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Publications in 1986

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The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations

In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably...

Numerical recipes: the art of scientific computing

Brian P. Flannery, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling

A Computational Approach to Edge Detection

This paper describes a computational approach to edge detection. The success of the approach depends on the definition of a comprehensive set of goals for the computation of edge points. These goals must be precise enough to delimit the desired behavior...

Learning internal representations by error propagation

David E. Rumelhart, Geoffrey E. Hinton, Ronald J. Williams

Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity

The present paper proposes a generalization of the canonical AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH) model by extending the conditional variance equation toward past conditional variances. The stationarity conditions and autocorrelation structure...

Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth

This paper presents a fully specified model of long-run growth in which knowledge is assumed to be an input in production that has increasing marginal productivity. It is essentially a competitive equilibrium model with endogenous technological change....

Meta-Analysis in Clinical Trials*

This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials. Each review pools the results from the relevant trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition. These reviews...

Induction of Decision Trees

The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety...

Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models

SUMMARY This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions...

Limited-dependent and qualitative variables in econometrics

This book presents the econometric analysis of single-equation and simultaneous-equation models in which the jointly dependent variables can be continuous, categorical, or truncated. Despite the traditional emphasis on continuous variables in econometrics,...

A robust layered control system for a mobile robot

A new architecture for controlling mobile robots is described. Layers of control system are built to let the robot operate at increasing levels of competence. Layers are made up of asynchronous modules that communicate over low-bandwidth channels. Each...

A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelationconsistent Covariance Matrix

This paper describes a simple method of calculating a heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix that is positive semi-definite by construction. It also establishes consistency of the estimated covariance matrix under fairly general...

Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy

This paper attempts to explain why innovating firms often fail to obtain significant economic returns from an innovation, while customers, imitators and other industry participants benefit. Business strategy - particularly as it relates to the firm's...

NMR of proteins and nucleic acids

NMR of proteins and nucleic acids

Graph-Based Algorithms for Boolean Function Manipulation

In this paper we present a new data structure for representing Boolean functions and an associated set of manipulation algorithms. Functions are represented by directed, acyclic graphs in a manner similar to the representations introduced by Lee [1] and...

GMRES: a generalized minimal residual algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems

We present an iterative method for solving linear systems, which has the property ofminimizing at every step the norm of the residual vector over a Krylov subspace. The algorithm is derived from the Arnoldi process for constructing an /2-orthogonal basis...

Preconditioning with ischemia: a delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium.

We have previously shown that a brief episode of ischemia slows the rate of ATP depletion during subsequent ischemic episodes. Additionally, intermittent reperfusion may be beneficial to the myocardium by washing out catabolites that have accumulated...

Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins.

Tim R. Mosmann, Holly Cherwinski, Martha W. Bond, Martin A. Giedlin, Robert L. Coffman

The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration

What determines how integrated a firm is? We emphasize the benefits of "control" when there are difficulties in writing complete contracts. We define the firm as being composed of its assets. We present a theory of costly contracts which emphasizes that...

Organizational information requirements, media richness and structural design

This paper answers the question, "Why do organizations process information?" Uncertainty and equivocality are defined as two forces that influence information processing in organizations. Organization structure and internal systems determine both the...

Large Shareholders and Corporate Control

In a corporation with many small owners, it may not pay any one of them to monitor the performance of the management. We explore a model in which the presence of a large minority shareholder provides a partial solution to this free-rider problem. The...

Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes ☆

A gene expression system based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase has been developed. T7 RNA polymerase is highly selective for its own promoters, which do not occur naturally in Escherichia coli. A relatively small amount of T7 RNA polymerase provided...

Strategic Factor Markets: Expectations, Luck, and Business Strategy

Much of the current thinking about competitive strategy focuses on ways that firms can create imperfectly competitive product markets in order to obtain greater than normal economic performance. However, the economic performance of firms does not depend...

Studies and perspectives of protein kinase C.

Protein kinase C, an enzyme that is activated by the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids, relays information in the form of a variety of extracellular signals across the membrane to regulate many Ca2+-dependent processes. At an early...

Actual minds, possible worlds

B. McH., Jerome S. Bruner

The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion

This chapter outlines the two basic routes to persuasion. One route is based on the thoughtful consideration of arguments central to the issue, whereas the other is based on the affective associations or simple inferences tied to peripheral cues in the...

Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation

Processing the signals received on an array of sensors for the location of the emitter is of great enough interest to have been treated under many special case assumptions. The general problem considers sensors with arbitrary locations and arbitrary directional...

Intuitionistic fuzzy sets

A definition of the concept 'intuitionistic fuzzy set' (IFS) is given, the latter being a generalization of the concept 'fuzzy set' and an example is described. Various properties are proved, which are connected to the operations and relations over sets,...

Theory of linear and integer programming

Theory of linear and integer programming

Conceiving the self

Conceiving the self

Time series: theory and methods

Peter J. Brockwell, Richard A. Davis

Robot Vision

From the Publisher:This book presents a coherent approach to the fast-moving field of computer vision, using a consistent notation based on a detailed understanding of the image formation process. It covers even the most recent research and will provide...

Robust statistics : the approach based on influence functions

Frank R. Hampel, Elvezio Ronchetti, Peter J. Rousseeuw, Werner A. Stahel

Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy

A FRAMEWORK for conceptualizing the development of individual differences in reading ability is presented that synthesizes a great deal of the research literature. The framework places special emphasis on the effects of reading on cognitive development...

Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: Comparison to necropsy findings

To determine the accuracy of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) dimension and mass measurements for detection and quantification of LV hypertrophy, results of blindly read antemortem echocardiograms were compared with LV mass measurements made at...

Partial least-squares regression: a tutorial

SUMMARY A tutorial on the partial least-squares (PLS) regression method is provided. Weak points in some other regression methods are outlined and PLS is developed as a remedy for those weaknesses. An algorithm for a predictive PLS and some practical...

Asset pricing and the bid-ask spread

Yakov Amihud, Haim Mendelson

The Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis — An Update

CARDIOVASCULAR disease remains the chief cause of death in the United States and Western Europe, and atherosclerosis, the principal cause of myocardial and cerebral infarction, accounts for the majority of these deaths.1 This review, like its predecessor,2...

A New Concept for Macromolecular Therapeutics in Cancer Chemotherapy: Mechanism of Tumoritropic Accumulation of Proteins and the Antitumor Agent Smancs

We previously found that a polymer conjugated to the anticancer protein neocarzinostatin, named smancs, accumulated more in tumor tissues than did neocarzinostatin. To determine the general mechanism of this tumoritropic accumulation of smancs and other...

Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles

Optical trapping of dielectric particles by a single-beam gradient force trap was demonstrated for the first reported time. This confirms the concept of negative light pressure due to the gradient force. Trapping was observed over the entire range of...

Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change

Sol L. Garfield, Allen E. Bergin

Economic Forces and the Stock Market

This paper tests whether innovations in macroeconomic variables are risks that are rewarded in the stock market. Financial theory suggests that the following macroeconomic variables should systematically affect stock market returns: the spread between...

Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell

A thin‐film, two‐layer organic photovoltaiccell has been fabricated from copper phthalocyanine and a perylene tetracarboxylic derivative. A power conversion efficiency of about 1% has been achieved under simulated AM2 illumination. A novel feature...

Perceived organizational support.

Robert Eisenberger, Robin Huntington, Debora Sowa

CULTURE IN ACTION: SYMBOLS AND STRATEGIES*

Culture influences action not by providing the ultimate values toward which action is oriented, but by shaping a repertoire or "tool kit" of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct "strategies of action." Two models of cultural influence...

Bootstrap Methods for Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Other Measures of Statistical Accuracy

This is a review of bootstrap methods, concentrating on basic ideas and applications rather than theoretical considerations. It begins with an exposition of the bootstrap estimate of standard error for one-sample situations. Several examples, some involving...

Point mutations define a sequence flanking the AUG initiator codon that modulates translation by eukaryotic ribosomes

By analyzing the effects of single base substitutions around the ATG initiator codon in a cloned preproinsulin gene, I have identified ACCATGG as the optimal sequence for initiation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Mutations within that sequence modulate the...

Dynamic Scaling of Growing Interfaces

Mehran Kardar, Giorgio Parisi, Yikun Zhang

Rapid colorimetric assay for cell growth and survival. Modifications to the tetrazolium dye procedure giving improved sensitivity and reliability.

A convenient way to estimate the number of viable cells growing in microtitre tray wells is to use a colorimetric assay and an automatic microplate scanning spectrophotometer. One such assay, developed by Mosmann, depends on the reduction by living cells...

Automatic verification of finite-state concurrent systems using temporal logic specifications

We give an efficient procedure for verifying that a finite-state concurrent system meets a specification expressed in a (propositional, branching-time) temporal logic. Our algorithm has complexity linear in both the size of the specification and the size...

Handbook of research on teaching

M. C. (Merlin C.) Wittrock

Lead users: a source of novel product concepts

Accurate marketing research depends on accurate user judgments regarding their needs. However, for very novel products or in product categories characterized by rapid change—such as “high technology” products—most potential users will not have...

A Chemical Classification of Volcanic Rocks Based on the Total Alkali-Silica Diagram

M. J. Le Bas, R. W. Le Maitre, Albert Streckeisen, B. Zanettin

On the Statistical Analysis of Dirty Pictures

may 7th, 1986, Professor A. F. M. Smith in the Chair] SUMMARY A continuous two-dimensional region is partitioned into a fine rectangular array of sites or "pixels", each pixel having a particular "colour" belonging to a prescribed finite set. The true...

Measurement of Business Performance in Strategy Research: A Comparison of Approaches

A two-dimensional classificatory scheme highlighting ten different approaches to the measurement of business performance in strategy research is developed. The first dimension concerns the use of financial versus broader operational criteria, while the...

An introduction to hidden Markov models

The basic theory of Markov chains has been known to mathematicians and engineers for close to 80 years, but it is only in the past decade that it has been applied explicitly to problems in speech processing. One of the major reasons why speech models,...

Non-uniform random variate generation

Bruce W. Schmeiser, Luc Devroye

Organizational Commitment and Psychological Attachment: The Effects of Compliance, Identification, and Internalization on Prosocial Behavior

Previous research on organizational commitment has typically not focused on the underlying dimensions of psychological attachment to the organization. Results of two studies using university employees (N = 82) and students (N = 162) suggest that psychological...

Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources

This Executive Report reviews the book "Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources," published by Macmillan Publishing Co. An abstract is included under BK-86-902 in this index.

Sample-based non-uniform random variate generation

A sample of n lid random variables with a given unknown density is given. We discuss several issues related to the problem or generating a new sample of lid random variables with almost the same density. In particular, we look at sample independence,...

Ethnic Groups in Conflict

J. A. Laponce, Donald L. Horowitz

Dynamics of a Stressful Encounter: Cognitive Appraisal, Coping, and Encounter Outcomes

Despite the importance that is attributed to coping as a factor in psychological and somatic health outcomes, little is known about actual coping processes, the variables that influence them, and their relation to the outcomes of the stressful encounters...

Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits and Market Value

This paper presents evidence that firms' patents, profits and market value are systematically related to the"technological position" of firms' research programs. Further, firms are seen to "move" in technology space in response to the pattern of contemporaneous...

Future paths for integer programming and links to artificial intelligence

Scope and Purpose-A summary is provided of some of the recent (and a few not-so-recent) developments that otTer promise for enhancing our ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. These developments may be usefully viewed as a synthesis of...

Emotional processing of fear: exposure to corrective information.

In this article we propose mechanisms that govern the processing of emotional information, particularly those involved in fear reduction. Emotions are viewed as represented by information structures in memory, and anxiety is thought to occur when an information...

Laboratory life : the construction of scientific facts

Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar, Jonas Salk

Database system concepts

From the Publisher:This popular text in database systems is used in departments of computer science,computer engineering,and electrical engineering. The revision includes more material on SQL,relational models,logical databases,"QB" and "Datalog. "

Survival Analysis

G Rupert Miller

Erratum: Accurate and simple density functional for the electronic exchange energy: Generalized gradient approximation

Erratum: Accurate and simple density functional for the electronic exchange energy: Generalized gradient approximation

Prediction of goal-directed behavior: Attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control

A proposed theory of planned behavior, an extension of Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980, Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior . Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall) theory of reasoned action, was tested in two experiments. The extended theory...

Central problems in the management of innovation

Innovation is defined as the development and implementation of new ideas by people who over time engage in transactions with others within an institutional order. This definition focuses on four basic factors new ideas, people, transactions, and institutional...

Ecology of the Family as a Context for Human Development: Research Perspectives

This review collates and examines critically a theoretically convergent but widely dispersed body of research on the influence of external environments on the functioning of families as contexts of human development. Investigations falling within this...

Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness

A distinction is proposed between anxiety (frequency of symptom occurrence) and anxiety sensitivity (beliefs that anxiety experiences have negative implications). In Study 1, a newly-constructed Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) was shown to have sound...

Power spectral analysis of heart rate and arterial pressure variabilities as a marker of sympatho-vagal interaction in man and conscious dog.

M. Pagani, Fabrizio Lombardi, Stefano Guzzetti, Rimoldi O, Raffaello Furlan, Paolo Pizzinelli, Giulia Sandrone, Gabriella Malfatto, S. Dell'Orto, Emanuela Piccaluga

Abnormal phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau (tau) in Alzheimer cytoskeletal pathology

Inge Grundke-Iqbal, Khalid Iqbal, Yeou‐Koung Tung, M Quinlan, H. M. Wisniewski, Lester I. Binder

An all atom force field for simulations of proteins and nucleic acids

Scott Weiner, Peter A. Kollman, Dzung T. Nguyen, David A. Case

Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale.

Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale.

Weak elastic anisotropy

Most bulk elastic media are weakly anisotropic. The equations governing weak anisotropy are much simpler than those governing strong anisotropy, and they are much easier to grasp intuitively. These equations indi­ cate that a certain anisotropic parameter...

Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis

Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis

The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

The structure and connectivity of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been deduced from reconstructions of electron micrographs of serial sections. The hermaphrodite nervous system has a total complement of 302 neurons, which...

The Dividend-Price Ratio and Expectations of Future Dividends and Discount Factors

A linearization of a rational expectations present value model for corporate stock prices produces a simple relation between the log dividend-price ratio and mathematical expectations of future log real dividend changes and future real discount rates....

Impact of child sexual abuse: a review of the research

Angela Christine Browne, David Finkelhor

Ecology of Coarse Woody Debris in Temperate Ecosystems

This chapter reviews the rates at which Coarse Woody Debris (CWD) is added and removed from ecosystems, the biomass found in streams and forests, and many functions that CWD serves. CWD is an important component of temperate stream and forest ecosystems...

Commutative ring theory

英之 松村, Miles Reid

Induction: processes of inference, learning, and discovery

John H. Holland, Keith J. Holyoak, Richard E. Nisbett, Paul Thagard

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