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Publications in 1985

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Matrix analysis

Linear algebra and matrix theory are fundamental tools in mathematical and physical science, as well as fertile fields for research. This new edition of the acclaimed text presents results of both classic and recent matrix analyses using canonical forms...

Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness

How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although...

A new generation of Ca2+ indicators with greatly improved fluorescence properties.

A new family of highly fluorescent indicators has been synthesized for biochemical studies of the physiological role of cytosolic free Ca2+. The compounds combine an 8-coordinate tetracarboxylate chelating site with stilbene chromophores. Incorporation...

Improved M13 phage cloning vectors and host strains: nucleotide sequences of the M13mp18 and pUC19 vectors

Three kinds of improvements have been introduced into the M13-based cloning systems. (1) New Escherichia coli host strains have been constructed for the E. coli bacteriophage M13 and the high-copy-number pUC-plasmid cloning vectors. Mutations introduced...

Fuzzy identification of systems and its applications to modeling and control

A mathematical tool to build a fuzzy model of a system where fuzzy implications and reasoning are used is presented. The premise of an implication is the description of fuzzy subspace of inputs and its consequence is a linear input-output relation. The...

Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (Recommendations 1984)

Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (Recommendations 1984)

The stopping and range of ions in solids

This chapter reviews the physics associated with the penetration of energetic ions into solids. It describes the quantitative evaluation of how the ions lose energy to the solid and the final distribution of these ions after they stop within the solid....

Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis

The purpose of this article is to determine whether the positive association between social support and well-being is attributable more to an overall beneficial effect of support (main- or direct-effect model) or to a process of support protecting persons...

PHYLOGENIES AND THE COMPARATIVE METHOD

Recent years have seen a growth in numerical studies using the comparative method. The method usually involves a comparison of two phenotypes across a range of species or higher taxa, or a comparison of one phenotype with an environmental variable. Objectives...

An Attributional Theory of Achievement Motivation and Emotion

A theory of motivation and emotion is proposed in which causal ascriptions play a key role. It is first documented that in achievement-related contexts there are a few dominant causal perceptions. The perceived causes of success and failure share three...

Ab initio effective core potentials for molecular calculations. Potentials for K to Au including the outermost core orbitals

Ab initio effective core potentials (ECP’s) have been generated to replace the innermost core electron for third‐row (K–Au), fourth‐row (Rb–Ag), and fifth‐row (Cs–Au) atoms. The outermost core orbitals—corresponding to the n s 2 n p 6...

Ab initio effective core potentials for molecular calculations. Potentials for the transition metal atoms Sc to Hg

Ab initio effective core potentials (ECP’s) have been generated to replace the Coulomb, exchange, and core‐orthogonality effects of the chemically inert core electron in the transition metal atoms Sc to Hg. For the second and third transition series...

Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia

Two new methods were used to establish a rapid and highly sensitive prenatal diagnostic test for sickle cell anemia. The first involves the primer-mediated enzymatic amplification of specific beta-globin target sequences in genomic DNA, resulting in the...

A Theory of the Term Structure of Interest Rates

This paper uses an intertemporal general equilibrium asset pricing model to study the term structure of interest rates. In this model, anticipations, risk aversion, investment alternatives, and preferences about the timing of consumption all play a role...

Rapid and efficient site-specific mutagenesis without phenotypic selection

This chapter focuses on rapid and efficient site-specific mutagenesis without phenotypic selection. The deliberate alteration of DNA sequences by in vitro mutagenesis has become a widely used and invaluable means of probing the structure and function...

Computational geometry: an introduction

From the reviews: "This book offers a coherent treatment, at the graduate textbook level, of the field that has come to be known in the last decade or so as computational geometry. ... ... The book is well organized and lucidly written; a timely contribution...

Ab initio effective core potentials for molecular calculations. Potentials for main group elements Na to Bi

A consistent set of ab initio effective core potentials (ECP) has been generated for the main group elements from Na to Bi using the procedure originally developed by Kahn. The ECP’s are derived from all‐electron numerical Hartree–Fock atomic wave...

Adaptive signal processing

Bernard Widrow, S.D. Stearns

Practical Optimization

The recent escalation in fuel costs has resulted in a host of optimization problems which were non-existent when fuel was relatively inexpensive. Coupled with the increased costs have been more difficult operational constraints imposed by fuel vendors....

A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms

A new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the Diffie-Hellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem. The security of both systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite...

Natural population analysis 8 )

A method of ‘‘natural population analysis’’ has been developed to calculate atomic charges and orbital populations of molecular wave functions in general atomic orbital basis sets. The natural analysis is an alternative to conventional Mulliken...

Market structure and foreign trade : increasing returns, imperfect competition, and the international economy

Market Structure and Foreign Trade presents a coherent theory of trade in the presence of market structures other than perfect competition. The theory it develops explains trade patterns, especially of industrial countries, and provides an integration...

Does the Stock Market Overreact

Research in experimental psychology suggests that, in violation of Bayes' rule, most people tend to "overreact" to unexpected and dramatic news events. This study of market efficiency investigates whether such behavior affects stock prices. The empirical...

DETERMINING LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS FROM A TIME SERIES

We present the first algorithms that allow the estimation of non-negative Lyapunov exponents from an experimental time series. Lyapunov exponents, which provide a qualitative and quantitative characterization of dynamical behavior, are related to the...

The Handbook of social psychology

Gardner Lindzey, Elliot Aronson

Communicating sequential processes

Communicating sequential processes

Using daily stock returns ☆: The case of event studies

This paper examines properties of daily stock returns and how the particular characteristics of these data affect event study methodologies. Daily data generally present few difficulties for event studies. Standard procedures are typically well-specified...

Does the autistic child have a "theory of mind"?

We use a new model of metarepresentational development to predict a cognitive deficit which could explain a crucial component of the social impairment in childhood autism. One of the manifestations of a basic metarepresentational capacity is a ‘theory...

Neural computation of decisions in optimization problems

Highly-interconnected networks of nonlinear analog neurons are shown to be extremely effective in computing. The networks can rapidly provide a collectively-computed solution (a digital output) to a problem on the basis of analog input information. The...

Validation of open:closed arm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat.

A novel test for the selective identification of anxiolytic and anxiogenic drug effects in the rat is described, using an elevated + -maze consisting of two open arms and two enclosed arms. The use of this test for detecting such drug effects was validated...

Optimism, coping, and health : assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies

This article describes a scale measuring dispositional optimism, defined in terms of generalized outcome expectancies. Two preliminary studies assessed the scale's psychometric properties and its relationships with several other instruments. The scale...

A SIMPLE AND GENERAL METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GENGS INTO PLANTS

Surface-sterilized leaf discs from petunia, tobacco and tomato were inoculated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing a modified Ti plasmid with a chimaeric gene for kanamycin resistance. The discs were cultured for 2 days and then transferred...

BID, ASK AND' TRANSACTION PRICES IN A SPECIALIST MARKET WITH HETEROGENEOUSLY INFORMED TRADERS*

The presence of traders with superior information leads to a positive bid-ask spread even when the specialist is risk-neutral and makes zero expected profits. The resulting transaction prices convey information, and the expectation of the average spread...

A comprehensive grammar of the English language

Quirk, Randolph, 1920-, Crystal, David, 1941-

Protocol analysis : verbal reports as data

K. Anders Ericsson, Herbert A. Simon

Rapid and sensitive protein similarity searches

An algorithm was developed which facilitates the search for similarities between newly determined amino acid sequences and sequences already available in databases. Because of the algorithm's efficiency on many microcomputers, sensitive protein database...

Introduction to heat transfer

F. P. Incropera, David P. DeWitt

THE EFFECT OF BONUS SCHEMES ON ACCOUNTING DECISIONS

Studies examining managerial accounting decisions postulate that executives rewarded by earnings-based bonuses select accounting procedures that increase their compensation. The empirical results of these studies are conflicting. This paper analyzes the...

Measuring the Involvement Construct

A bipolar adjective scale, the Personal Involvement Inventory (PII), was developed to capture the concept of involvement for products. The scale successfully met standards for internal reliability, reliability over time, content validity, criterion-related...

Toward a consensual structure of mood

David Watson, Auke Tellegen

Minds, brains, and programs

This article can be viewed as an attempt to explore theconsequences of two propositions. (1) Intentionality in human beings (and animals) is a product of causal features of the brain Iassume this is an empirical fact about the actual causal relationsbetween...

Learning How to Learn.

Joseph D. Novak, D. Bob Gowin

Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process

The consensus problem involves an asynchronous system of processes, some of which may be unreliable. The problem is for the reliable processes to agree on a binary value. In this paper, it is shown that every protocol for this problem has the possibility...

If It Changes It Must Be a Process: Study of Emotion and Coping During Three Stages of a College Examination

This natural experiment provides substantial evidence for the following major themes, which are based on a cognitively oriented, process-centered theory of stress and coping: First, a stressful encounter should be viewed as a dynamic, unfolding process,...

The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger

This report describes the construction of a questionnaire to measure three dimensions of human eating behavior. The first step was a collation of items from two existing questionnaires that measure the related concepts of ‘restrained eating’ and ‘latent...

The Optimal Degree of Commitment to an Intermediate Monetary Target

Society can sometimes make itself better off by appointing a central banker who does not share the social objective function, but instead places "too large" a weight on inflation-rate stabilization relative to employment stabilization. Although having...

Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling

W. B. Demore, J. J. Margitan, M. J. Molina, Robert T. Watson, David M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, Michael J. Kurylo, Carleton J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara

Hypervariable «minisatellite» regions in human DNA

Alec J. Jeffreys, Victoria Wilson, S. L. Thein

Resource Availability and Plant Antiherbivore Defense

The degree of herbivory and the effectiveness of defense varies widely among plant species. Resource availability in the environment is proposed as the major determinant of both the amount and type of plant defense. When resource are limited, plants with...

Generative communication in Linda

Generative communication is the basis of a new distributed programming langauge that is intended for systems programming in distributed settings generally and on integrated network computers in particular. It differs from previous interprocess communication...

Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: A rapid direct extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil

Summary-A new “direct extraction” method for measuring soil microbial biomass nitrogen (biomass N) is described. The new method (fumigation-extraction) is based on CHCI, fumigation, followed by immediate extraction with 0.5 M S both...

REPRODUCIBILITY AND VALIDITY OF A SEMIQUANTITATIVE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE

Walter C. Willett, Laura Sampson, Meir J. Stampfer, Bernard Rosner, Chris Bain, Jelia Witschi, Charles H. Hennekens, Frank E. Speizer

Filamentous fusion phage: novel expression vectors that display cloned antigens on the virion surface

Foreign DNA fragments can be inserted into filamentous phage gene III to create a fusion protein with the foreign sequence in the middle. The fusion protein is incorporated into the virion, which retains infectivity and displays the foreign amino acids...

A Real-Time QRS Detection Algorithm

We have developed a real-time algorithm for detection of the QRS complexes of ECG signals. It reliably recognizes QRS complexes based upon digital analyses of slope, amplitude, and width. A special digital bandpass filter reduces false detections caused...

Distributed snapshots: determining global states of distributed systems

This paper presents an algorithm by which a process in a distributed system determines a global state of the system during a computation. Many problems in distributed systems can be cast in terms of the problem of detecting global states. For instance,...

Virtual time

Virtual time is a new paradigm for organizing and synchronizing distributed systems which can be applied to such problems as distributed discrete event simulation and distributed database concurrency control. Virtual time provides a flexible abstraction...

Statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions

Bruce G. Lindsay, D. M. Titterington, Adrian F. M. Smith, U.E. Makov

Sick Individuals and Sick Populations

Rose G (Department of Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK). Sick individuals and sick populations. International Journal of Epidemiology 1985;14:32--38. Aetiology confronts two distinct issues:...

Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion

A motion sequence may be represented as a single pattern in x–y–t space; a velocity of motion corresponds to a three-dimensional orientation in this space. Motion sinformation can be extracted by a system that responds to the oriented spatiotemporal...

Uncertainty relation for resolution in space, spatial frequency, and orientation optimized by two-dimensional visual cortical filters

Two-dimensional spatial linear filters are constrained by general uncertainty relations that limit their attainable information resolution for orientation, spatial frequency, and two-dimensional (2D) spatial position. The theoretical lower limit for the...

Vacuum configurations for superstrings

We study candidate vacuum configurations in ten-dimensional O(32) and E8 × E8 supergravity and superstring theory that have unbroken N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions. This condition permits only a few possibilities, all of which have vanishing...

SURFACE DEFORMATION DUE TO SHEAR AND TENSILE FAULTS IN A HALF-SPACE

A complete suite of closed analytical expressions is presented for the surface displacements, strains, and tilts due to inclined shear and tensile faults in a halfspace for both point and finite rectangular sources. These expressions are particularly...

Constructing a Control Group Using Multivariate Matched Sampling Methods That Incorporate the Propensity Score

Matched sampling is a method for selecting units from a large reservoir of potential controls to produce a control group of modest size that is similar to a treated group with respect to the distribution of observed covariates. We il­ lustrate the use...

Nonlinear Elastic Deformations

R. W. Ogden, E. Sternberg

Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: An overview of the randomized trials

Salim Yusuf, Richard Peto, John Lewis, Rory Collins, Peter Sleight

Developing talent in young people

Benjamin S. Bloom, Lauren A. Sosniak

Assessment of autonomic function in humans by heart rate spectral analysis

Spectral analysis of spontaneous heart rate fluctuations were assessed by use of autonomic blocking agents and changes in posture. Low-frequency fluctuations (below 0.12 Hz) in the supine position are mediated entirely by the parasympathetic...

Dividend Policy under Asymmetric Information

We extend the standard finance model of the firm's dividend/investment/financing decisions by allowing the firm's managers to know more than outside investors about the true state of the firm's current earnings. The extension endogenizes the dividend...

The Thermo-Calc databank system

A description is given of Thermo-Calc. a databank for thermochemistry and metallurgy developed at the division of Physical tletallurgy of the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm. Using the facilities of Thermo-Calc one can tabulate thermodynamic...

Explaining delinquency and drug use

Delbert S. Elliott, David Huizinga, Suzanne S. Ageton

A second order multiconfiguration SCF procedure with optimum convergence

An MCSCF procedure is described which is based on the direct minimization of an approximate energy expression which is periodic and correct to second order in the changes in the orthonormal orbitals. Within this approximation, the CI coefficients are...

Detection of signals by information theoretic criteria

A new approach is presented to the problem of detecting the number of signals in a multichannel time-series, based on the application of the information theoretic criteria for model selection introduced by Akaike (AIC) and by Schwartz and Rissanen (MDL)....

A generative theory of tonal music

Fred Lerdahl, Ray Jackendoff

A learning algorithm for boltzmann machines

David H. Ackley, Geoffrey E. Hinton, Terrence J. Sejnowski

Quantum Theory, the Church-Turing Principle and the Universal Quantum Computer

It is argued that underlying the Church-Turing hypothesis there is an implicit physical assertion. Here, this assertion is presented explicitly as a physical principle: ‘every finitely realizable physical system can be perfectly simulated by a universal...

The Disposition to Sell Winners Too Early and Ride Losers Too Long: Theory and Evidence

One of the most significant and unique features in Kahneman and Tversky's approach to choice under uncertainty is aversion to loss realization. This paper is concerned with two aspects of this feature. First, we place this behavior pattern into a wider...

Trust as a Social Reality

Although trust is an underdeveloped concept in sociology, promising theoretical formulations are available in the recent work of Luhmann and Barber. This sociological version complements the psychological and attitudinal conceptualizations of experimental...

The motor theory of speech perception revised.

A motor theory of speech perception, initially proposed to account for results of early experiments with synthetic speech, is now extensively revised to accommodate recent findings, and to relate the assumptions of the theory to those that might be made...

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