab for Prevention of Fractures in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

We enrolled 7868 women between the ages of 60 and 90 years who had a bone mineral density T score of less than −2.5 but not less than −4.0 at the lumbar spine or total hip. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 60 mg of...

A Randomized Trial of Exemestane after Two to Three Years of Tamoxifen Therapy in Postmenopausal Women with Primary Breast Cancer

background Tamoxifen, taken for five years, is the standard adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal women with primary, estrogen-receptor–positive breast cancer. Despite this treatment, however, some patients have a relapse. methods We conducted a double-blind,...

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Disease in Three Communities

Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has emerged in patients who do not have the established risk factors. The national burden and clinical effect of this novel presentation of MRSA disease are unclear. Methods We evaluated...

FIVE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE OBSERVATIONS: DATA PROCESSING, SKY MAPS, AND BASIC RESULTS

We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps...

The cancer genome

All cancers arise as a result of changes that have occurred in the DNA sequence of the genomes of cancer cells. Over the past quarter of a century much has been learnt about these mutations and the abnormal genes that operate in human cancers. We are...

von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

Background Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and the hemolytic–uremic syndrome are severe microvascular disorders of platelet clumping with similar signs and symptoms. Unusually large multimers of von Willebrand factor, capable of agglutinating circulating...

Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication

Social cognitive theory provides an agentic conceptual framework within which to analyze the determinants and psychosocial mechanisms through which symbolic communication influences human thought, affect and action. Communications systems operate through...

Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem.

Scott C. Doney, Victoria J. Fabry, Richard A. Feely, Joan A. Kleypas

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