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Publications in 1983

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The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxi­ ety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of...

A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity

A technique for conveniently radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity is described. DNA fragments are purified from agarose gels directly by ethanol precipitation and are then denatured and labeled with the large...

The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields

What makes organizations so similar? We contend that the engine of rationalization and bureaucratization has moved from the competitive marketplace to the state and the professions. Once a set of organizations emerges as a field, a paradox arises: rational...

Comparison of simple potential functions for simulating liquid water

Classical Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for liquid water in the NPT ensemble at 25 °C and 1 atm using six of the simpler intermolecular potential functions for the water dimer: Bernal–Fowler (BF), SPC, ST2, TIPS2, TIP3P, and TIP4P....

CHARMM: A program for macromolecular energy, minimization, and dynamics calculations

Bernard R. Brooks, Robert E. Bruccoleri, Barry D. Olafson, David J. States, Soumya Swaminathan, Martin Karplus

The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects

SUMMARY The propensity score is the conditional probability of assignment to a particular treatment given a vector of observed covariates. Both large and small sample theory show that adjustment for the scalar propensity score is sufficient to remove...

The Architecture of Cognition

Now available in paper, The Architecture of Cognition is a classic work that remains relevant to theory and research in cognitive science. The new version of Anderson's theory of cognitive architecture -- Adaptive Control of Thought (ACT*) -- is a theory...

A Global Measure of Perceived Stress

Sheldon Cohen, Tom Kamarck, Robin J. Mermelstein

Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals

We have described a system for reasoning about temporal intervals that is both expressive and computationally effective. The representation captures the temporal hierarchy implicit in many domains by using a hierarchy of reference intervals, which precisely...

Bank Runs, Deposit Insurance, and Liquidity

This paper shows that bank deposit contracts can provide allocations superior to those of exchange markets, offering an explanation of how banks subject to runs can attract deposits. Investors face privately observed risks which lead to a demand for liquidity....

A plant DNA minipreparation: Version II

Stephen L. Dellaporta, J. Wood, J. B. Hicks

Strategies of discourse comprehension

John J. Staczek, Teun A. van Dijk, Walter Kintsch

The Laplacian Pyramid as a Compact Image Code

We describe a technique for image encoding in which local operators of many scales but identical shape serve as the basis functions. The representation differs from established techniques in that the code elements are localized in spatial frequency as...

Measuring the Strangeness of Strange Attractors

We study the correlation exponent v introduced recently as a characteristic measure of strange attractors which allows one to distinguish between deterministic chaos and random noise. The exponent v is closely related to the fractal dimension and the...

Chronic Parkinsonism in humans due to a product of meperidine-analog synthesis.

Four persons developed marked parkinsonism after using an illicit drug intravenously. Analysis of the substance injected by two of these patients revealed primarily 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) with trace amounts of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxy-piperidine...

Measuring individual differences in empathy: evidence for a multidimensional approach.

To facilitate a multidimensional approach to empathy the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) includes 4 subscales: Perspective-Taking (PT) Fantasy (FS) Empathic Concern (EC) and Personal Distress (PD). The aim of the present study was to establish...

Smalltalk-80: the language and its implementation

From the Preface (See Front Matter for full Preface)Advances in the design and production of computer hardware have brought many more people into direct contact with computers. Similar advances in the design and production of computer software are required...

A Theory of Competition Among Pressure Groups for Political Influence

This paper presents a theory of competition among pressure groups for political influence. Political equilibrium depends on the efficiency of each group in producing pressure, the effect of additional pressure on their influence, the number of persons...

Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumulation of ascites fluid

Tumor ascites fluids from guinea pigs, hamsters, and mice contain activity that rapidly increases microvascular permeability. Similar activity is also secreted by these tumor cells and a variety of other tumor cell lines in vitro. The permeability-increasing...

The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

The embryonic cell lineage of Caenorhabditis elegans has been traced from zygote to newly hatched larva, with the result that the entire cell lineage of this organism is now known. During embryogenesis 671 cells are generated; in the hermaphrodite 113...

Agency Problems and Residual Claims

Eugene F. Fama, Michael C. Jensen

Structure-Mapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy*

A theory of analogy must describe how the meaning of on analogy is derived from the meonings of its parts. In the structure-mapplng theory, the interpretation rules ore characterized OS implicit rules for mapping knowledge about a base domain into a torget...

A calculation procedure for heat, mass and momentum transfer in three-dimensional parabolic flows

A general, numerical, marching procedure is presented for the calculation of the transport processes in three-dimensional flows characterised by the presence of one coordinate in which physical influences are exerted in only one direction. Such flows...

Beliefs about beliefs: representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception.

‘A travelling salesman found himself spending the night at home with his wife when one of his trips was unexpectedly cancelled. The two of them were sound asleep, when in the middle of the night there was a loud knock at the front door. The wife woke...

Rules, Discretion and Reputation in a Model of Monetary Policy

In a discretionary regime the monetary authority can print more money and create more inflation than people expect. But, although these inflation surprises can have some benefits, they cannot arise systematically in equilibrium when people understand...

Low Reynolds number hydrodynamics

John Happel, Howard Brenner

The Ecological Role of Water-Column Microbes in the Sea*

Recently developed techniques for estimating bacterial biomass and productivity indicate that bacterial biomass in the sea is related to phytoplankton concentration and that bacteria utilise 10 to 50 % of carbon fixed by photosynthesis. Evidence is presented...

Efficient diffuse function-augmented basis sets for anion calculations. III. The 3-21+G basis set for first-row elements, Li-F

The relatively small diffuse function-augmented basis set, 3-21+G, is shown to describe anion geometries and proton affinities adequately. The diffuse sp orbital exponents are recommended for general use to augment larger basis sets.

Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement

Undergraduates expressed their attitudes about a product after being exposed to a magazine ad under conditions of either high or low product involvement. The ad contained either strong or weak arguments for the product and featured either prominent sports...

Somatic generation of antibody diversity

This chapter reviews the somatic generation of antibody diversity. It was shown that a typical antibody molecule is composed of two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains. It had also been found that each of these two types of chain exhibits...

Theory and practice of recursive identification

Methods of recursive identification deal with the problem of building mathematical models of signals and systems on-line, at the same time as data is being collected. Such methods, which are also k ...

Empirical exchange rate models of the seventies: Do they fit out of sample?

This study compares the out-of-sample forecasting accuracy of various structural and time series exchange rate models. We find that a random walk model performs as well as any estimated model at one to twelve month horizons for the dollar/pound, dollar/mark,...

Martingale Limit Theory and its Application.

Krishna B. Athreya, P. Hall, C. C. Heyde

On the security of public key protocols

Recently the use of public key encryption to provide secure network communication has received considerable attention. Such public key systems are usually effective against passive eavesdroppers, who merely tap the lines and try to decipher the message....

Writing on dirty paper (Corresp.)

A channel with output Y = X + S + Z is examined, The state S \sim N(0, QI) and the noise Z \sim N(0, NI) are multivariate Gaussian random variables ( I is the identity matrix.). The input X \in R^{n} satisfies the power...

Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia

The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN)...

Scale-space filtering

The extrema in a signal and its first few derivatives provide a useful general-purpose qualitative description for many kinds of signals. A fundamental problem in computing such descriptions is scale: a derivative must be taken over some neighborhood,...

Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study.

The relationship between the degree of obesity and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was reexamined in the 5209 men and women of the original Framingham cohort. Recent observations of disease occurrence over 26 years indicate that obesity,...

On enantiomorph‐polarity estimation

The behaviour of Rogers's r/ parameter for enantiomorph-polarity estimation is examined theoretically and experimentally on simulated intensity data for seven well-assorted compounds. An alternative parameter x, based on incoherent scattering from twin...

Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

The scientific understanding of cancer and degenerative disease is being aided by new methodologies which are now used to approach the problem of environmental and occupational carcinogens and anticarcinogens. This paper r eviews these powerful new tools...

Clinical trials : a practical approach

Clinical trials : a practical approach

Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation

Suitably brief pulses of selectively absorbed optical radiation can cause selective damage to pigmented structures, cells, and organelles in vivo. Precise aiming is unnecessary in this unique form of radiation injury because inherent optical and thermal...

Application of phase sensitive two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy (COSY) for measurements of 1H-1H spin-spin coupling constants in proteins

Two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy (COSY) is used for measurements of proton-proton spin-spin coupling constants in protein 1H NMR spectra. High digital resolution along the frequency axis ω2 is achieved by placing the carrier frequency in the center...

Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment.

Perhaps the simplest and the most basic qualitative law of probability is the conjunction rule: The probability of a conjunction, P(A&B), cannot exceed the probabilities of its constituents, P(A) and .P(B), because the extension (or the possibility set)...

Graphical evaluation of blood-to-brain transfer constants from multiple-time uptake data

Clifford S. Patlak, Ronald G. Blasberg, Joseph D. Fenstermacher

EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIP OF DNA SEQUENCES IN FINITE POPULATIONS

With the aim of analyzing and interpreting data on DNA polymorphism obtained by DNA sequencing or restriction enzyme technique, a mathematical theory on the expected evolutionary relationship among DNA sequences (nucleons) sampled is developed under the...

Leukotrienes: mediators of immediate hypersensitivity reactions and inflammation

Arachidonic acid plays a central role in a biological control system where such oxygenated derivatives as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes are mediators. The leukotrienes are formed by transformation of arachidonic acid into an unstable...

Extremes and related properties of random sequences and processes

M. Ross Leadbetter, Georg Lindgren, Holger Rootzén

Wave function of the Universe

James B. Hartle, Stephen W. Hawking

Global Aspects of Current Algebra

A new mathematical framework for the Wess-Zumino chiral effective action is described. It is shown that this action obeys an a priori quantization law, analogous to Dirac's quantization of magnetic change. It incorporates in current algebra both perturbative...

Neuronlike adaptive elements that can solve difficult learning control problems

It is shown how a system consisting of two neuronlike adaptive elements can solve a difficult learning control problem. The task is to balance a pole that is hinged to a movable cart by applying forces to the cart's base. It is argued that the learning...

The Correlates of Entrepreneurship in Three Types of Firms

The objective of the research was to discover the chief determinants of entrepreneurship, the process by which organizations renew themselves and their markets by pioneering, innovation, and risk taking. Some authors have argued that personality factors...

Forecasting : methods and applications

Spyros Makridakis, Victor E. McGee

The evolution of insect mating systems.

Randy Thornhill, John Alcock

Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents

It is argued here that a category of performance called citizenship behavior is important in organizations and not easily explained by the same incentives that induce entry, conformity to contractual role prescriptions, or high production A study of 422...

The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories

This paper summarizes the author's recently published findings about differences in people's work-related values among 50 countries. In view of these differences, ethnocentric management theories (those based on the value system of one particular country)...

Schema Induction and Analogical Transfer

An analysis of the process of analogical thinking predicts that analogies will be noticed on the basis of semantic retrieval cues and that the induction of a general schema from concrete analogs will facilitate analogical transfer. These predictions were...

Transparent conductors—A status review

Non-stoichiometric and doped films of oxides of tin, indium, cadmium, zinc and their various alloys, deposited by numerous techniques, exhibit high transmittance in the visible spectral region, high reflectance in the IR region and nearly metallic conductivity....

Power, politics, and MIS implementation

Theories of resistance to management information systems (MIS) are important because they guide the implementation strategies and tactics chosen by implementors. Three basic theories of the causes of resistance underlie many prescriptions and rules for...

On the Convergence Properties of the EM Algorithm

On the Convergence Properties of the EM Algorithm

Premiums for High Quality Products as Returns to Reputations

This paper derives an equilibrium price-quality schedule for markets in which buyers cannot observe product quality prior to purchase. In such markets there is an incentive for sellers to reduce quality and take short-run gains before buyers catch on....

Central cholinergic pathways in the rat: an overview based on an alternative nomenclature (Ch1-Ch6).

Monoclonal antibodies to choline acetyltransferase and a histochemical method for the concurrent demonstration of acetylcholinesterase and horseradish peroxidase were used to investigate the organization of ascending cholinergic pathways in the central...

Solvent-accessible surfaces of proteins and nucleic acids

A method is presented for analytically calculating a smooth, three-dimensional contour about a molecule. The molecular surface envelope may be drawn on either color raster computer displays or real-time vector computer graphics systems. Molecular areas...

Mechanics of Fold-and-Thrust Belts and Accretionary Wedges

The overall mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges along compressive plate boundaries is considered to be analogous to that of a wedge of soil or snow in front of a moving bulldozer. The material within the wedge deforms until a critical...

Role of the sub-continental lithosphere in magma genesis at active continental margins

Volcanic are basalts can usually be distinguished from basalts erupted in other settings by their selective enrichments in LIL elements and also, in some cases, in light rare-earth elements and P. Ibis enrichment component is independent of the nature...

THE McMASTER FAMILY ASSESSMENT DEVICE

Nathan B. Epstein, Lawrence M. Baldwin, Duane S. Bishop

Object vision and spatial vision: two cortical pathways

Evidence is reviewed indicating that striate cortex in the monkey is the source of two multisynaptic corticocortical pathways. One courses ventrally, interconnecting the striate, prestriate, and inferior temporal areas, and enables the visual identification...

The social psychology of creativity

Stephen Kahn, Teresa M. Amabile

Scaling violations in inclusive e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation spectra

C. Peterson, Daniel Schlatter, I. Schmitt, Peter M Zerwas

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