Harry Towbin, Theophil Staehelin, Julian Gordon

Harry Towbin, Theophil Staehelin, Julian Gordon

This paper presents a critique of expected utility theory as a descriptive model of decision making under risk, and develops an alternative model, called prospect theory. Choices among risky prospects exhibit several pervasive effects that are inconsistent...

Sample selection bias as a specification error This paper discusses the bias that results from using non-randomly selected samples to estimate behavioral relationships as an ordinary specification error or «omitted variables» bias. A simple consistent...

Chirgwin Jm, Przybyla Ae, Raymond J. MacDonald, Rutter Wj

Hiroshi Ohkawa, Nobuko Ohishi, Kunio Yagi

In this paper we show how to divide data D into n pieces in such a way that D is easily reconstructable from any k pieces, but even complete knowledge of k - 1 pieces reveals absolutely no information about D. This technique enables the construction of...

H.C. Bimboim, Janine Doly

We discuss the following problem given a random sample X = (Xl' X 2 , ••• , Xn) from an unknown probability distribution F, estimate the sampling distribution of some prespecified random variable R(X, F), on the basis of the observed data x. (Standard...

Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to insulin (euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration...

The construction of a depression rating scale designed to be particularly sensitive to treatment effects is described. Ratings of 54 English and 52 Swedish patients on a 65 item comprehensive psychopathology scale were used to identify the 17 most commonly...

A mathematical model for the evolutionary change of restriction sites in mitochondrial DNA is developed. Formulas based on this model are presented for estimating the number of nucleotide substitutions between two populations or species. To express the...

Ralph L. Keeney, Howard Raiffa, David W. Rajala

Summary: On the basis of a comparative study of 178 strains of cyanobacteria, representative of this group of prokaryotes, revised definitions of many genera are proposed. Revisions are designed to permit the generic identification of cultures, often...

Mardi J. Horowitz, Nancy Wilner, William F. Alvarez

This paper summarizes a stream of research aimed at developing and validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, is called the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)....

The role of imperfect information in a principal-agent relationship subject to moral hazard is considered. A necessary and sufficient condition for imperfect information to improve on contracts based on the payoff alone is derived, and a characterization...

A method of second-order accuracy is described for integrating the equations of ideal compressible flow. The method is based on the integral conservation laws and is dissipative, so that it can be used across shocks. The heart of the method is a one-dimensional...

In this paper we present a "routine activity approach" for analyzing crime rate trends and cycles. Rather than emphasizing the characteristics of offenders, with this approach we concentrate upon the circumstances in which they carry out predatory criminal...

The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Argues against adaptationist assumption - the tendency to assume that everything which is present in an organism must be an adaptation (rather than being...

Albert W. Marshall, Ingram Olkin, Barry C. Arnold

In this survey we review the image processing literature on the various approaches and models investigators have used for texture. These include statistical approaches of autocorrelation function, optical transforms, digital transforms, textural edgeness,...

Lisa F. Berkman, S. Leonard Syme

A new general technique for the investigation of exchange processes in molecular systems is proposed and demonstrated. Applications comprise the study of chemical exchange, of magnetization transfer by inter‐ and intramolecular relaxation in liquids,...

This paper presents a simple discrete-time model for valumg optlons. The fundamental econonuc principles of option pricing by arbitrage methods are particularly clear In this setting. Its development requires only elementary mathematics, yet it contains...

A stand-alone noise suppression algorithm is presented for reducing the spectral effects of acoustically added noise in speech. Effective performance of digital speech processors operating in practical environments may require suppression of noise from...

In situ collected spectrometer data were used to evaluate and quantify the relationships between various linear combinations of red and photographic infrared radiances and experimental plot biomass, leaf water content, and chlorophyll content. The radiance...

This paper analyzes compensation schemes which pay according to an individual's ordinal rank in an organization rather than his output level. When workers are risk neutral, it is shown that wages based upon rank induce the same efficient allocation of...

A relay channel consists of an input x_{l} , a relay output y_{1} , a channel output y , and a relay sender x_{2} (whose transmission is allowed to depend on the past symbols y_{1} . The dependence of the received symbols upon the inputs is given by p(y,y_{1}|x_{1},x_{2})...

As Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Dr. Vannevar Bush has coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare. In this significant article he holds up an incentive...

R. L. Graham, Eugene L. Lawler, J. K. Lenstra, A. H. G. Rinnooy Kan

Based on 20 years of surveillance of the Framingham cohort relating subsequent cardiovascular events to prior evidence of diabetes, a twofold to threefold increased risk of clinical atherosclerotic disease was reported. The relative impact was greatest...

A measure is presented which indicates the similarity of clusters which are assumed to have a data density which is a decreasing function of distance from a vector characteristic of the cluster. The measure can be used to infer the appropriateness of...

How internationally mobile is the world's supply of capital? Does capital flow among industrial countries to equalize the yield to investors? Alternatively, does the saving that originates in a country remain 'to be invested there? Or does the truth lie...

This paper develops a simple, general equilibrium model of noncomparative advantage trade. Trade is driven by economies of scale, which are internal to firms. Because of the scale economies, markets are imperfectly competitive. Nonetheless, one can show...

Geoffrey M. Wahl, M Stern, G R Stark

David H. Figurski, Donald R. Helinski

Corwin Hansch, Albert J. Leo

The Eating Attitudes Test: an index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa.

socialized acceptance of common objectives; and clans rely upon a relatively complete socialization process which effectively eliminates goal incongruence between individuals. This paper explores the organizational manifestations of these three approaches...

A revised version of Jovanovic's model. Given current human capital level, the worker decides how to devide time between investment in human capital and search for other jobs. The probabilty of getting another offer depends on search effort. The worker...

The sorption of hydrophobic compounds (aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons) spanning a concentration range in water solubility from 500 parts per trillion (ppt) to 1800 parts per million (ppm) on local (North Georgia) pond and river sediments...

W E Balch, George E. Fox, Linda J. Magrum, Carl R. Woese

Maria S. Moron, Joseph W. DePierre, Bengt Mannervik

Lecture to the memory of Alfred Nobel, December 8, 1978 (This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Philip N. Froelich, Gary P. Klinkhammer, Michael L. Bender, Nile A. Luedtke, G.R. Heath, Cullen Dr, Paul Dauphin, D. P. Hammond, B. J. Hartman, Val Maynard

A public debt theory is constructed in which the Ricardian invariance theorem is valid as a first-order proposition but where the dependence of excess burden on the timing of taxation implies an optimal time path of debt issue. A central proposition is...

Jane E. Bottenstein, Gordon Sato

Optimization of the part of consumers is shown to imply that the marginal utility of consumption evolves according to a random walk with trend. To a reasonable approximation, consumption itself should evolve in the same way. In particular, no variable...

returns to R&D and then proceeds to discuss in turn two very difficult problems: the measurement of output in R&D intensive industries and the definition and measurement of the stock of R&D "capital." The latter concept leads to a discussion of modeling...

The article presents an overview of the longitudinal-processual theory of organizational formation. The ideological underpinnings of the method are described, highlighting its central focus on the factors and elements of an organization's creation and...

A presentation of the economic principles relating to the use and management of natural resources, including analysis of optimal use policies.

An algorithm for tracking multiple targets in a cluttered enviroment is developed. The algorithm is capable of initiating tracks, accounting for false or missing reports, and processing sets of dependent reports. As each measurement is received, probabilities...

Image methods have been successfully used in the analysis of the acoustic properties of enclosures for the purpose of architectural design. In this paper we disuss use of image techniques for simulating the impulse response between two points in a small...

The nearly coincident forms of the relations between seismic moment M_0 and the magnitudes M_L, M_S, and M_w imply a moment magnitude scale M = ⅔ log M_0 - 10.7 which is uniformly valid for 3 ≲ M_L ≲ 7, 5 ≲ M_s ≲ 7½, and M_w ≳ 7½.

This is an article about modeling methods in information economics. A notion of "favorableness" of news is introduced, characterized, and applied to four simple models. In the equilibria of these models, (1) the arrival of good news about a firm's prospects...

Trevor S. Breusch, A. R. Pagan

Consider the ridge estimate (λ) for β in the model unknown, (λ) = (X T X + nλI)−1 X T y. We study the method of generalized cross-validation (GCV) for choosing a good value for λ from the data. The estimate is the minimizer of V(λ) given by where...

This paper gives an input independent average linear time algorithm for storage and retrieval on keys. The algorithm makes a random choice of hash function from a suitable class of hash functions. Given any sequence of inputs the expected time (averaging...

This paper focuses on avoidable moral hazard and offers one explanation for limited insurance markets, for closely held firms, and for seemingly simple as opposed to contingent forms of debt. Agents have random endowments of a consumption good which are...

SummaryEndogenous cytochrome oxidase activity within the mitochondria of neurons and neuropil was demonstrated histochemically under normal and experimental conditions. Since enzymatic changes were noted with chronic neuronal inactivity in the auditory...

Joseph L. Goldstein, Y K Ho, Sandip K. Basu, Michael S. Brown

In data with a group structure, incidental parameters are included to control for missing variables. Applications include longitudinal data and sibling data. In general, the joint maximum likelihood estimator of the structural parameters is not consistent...

A number of papers were published throughout the 1960s and early 1970s on program design, most commonly with titles incorporating the phrase "modular design," or "modular programming." But Stevens, Myers, and Constantine were the first to use the term...

Richard W. Eppley, Bruce J. Peterson

With risky debt outstanding, stockholder actions aimed at maximizing the value of their equity claim can result in a reduction in the value of both the firm and its outstanding bonds. We examine ways in which debt contracts are written to control the...

Data from experimental runs, coexisting phases in ultramafic rocks and phenocryst-matrix pairs in volcanic rocks have been used to compile a table of mineral-liquid distribution coefficients for Ti, Zr, Y, and Nb for basic, intermediate and acid melt...

Phelps Me, E. J. Hoffman, C. Selin, Kuhl De

William A. Pulsinelli, James B. Brierley

We prove symmetry, and some related properties, of positive solutions of second order elliptic equations. Our methods employ various forms of the maximum principle, and a device of moving parallel planes to a critical position, and then showing that the...

Thomas Ja, Robert Buchsbaum, Andrzej Zimniak, Racker E

Eugene Bell, Bengt Ivarsson, Charlotte Merrill

EXAMPLE 1: PRESUPPOSITION’ At any stage in a well-run conversation, a certain amount is presupposed. The parties to the conversation take it for granted; or at least they purport to, whether sincerely or just “for the sake of the argument”. Presuppositions...

People who hold strong opinions on complex social issues are likely to examine relevant empirical evidence in a biased manner. They are apt to accept "confirming" evidence at face value while subjecting "discontinuing" evidence to critical evaluation,...

Let A be a binary matrix of size m × n, let cT be a positive row vector of length n and let e be the column vector, all of whose m components are ones. The set-covering problem is to minimize cTx subject to Ax ≥ e and x binary. We compare the value...

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