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Publications in 1978

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MEASURING THE EFFICIENCY OF DECISION MAKING UNITS

A. Charnes, W. W. Cooper, Edward Rhodes

A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems

An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences: Couriers or other secure means are not needed to transmit...

Specification Tests in Econometrics

Using the result that under the null hypothesis of no misspecification an asymptotically efficient estimator must have zero asymptotic covariance with its difference from a consistent but asymptotically inefficient estimator, specification tests are devised...

Microsomal lipid peroxidation.

This chapter discusses microsomal lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is a complex process known to occur in both plants and animals. It involves the formation and propagation of lipid radicals, the uptake of oxygen, a rearrangement of the double bonds...

The hippocampus as a cognitive map

Aryeh Routtenberg, John O'Keefe, Lynn Nadel

Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs

The commonly observed high diversity of trees in tropical rain forests and corals on tropical reefs is a nonequilibrium state which, if not disturbed further, will progress toward a low-diversity equilibrium community. This may not happen if gradual changes...

ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE HETEROZYGOSITY AND GENETIC DISTANCE FROM A SMALL NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS

The magnitudes of the systematic biases involved in sample heterozygosity and sample genetic distances are evaluated, and formulae for obtaining unbiased estimates of average heterozygosity and genetic distance are developed. It is also shown that the...

Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process

Raymond E. Miles, Charles C. Snow, Alan D. Meyer, H.J. Coleman

Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system

The concept of one event happening before another in a distributed system is examined, and is shown to define a partial ordering of the events. A distributed algorithm is given for synchronizing a system of logical clocks which can be used to totally...

Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation

The learned helplessness hypothesis is criticized and reformulated. The old hypothesis, when applied to learned helplessness in humans, has two major problems: (a) It does not distinguish between cases in which outcomes are uncontrollable for all people...

Modeling by shortest data description

The number of digits it takes to write down an observed sequence x1, …, xN of a time series depends on the model with its parameters that one assumes to have generated the observed data. Accordingly, by finding the model which minimizes the description...

Recommendations regarding quantitation in M-mode echocardiography: results of a survey of echocardiographic measurements.

Four hundred M-mode echocardiographic surveys were distributed to determine interobserver variability in M-mode echocardiographic measurements. This was done with a view toward examining the need and determining the criteria for standardization of measurement....

Construction and characterization of amplifiable multicopy DNA cloning vehicles derived from the P15A cryptic miniplasmid.

Construction andcharacterization ofa class ofmulticopy plasmid cloning vehicles containing thereplication systemofminiplasmid P15Aare described. Theconstructed plasmids havecleavage sites within antibiotic resistance genes for a variety ofcommonly employed...

A modification of the Lowry procedure to simplify protein determination in membrane and lipoprotein samples.

The original Lowry method of protein determination has been modified by the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the alkali reagent and an increase in the amount of copper tartrate reagent. These alterations allowed the method to be used with membrane...

The economic approach to human behavior

Since his pioneering application of economic analysis to racial discrimination, Gary S. Becker has shown that an economic approach can provide a unified framework for understanding all human behavior. In a highly readable selection of essays Becker applies...

Communicating sequential processes

This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When combined with a development of Dijkstra's guarded command,...

Asset Prices in an Exchange Economy

THIS PAPER IS A THEORETICAL examination of the stochastic behavior of equilibrium asset prices in a one-good, pure exchange economy with identical consumers. The single good in this economy is (costlessly) produced in a number of different productive...

On the use of windows for harmonic analysis with the discrete Fourier transform

This paper makes available a concise review of data windows and their affect on the detection of harmonic signals in the presence of broad-band noise, and in the presence of nearby strong harmonic interference. We also call attention to a number of common...

A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity.

An eleven item clinician-administered Mania Rating Scale (MRS) is introduced, and its reliability, validity and sensitivity are examined. There was a high correlation between the scores of two independent clinicians on both the total score (0.93)...

Perturbation Methods

A. H. Nayfeh, Vimal Singh

Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals

The influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals was investigated by analyzing animals grown in the laboratory on diets of constant nitrogen isotopic composition.The isotopic composition of the nitrogen in an animal reflects the...

Plant physiological ecology.

J. R. Etherington, Martin J. Kropff, H. H. van Laar, S. Abdoellah, A.A. Prawoto, Priyono, M.A. Capó Arteaga, M.B. Newton

Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena

Penelope Brown, Stephen C. Levinson

Analysis of the accuracy and implications of simple methods for predicting the secondary structure of globular proteins.

1. (1) Co-operation between a laboratory interested in developing the theory for protein secondary structure prediction methods and a laboratory interested in applying and comparing such methods has led to the development of a simple predictive algorithm.2....

SOME REMARKS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENTARY BASINS

A simple model for the development and evolution of sedimentary basins is proposed. The first event consists of a rapid stretching of continental lithosphere, which produces thinning and passive upwelling of hot asthenosphere. This stage is associated...

Predicting rainfall erosion losses - A guide to conservation planning

The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) enables to planners to predict the average rate of soil erosion for each feasible alternative combination of crop system management practices in association with a specified soil type, rainfall pattern, and topography...

Dynamic programming algorithm optimization for spoken word recognition

This paper reports on an optimum dynamic progxamming (DP) based time-normalization algorithm for spoken word recognition. First, a general principle of time-normalization is given using time-warping function. Then, two time-normalized distance definitions,...

Friction of rocks

Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness....

From mobilization to revolution

From mobilization to revolution

Adaptive environmental assessment and management

This book is on the various methods of environmental impact assessment as a guide to design of new environmental development and management projects. This approach surveys the features of the environment likely to be affected by the developments under...

Compression of individual sequences via variable-rate coding

Compressibility of individual sequences by the class of generalized finite-state information-lossless encoders is investigated. These encoders can operate in a variable-rate mode as well as a fixed-rate one, and they allow for any finite-state scheme...

A Theory of Memory Retrieval

A theory of memory retrieval is developed and is shown to apply over a range of experimental paradigms. Access to memory traces is viewed in terms of a resonance metaphor. The probe item evokes the search set on the basis of probe-memory item relatedness,...

Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing

L. R. Rabiner, Bernard Gold, C.K. Yuen

Behavioural despair in rats: A new model sensitive to antidepressant treatments

Rats when forced to swim in a cylinder from which they cannot escape will, after an initial period of vigorous activity, adopt a characteristic immobile posture which can be readily identified. Immobility was reduced by various clinically effective antidepressant...

Using encryption for authentication in large networks of computers

Use of encryption to achieve authenticated communication in computer networks is discussed. Example protocols are presented for the establishment of authenticated connections, for the management of authenticated mail, and for signature verification and...

Models for the specific adhesion of cells to cells

A theoretical framework is proposed for the analysis of adhesion between cells or of cells to surfaces when the adhesion is mediated by reversible bonds between specific molecules such as antigen and antibody, lectin and carbohydrate, or enzyme and substrate....

Conjoint Analysis in Consumer Research: Issues and Outlook

Since 1971 conjoint analysis has been applied to a wide variety of problems in consumer research. This paper discusses various issues involved in implementing conjoint analysis and describes some new technical developments and application areas for the...

Transformation of yeast

A stable leu2- yeast strain has been transformed to LEU2+ by using a chimeric ColE1 plasmid carrying the yeast leu2 gene. The authors have used recently developed hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping techniques to demonstrate directly the...

A theory of type polymorphism in programming

The aim of this work is largely a practical one. A widely employed style of programming, particularly in structure-processing languages which impose no discipline of types, entails defining procedures which work well on objects of a wide variety. We present...

The Fast Fourier Transform

E. O. Brigham, C.K. Yuen

An introduction to numerical analysis

An introduction to numerical analysis

Role of cell shape in growth control

Judah Folkman, Anne Moscona

Assessing the Impact of Life Changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey.

This article describes the development of a new instrument, the Life Experiences Survey, for the measurement of life changes. It was designed to eliminate certain shortcomings of previous life stress measures and allows for separate assessment of positive...

Bounded rationality, ambiguity, and the engineering of choice

conceptions of bounded rationality. Recently, behavioral studies of choice have examined the second guess, the way preferences are processed in choice behavior. These studies suggest possible modifications in standard assumptions about tastes and their...

Medical problem solving : an analysis of clinical reasoning

Arthur S. Elstein, Lee S. Shulman, Sprafka Sa

Physical processes in the interstellar medium

Physical processes in the interstellar medium

SEVERE PSORIASIS-ORAL THERAPY WITH A NEW RETINOID

Torsten Fredriksson, Ulf Pettersson

Patterns in Strategy Formation

The literature on strategy formation is in large part theoretical but not empirical, and the usual definition of “strategy” encourages the notion that strategies, as we recognize them ex post facto, are deliberate plans conceived in advance of the...

Nomenclature of amphiboles

The introduction of a fifth amphibole group, the Na-Ca-Mg-Fe-Mn-Li group, defined by 0.50 < B(Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+, Li) < 1.50 and 0.50 < = B(Ca, Na) < = 1.50 apfu (atoms per formula unit), with members whittakerite and ottoliniite,...

Context theory of classification learning.

Most theories dealing with ill-defined concepts assume that performance is based on category level information or a mixture of category level and specific item information. A context theory of classificatio n is described in which judgments are assumed...

On the Size Distribution of Business Firms

This paper proposes a new theory of the size distributions of business firms. It postulates an underlying distribution of persons by managerial "talent" and then studies the division of persons into managers and employees and the allocation of productive...

The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men

The earnings of foreign-born adult white men, as reported in the 1970 Census of Population, are analyzed through comparisons with the native born and among the foreign born by country of origin, years in the United States, and citizenship. Differences...

Sex Differences in Learned Helplessness: II. The Contingencies of Evaluative Feedback in the Classroom and III. An Experimental Analysis

Girls show greater evidence than boys of learned helplessness in achievement situations with adult (but not peer) evaluators: They attribute their failures to lack of ability rather than motivation and thus show impaired performance under failure. Two...

Broadcast channels with confidential messages

Given two discrete memoryless channels (DMC's) with a common input, it is desired to transmit private messages to receiver 1 rate R_{1} and common messages to both receivers at rate R_{o} , while keeping receiver 2 as ignorant of the private messages...

QCD and Resonance Physics. Theoretical Foundations

Mikhail A. Shifman, A.I. Vainshtein, V.I. Zakharov

Cross-Validatory Estimation of the Number of Components in Factor and Principal Components Models

By means of factor analysis (FA) or principal components analysis (PCA) a matrix Y with the elements y ik is approximated by the model Here the parameters α, β and θ express the systematic part of the data yik, “signal,” and the residuals ∊ ik...

Soil organic matter

Schnitzer, M.Khan, S.U.

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS AN INDEX OF HEART ATTACK RISK IN COLLEGE ALUMNI

Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Alvin L. Wing, Robert T. Hyde

Caste and ecology in the social insects.

George F. Oster, E. O. Wilson

Interpersonal relations : a theory of interdependence

Donald A. Hansen, Harold H. Kelley, John Thibaut

A rating formulation for ordered response categories

A rating response mechanism for ordered categories, which is related to the traditional threshold formulation but distinctively different from it, is formulated. In addition to the subject and item parameters two other sets of parameters, which can be...

Nerves and nerve injuries

Sunderland, Sydney, Sir

Advances in heat transfer

T. F. Irvine, J.P. Hartnett

Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties

Recent papers by Amerman (1973) and Philip (1975) have pointed out the importance of including scientific knowledge about soil physics in large-scale hydrologic investigations. For example, to incorporate principles of soil physics into a rain- fall-runoff...

Correlation of cholinergic abnormalities with senile plaques and mental test scores in senile dementia

Elaine K. Perry, Bernard E. Tomlinson, Garry Blessed, K Bergmann, Peter H. Gibson, Robert Perry

Development of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scales

Kenneth A. Wallston, Barbara Strudler Wallston, Robert F. DeVellis

Measuring degree of physical dependence to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment

The validity of the Tolerance Questionnaire, intended to measure physical dependence to nicotine, was tested in three experiments. The indicators of physical dependence employed in the three experiments were (1) A withdrawal response defined as change...

HOW SAFE IS SAFE ENOUGH? A PSYCHOMETRIC STUDY OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS TECHNOLOGICAL RISKS AND BENEFITS

One of the fundamental questions addressed by risk-benefit analysis is “How safe is safe enough?” Chauncey Starr has proposed that economic data be used to reveal patterns of acceptable risk-benefit tradeoffs. The present study investigates an alternative...

Distribution of substance P-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the rat--I. Cell bodies and nerve terminals.

The distribution of substance P-immunoreactive structures in the central nervous system of young (1–3 weeks old), adult and colchicine-treated adult male rats has been studied, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique of Coons and collaborators....

An Implicit Factored Scheme for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

An implicit finite-difference scheme is developed for the numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservation- law form. The algorithm is second-order- time accurate, noniterative, and spatially factored. In order to obtain...

Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system.

A new auditory phenomenon has been identified in the acoustic impulse response of the human ear. Using a signal averaging technique, a study has been made of the response of the closed external acoustic meatus to acoustic impulses near to the threshold...

The asymptotic theory of extreme order statistics

. Let X j denote the life length of the j th component of a machine. In reliability theory, one is interested in the life length Z n of the machine where n signifies its number of components. Evidently, Z n = min (X j : 1 ≤ j ≤ n). Another important...

The second image reversed: the international sources of domestic politics

The international system is not only an expression of domestic structures, but a cause of them. Two schools of analysis exploring the impact of the international system upon domestic politics (regime types, institutions, coalitions, policies) may be distinguished:...

Recursively generated B-spline surfaces on arbitrary topological meshes

This paper describes a method for recursively generating surfaces that approximate points lying-on a mesh of arbitrary topology. The method is presented as a generalization of a recursive bicubic B-spline patch subdivision algorithm. For rectangular control-point...

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