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Publications in 1982

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An evolutionary theory of economic change

Sidney G. Winter, Richard R. Nelson

A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein

A computer program that progressively evaluates the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of a protein along its amino acid sequence has been devised. For this purpose, a hydropathy scale has been composed wherein the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties...

Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation

Traditional econometric models assume a constant one-period forecast variance. To generalize this implausible assumption, a new class of stochastic processes called autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (ARCH) processes are introduced in this paper....

Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N]nitrate in biological fluids

A new automated system for the analysis of nitrate via reduction with a high-pressure cadmium column is described. Samples of urine, saliva, deproteinized plasma, gastric juice, and milk can be analyzed for nitrate, nitrite, or both with a lower limit...

Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency

This article addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Self-per- cepts of efficacy influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the...

Quantum Fields in Curved Space

N. D. Birrell, P. C. W. Davies

Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report

Summary-A new Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) designed specifically for rating depression in the elderly was tested for reliability and validity and compared with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRS-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale...

Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions.

Rg Morris, P. Garrud, J.N.P. Rawlins, J O'Keefe

Least squares quantization in PCM

It has long been realized that in pulse-code modulation (PCM), with a given ensemble of signals to handle, the quantum values should be spaced more closely in the voltage regions where the signal amplitude is more likely to fall. It has been shown by...

Random-Effects Models for Longitudinal Data

SUMMARY Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recogrlize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage...

Field Computation by Moment Methods

From the Publisher:"An IEEE reprinting of this classic 1968 edition, FIELD COMPUTATION BY MOMENT METHODS is the first book to explore the computation of electromagnetic fields by the most popular method for the numerical solution to electromagnetic field...

The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun

This paper argues for the recognition of important experiential aspects of consumption. Specifically, a general framework is constructed to represent typical consumer behavior variables. Based on this paradigm, the prevailing information processing model...

Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems

Applications of second-moment turbulent closure hypotheses to geophysical fluid problems have developed rapidly since 1973, when genuine predictive skill in coping with the effects of stratification was demonstrated. The purpose here is to synthesize...

Time to Build and Aggregate Fluctuations

This is a student version of the program used for Finn Kydland and Edward Prescott, "Time to Build and Aggregate Fluctuations", Econometrica, vol. 50, pp. 1345-1370, Nov. 1982 Some parameter values can be entered interactively. They should be quite obvious....

Accommodation of a scientific conception: Toward a theory of conceptual change

George J. Posner, Kenneth A. Strike, Peter W. Hewson, William A. Gertzog

THE NEED FOR COGNITION

John T. Cacioppo, Richard E. Petty

A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia.

Accurate clinical staging of dementia in older subjects has not previously been achieved despite the use of such methods as psychometric testing, behavioural rating, and various combinations of simpler psychometric and behavioural evaluations. The Clinical...

PERFECT EQUILIBRIUM IN A BARGAINING MODEL

Focuses on a study which examined perfect equilibrium in a bargaining model. Overview of the strategic approach adopted for the study; Details of the bargaining situation used; Discussion on perfect equilibrium. (From Ebsco)

Simulating physics with computers

Simulating physics with computers

Self-consistent molecular orbital methods. XXIII. A polarization-type basis set for second-row elements

The 6‐31G* and 6‐31G** basis sets previously introduced for first‐row atoms have been extended through the second‐row of the periodic table. Equilibrium geometries for one‐heavy‐atom hydrides calculated for the two‐basis sets and using Hartree–Fock...

The pUC plasmids, an M13mp7-derived system for insertion mutagenesis and sequencing with synthetic universal primers.

A series of plasmid vectors containing the multiple cloning site (MCS7) of M13mp7 has been constructed. In one of these vectors a kanamycin-resistance marker has been inserted into the center of the symmetrical MCS7 to yield a restriction-site-mobilizing...

Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape

The electric field integral equation (EFIE) is used with the moment method to develop a simple and efficient numerical procedure for treating problems of scattering by arbitrarily shaped objects. For numerical purposes, the objects are modeled using planar...

Trends and random walks in macroeconmic time series: Some evidence and implications

This paper investigates whether macroeconomic time series are better characterized as stationary fluctuations around a deterministic trend or as non-stationary processes that have no tendency to return to a deterministic path. Using long historical time...

Humus chemistry, genesis, composition, reactions.

Humus chemistry, genesis, composition, reactions.

Selection and the Evolution of Industry

Recent evidence shows that within an industry, smaller firms grow faster and are more likely to fail than large firms. This paper provides a theory of selection with incomplete information that is consistent with these and other findings. Firms learn...

Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Misspecified Models

This paper examines the consequences and detection of model misspecification when using maximum likelihood techniques for estimation and inference. The quasi-maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE) converges to a well defined limit, and may or may not be...

Novel Proteinaceous Infectious Particles Cause Scrapie

After infection and a prolonged incubation period, the scrapie agent causes a degenerative disease of the central nervous system in sheep and goats. Six lines of evidence including sensitivity to proteases demonstrate that this agent contains a protein...

The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays

Edward Wasiolek, M. M. Bakhtin, Michael Holquist, Caryl Emerson

Metal-semiconductor contacts

A review is given of our present knowledge of metal-semiconductor contacts. Topics covered include the factors that determine the height of the Schottky barrier, its current/voltage characteristics, and its capacitance. A short discussion is also given...

Cancer epidemiology and prevention

David Schottenfeld, Joseph F. Fraumeni

Principles of plant nutrition.

Konrad Mengel, E. A. Kirkby

Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia: loss of neurons in the basal forebrain

Recent evidence indicates that the nucleus basalis of Meynert, a distinct population of basal forebrain neurons, is a major source of cholinergic innervation of the cerebral cortex. Postmortem studies have previously demonstrated profound reduction in...

Acquisition of Cognitive Skill.

A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowledge is directly...

A full coupled‐cluster singles and doubles model: The inclusion of disconnected triples

The coupled‐cluster singles and doubles model (CCSD) is derived algebraically, presenting the full set of equations for a general reference function explicitly in spin–orbital form. The computational implementation of the CCSD model, which involves...

The economics of industrial innovation

Christopher Freeman, Luc Soete

Moral Hazard in Teams

This article studies moral hazard with many agents. The focus is on two features that are novel in a multiagent setting: free riding and competition. The free-rider problem implies a new role for the principal: administering incentive schemes that do...

Heritable true fitness and bright birds: a role for parasites?

Combination of seven surveys of blood parasites in North American passerines reveals weak, highly significant association over species between incidence of chronic blood infections (five genera of protozoa and one nematode) and striking display (three...

Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals

A coding technique is described which improves error performance of synchronous data links without sacrificing data rate or requiring more bandwidth. This is achieved by channel coding with expanded sets of multilevel/phase signals in a manner which increases...

Delayed neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampus following ischemia.

In the CA1 subfield of the gerbil hippocampus, an unusual series of changes were noticed after ischemia. Mongolian gerbils were subjected to bilateral carotid occlusion for 5 min. Perfusion fixation was performed 3, 6 and 12 h or 1, 2, 4, 7 and 21 days...

The Byzantine Generals Problem

Reliable computer systems must handle malfunctioning components that give conflicting information to different parts of the system. This situation can be expressed abstractly in terms of a group of generals of the Byzantine army camped with their troops...

Exaptation; a missing term in the science of form

Adaptation has been defined and recognized by two different criteria: historical genesis (fea- tures built by natural selection for their present role) and current utility (features now enhancing fitness no matter how they arose). Biologists have often...

Plant Productivity and Environment

An analysis of major U.S. crops shows that there is a large genetic potential for yield that is unrealized because of the need for better adaptation of the plants to the environments in which they are grown. Evidence from native populations suggests that...

IMPOSSIBILITY OF DISTRIBUTED CONSENSUS WITH ONE FAULTY PROCESS

The consensus problem involves an asynchronous system of processes, some of which may be unreliable. The problem is for the reliable processes to agree on a binary value. We show that every protocol for this problem has the possibility of nontermination,...

Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte systems.

Striking convergent evolution is found in the properties of the organic osmotic solute (osmolyte) systems observed in bacteria, plants, and animals. Polyhydric alcohols, free amino acids and their derivatives, and combinations of urea and methylamines...

Factoring Polynomials with Rational Coefficients.

In this paper we present a polynomial-time algorithm to solve the following problem: given a non-zero polynomial fe Q(X) in one variable with rational coefficients, find the decomposition of f into irreducible factors in Q(X). It is well known that this...

Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Emission Tomography

Previous models for emission tomography (ET) do not distinguish the physics of ET from that of transmission tomography. We give a more accurate general mathematical model for ET where an unknown emission density ? = ?(x, y, z) generates, and is to be...

Measurement of Cutaneous Inflammation: Estimation of Neutrophil Content with an Enzyme Marker

Peter P. Bradley, Dennis Priebat, Robert D. Christensen, Rothstein G

Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar

Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1982.

Uncertain Imitability: An Analysis of Interfirm Differences in Efficiency under Competition

Causal ambiguity inherent in the creation of productive processes is modeled by attaching an irreducible ex ante uncertainty to the level of firm efficiency that is achieved by sequential entrants. Without recourse to scale economies or market power,...

Contestable markets and the theory of industry structure

William J. Baumol, John C. Panzar, Robert D. Willig

Strategic Information Transmission

This paper develops a model of strategic communication, in which a better-informed Sender (S) sends a possibly noisy signal to a Reciever (R), who then takes an action that determines the welfare of both. We characterize the set of Bayesian Nash equilibria...

Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents

A method, utilizing brine shrimp (Artemia salina LEACH), is proposed as a simple bioassay for natural product research. The procedure determines LC50 values in µg/ml of active compounds and extracts in the brine medium. Activities of a broad range of...

Silicon as a mechanical material

Single-crystal silicon is being increasingly employed in a variety of new commercial products not because of its well-established electronic properties, but rather because of its excellent mechanical properties. In addition, recent trends in the engineering...

The Value of Waiting to Invest

This paper studies the optimal timing of investment in an irreversible project where the benefits from the project and the investment cost follow continuous-time stochastic processes. The optimal time to invest and an explicit formula for the value of...

The stunned myocardium: prolonged, postischemic ventricular dysfunction.

Myocardial ischemia has, for many decades, been viewed as an all-or-none process that causes myocardial necrosis when prolonged and severe, but whose effects are transient when it is brief or mild. In view of the evidence that the ischemic process may...

Residuals and Influence in Regression

R. Dennis Cook, Sanford Weisberg

Deformation-mechanism maps

H.J. Frost, Michael F. Ashby

Lyme disease-a tick-borne spirochetosis?

A treponema-like spirochete was detected in and isolated from adult Ixodes dammini, the incriminated tick vector of Lyme disease. Causally related to the spirochetes may be long-lasting cutaneous lesions that appeared on New Zealand White rabbits 10 to...

Spectrum estimation and harmonic analysis

In the choice of an estimator for the spectrum of a stationary time series from a finite sample of the process, the problems of bias control and consistency, or "smoothing," are dominant. In this paper we present a new method based on a "local" eigenexpansion...

High-Re Solutions for Incompressible Flow Using the Navier-Stokes Equations and a Multigrid Method*

The vorticity-stream function formulation of the two-dimensional incompressible NavierStokes equations is used to study the effectiveness of the coupled strongly implicit multigrid (CSI-MG) method in the determination of high-Re fine-mesh flow solutions....

Monoclonal antibody to 5-bromo- and 5-iododeoxyuridine: a new reagent for detection of dna replication.

Monoclonal antibodies specific for 5-bromodeoxyuridine have been produced and applied in detecting low levels of DNA replication on a cell-by-cell basis in vitro. The immunoglobulin-producing hybridomas were derived from spleen cells of mice immunized...

On the Relationship between Carbon Isotope Discrimination and the Intercellular Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Leaves

Theory is developed to explain the carbon isotopic composition of plants. It is shown how diffusion of gaseous COz can significantly affect carbon isotopic discrimination. The effects on discrimination by diffusion and carboxylation are integrated, yielding...

A Linear-Time Heuristic for Improving Network Partitions

An iterative mincut heuristic for partitioning networks is presented whose worst case computation time, per pass, grows linearly with the size of the network. In practice, only a very small number of passes are typically needed, leading to a fast approximation...

NITROGEN AND LIGNIN CONTROL OF HARDWOOD LEAF LITTER DECOMPOSITION DYNAMICS

The effects of initial nitrogen and lignin contents of six species of hardwood leaves on their decomposition dynamics were studied at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Rate constants (k) for annual leaf mass loss ranged from —0.08...

Ecology of Seed Dispersal

Henry E Howe, Judith Smallwood

Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors

Exogenous DNA sequences were introduced into the Drosophila germ line. A rosy transposon (ry1), constructed by inserting a chromosomal DNA fragment containing the wild-type rosy gene into a P transposable element, transformed germ line cells in 20 to...

Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current

A new type of semiconductor laser is studied, in which injected carriers in the active region are quantum mechanically confined in two or three dimensions (2D or 3D). Effects of such confinements on the lasing characteristics are analyzed. Most important,...

Rational cooperation in the finitely-repeated prisoners' dilemma

David M. Kreps, Paul Milgrom, John D. Roberts, Robert B. Wilson

Rete: A fast algorithm for the many pattern/many object pattern match problem ☆

The Rete Match Algorithm is an efficient method for comparing a large collection of patterns to a large collection of objects. It finds all the objects that match each pattern. The algorithm was developed for use in production system interpreters, and...

The neuropsychology of anxiety : an enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system

The neuropsychology of anxiety : an enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system

Quantized Hall conductance in a two dimensional periodic potential

The Hall conductance αH of a two dimensional electron gas has been studied in a uniform magnetic field and a periodic potential. The periodic potential splits each Landau level in a nested devil's staircase like subband structure. The Kubo formula is...

Employee-organization linkages : the psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover

Harrison M. Trice, Richard T. Mowday, Lyman W. Porter, Richard M. Steers

Lithium amplifies agonist-dependent phosphatidylinositol responses in brain and salivary glands.

1. The effect of Li+ on the agonist-dependent metabolism of [3H]inositol has been studied in rat brain, rat parotid and the insect salivary gland. 2. When brain or parotid slices were incubated in the presence of [3H]inositol, Li+ was found to amplify...

Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior: A Critical Review

The self-concept literature in consumer behavior can be characterized as fragmented, incoherent, and highly diffuse. This paper critically reviews self-concept theory and research in consumer behavior and provides recommendations for future research.

Reputation and imperfect information

A common observation in the informal literature of economics (and elsewhere) is that is multistage games, players may seek early in the game to acquire a reputation for being tough or benevolent or something else. But this phenomenon is not observed in...

A computer simulation method for the calculation of equilibrium constants for the formation of physical clusters of molecules: Application to small water clusters

We present a molecular dynamicscomputer simulation method for calculating equilibrium constants for the formation of physical clusters of molecules. The method is based on Hill’s formal theory of physical clusters. In the method, a molecular dynamics...

Labor Contracts as Partial Gift Exchange

This paper explains involuntary unemployment in terms of the response of firms to workers' group behavior. Workers' effort depends upon the norms determining a fair day's work. In order to affect those norms, firms may pay more than the market-clearing...

A Rasch Model for Partial Credit Scoring.

A Rasch Model for Partial Credit Scoring.

Trace element characteristics of lavas from destructive plate boundaries

Volcanic are basalts are all characterized by a selective enrichment in incompatible elements of low ionic potential, a feature thought to be due to the input of aqueous fluids from subducted oceanic crust into their mantle source regions. Island arc...

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