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Publications in 1976

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A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding

A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption...

Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm

A. P. Dempster, Nan M. Laird, Donald B. Rubin

SPECIAL POINTS FOR BRILLOUIN-ZONE INTEGRATIONS

Hendrik J. Monkhorst, James D. Pack

New directions in cryptography

Two kinds of contemporary developments in cryptography are examined. Widening applications of teleprocessing have given rise to a need for new types of cryptographic systems, which minimize the need for secure key distribution channels and supply the...

Human Malaria Parasites in Continuous Culture

Plasmodium falciparum can now be maintained in continuous culture in human erythrocytes incubated at 38°C in RPMI 1640 medium with human serum under an atmosphere with 7 percent carbon dioxide and low oxygen (1 or 5 percent). The original parasite material,...

Introduction to statistical time series

Introduction to statistical time series

The entity-relationship model—toward a unified view of data

A data model, called the entity-relationship model, is proposed. This model incorporates some of the important semantic information about the real world. A special diagrammatic technique is introduced as a tool for database design. An example of database...

The Arbitrage Theory of Capital Asset Pricing

Examines the arbitrage model of capital asset pricing as an alternative to the mean variance capital asset pricing model introduced by Sharpe, Lintner and Treynor. Overview of the arbitrage theory; Role of the arbitrage model in explaining phenomena observed...

Basic Objects in Natural Categories.

Categorizations which humans make of the concrete world are not arbitrary but highly determined. In taxonomies of concrete objects, there is one level of abstraction at which the most basic category cuts are made. Basic categories are those which carry...

A Complexity Measure

This paper describes a graph-theoretic complexity measure and illustrates how it can be used to manage and control program complexity. The paper first explains how the graph-theory concepts apply and gives an intuitive explanation of the graph concepts...

THE ROLE OF TUTORING IN PROBLEM SOLVING

David Wood, Jerome S. Bruner, Gail Ross

The clonal evolution of tumor cell populations.

It is proposed that most neoplasms arise from a single cell of origin, and tumor progression results from acquired genetic variability within the original clone allowing sequential selection of more aggressive sublines. Tumor cell populations are apparently...

A New Two-Constant Equation of State

The development of a new two-constant equation of state in which the attractive pressure term of the semiempirical van der Waals equation has been modified is outlined. Examples of the use of the equation for predicting the vapor pressure and volumetric...

Case report 3

Murray K. Dalinka, R. E. Brennan, Arthur S. Patchefsky

The Rise of the Western World : A New Economic History

A radically new interpretation, offering a unified explanation for the growth of Western Europe between 900 A. D. and 1700, provides a general theoretical framework for institutional change geared to the general reader. North and Thomas seek to explain...

Social support as a moderator of life stress

Social support is defined as information leading the subject to believe that he is cared for and loved, esteemed, and a member of a network of mutual obligations. The evidence that supportive interactions among people are protective against the health...

Analysis of Crack Formation and Crack Growth in Concrete by Means of Fracture Mechanics and Finite Elements

A method is presented in which fracture mechanics is introduced into finite element analysis by means of a model where stresses are assumed to act across a crack as long as it is narrowly opened. This assumption may be regarded as a way of expressing...

A fluorometric method for determination of oxidized and reduced glutathione in tissues

A method for measurement of both oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione has been developed, with use of o-phthalaldehyde (OPT) as a fluorescent reagent. The method takes advantage of the reaction of GSH with OPT at pH 8 and of GSSG with OPT at...

Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics

The paper develops a theory of exchange rate movements under perfect capital mobility, a slow adjustment of goods markets relative to asset markets, and consistent expectations. The perfect foresight path is derived and it is shown that along that path...

Theory of Self-Assembly of Hydrocarbon Amphiphiles into Micelles and Bilayers

A simple theory is developed that accounts for many of the observed physical properties of micelles, both globular and rod-like, and of bilayer vesicles composed of ionic or zwitterionic amphiphiles. The main point of departure from previous theories...

The Structure of "Unstructured" Decision Processes

Henry Mintzberg, Duru Raisinghani, Andre Theoret

Toward a More General Theory of Regulation

In previous literature, George Stigler asserts a law of diminishing returns to group size in politics: Beyond some point it becomes counterproductive to dilute the per capita transfer. Since the total transfer is endogenous, there is a corollary that...

Two‐dimensional spectroscopy. Application to nuclear magnetic resonance

The possibilities for the extension of spectroscopy to two dimensions are discussed. Applications to nuclear magnetic resonance are described. The basic theory of two‐dimensional spectroscopy is developed. Numerous possible applications are mentioned...

The generalized correlation method for estimation of time delay

A maximum likelihood (ML) estimator is developed for determining time delay between signals received at two spatially separated sensors in the presence of uncorrelated noise. This ML estimator can be realized as a pair of receiver prefilters followed...

JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY

A. Fernandes Filho, R.D. Frandson, E.J. da Silva Neto, F.O.C.E. Silva, Rodolfo H. Campos, R.E. Randi

Chronic catheterization of the spinal subarachnoid space

To administer drugs into the spinal subarachnoid space of unanesthetized and intact rats and rabbits, a procedure is described whereby a polyethylene catheter (PE-10) may be inserted through a puncture of the atlanto-occipital membrane and secured to...

Two Dogmas of Empiricism

Willard van Orman Quine

Poverty: An Ordinal Approach to Measurement

The primary aim of this paper is to propose a new measure of poverty, which should avoid some of the shortcomings of the measures currently in use. An axiomatic approach is used to derive the measure. The conception of welfare in the axiom set is ordinal....

The rate-distortion function for source coding with side information at the decoder

Let \{(X_{k}, Y_{k}) \}^{ \infty}_{k=1} be a sequence of independent drawings of a pair of dependent random variables X, Y . Let us say that X takes values in the finite set \cal X . It is desired to encode the sequence \{X_{k}\} in blocks of length n...

Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.

growth curves,usingthesame data asintheBritish 1965growth standards. Inthevelocity standards centiles are givenforchildren whoareearly- andlatematuring aswell asforthose whomatureattheaverageage(thus extending theuse oftheprevious charts). Limits ofnormality...

THE VALUATION OF OPTIONS FOR ALTERNATIVE STOCHASTIC PROCESSES

This paper examines the structure of option valuation problems and develops a new technique for their solution. It also introduces several jump and diffusion processes which have nol been used in previous models. The technique is applied lo these processes...

Graphic representation of pain.

Of the different types of visual analogue and graphic rating scales tested in a series of experiments, only two were satisfactory: these were the visual analogue scale and the graphic rating scales used horizontally with the words spread out along the...

Problems in echocardiographic volume determinations: Echocardiographic-angiographic correlations in the presence or absence of asynergy ☆

The relation of minor and major axes of the left ventricle was determined in 100 left ventriculograms performed in the right anterior oblique projection. This relation taken over a wide range of volumes was used to derive a theoretically correct equation...

ON QUALITATIVE DIFFERENCES IN LEARNING: I—OUTCOME AND PROCESS*

Summary. This paper describes an attempt to identify different levels of processing of information among groups of Swedish university students who were asked to read substantial passages of prose. Students were asked questions about the meaning of the...

A Modified Card Sorting Test Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Defects

SummaryMilner's (1963) report of impaired performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in a group of patients with frontal lobe lesions suggested that this test might be a useful one in the investigation of individual patients with suspected...

DEVELOPMENT OF A CROHN'S DISEASE ACTIVITY INDEX National Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study

. Needing a single index of degree of illness in Crohn's disease, the National Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study group collected data prospectively from 187 visits of 112 patients with Crohn's disease of the small bowel, colon, or both. Information on...

Dopamine receptor binding predicts clinical and pharmacological potencies of antischizophrenic drugs

Tritiated haloperidol and tritiated dopamine label postsynaptic dopamine receptors in mammalian brain. Clinical potencies of butyrophenones, phenothiazines, and related drugs correlate closely with their ability to inhibit tritiated haloperidol binding....

Computer science as empirical inquiry: symbols and search

Computer science is the study of the phenomena surrounding computers. The founders of this society understood this very well when they called themselves the Association for Computing Machinery. The machine—not just the hardware, but the programmed,...

Selective in vitro growth of T lymphocytes from normal human bone marrows

Selective growth of T lymphocytes occurred when unfractionated normal human bone marrow cells were cultured with conditioned medium obtained from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated normal human lymphocytes (Ly-CM). Cultures of up to 90 percent T cells have...

The Interpretation of the Variations in Leaf Water Potential and Stomatal Conductance Found in Canopies in the Field

Attempts to correlate values of stomatal conductance and leaf water potential with particular environmental variables in the field are generally of only limited success because they are simultaneously affected by a number of environmental variables. For...

MOBILITY MEASUREMENT BY ANALYSIS OF FLUORESCENCE PHOTOBLEACHING RECOVERY KINETICS

Daniel I. Axelrod, Dennis E. Koppel, Schlessinger J, Elliot L. Elson, Watt W. Webb

To each plutonic rock its proper name

The paper comments on the recommendations on which the IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks agreed at Montreal, August 1972.Plutonic rocks are classified and named according to mineral contents. For nomenclature are considered: Q = quartz,...

Relevance weighting of search terms

Stephen Robertson, K. Sparck Jones

The notions of consistency and predicate locks in a database system

In database systems, users access shared data under the assumption that the data satisfies certain consistency constraints. This paper defines the concepts of transaction, consistency and schedule and shows that consistency requires that a transaction...

Monotone operators and the proximal point algorithm

For the problem of minimizing a lower semicontinuous proper convex function f on a Hilbert space, the proximal point algorithm in exact form generates a sequence $\{ z^k \} $ by taking $z^{k + 1} $ to be the minimizes of $f(z) + ({1 / {2c_k }})\| {z -...

Theory of the photoacoustic effect with solids

When chopped light impinges on a solid in an enclosed cell, an acoustic signal is produced within the cell. This effect is the basis of a new spectroscopic technique for the study of solid and semisolid matter. A quantitative derivation is presented for...

Symbolic execution and program testing

This paper describes the symbolic execution of programs. Instead of supplying the normal inputs to a program (e.g. numbers) one supplies symbols representing arbitrary values. The execution proceeds as in a normal execution except that values may be symbolic...

The religion of Java

Clifford Geertz

Exact and superlative index numbers

The paper rationalizes certain functional forms for index numbers with functional forms for the underlying aggregator function. An aggregator functional form is said to be ‘flexible’ if it can provide a second order approximation to an arbitrary twice...

Ethernet: distributed packet switching for local computer networks

Ethernet is a branching broadcast communication system for carrying digital data packets among locally distributed computing stations. The packet transport mechanism provided by Ethernet has been used to build systems which can be viewed as either local...

A two-dimensional mapping with a strange attractor

Lorenz (1963) has investigated a system of three first-order differential equations, whose solutions tend toward a "strange attractor". We show that the same properties can be observed in a simple mapping of the plane defined by: .yi+,= yi+ l-a-K;, yi+l...

Agreeing to disagree

Aumann (1976) put forward a formal definition of common knowledge and used it to prove that two "like minded" individuals cannot "agree to disagree" in the following sense. If they start from a common prior and update the probability of an event E (using...

Research methods in the social sciences

David Nachmias, Chava Nachmias

Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis

Klaus-Juergen Bathe, Edward L. Wilson

Some simplified NP-complete graph problems

It is widely believed that showing a problem to be NP-complete is tantamount to proving its computational intractability. In this paper we show that a number of NP-complete problems remain NP-complete even when their domains are substantially restricted....

Hartree-Slater subshell photoionization cross-sections at 1254 and 1487 eV

The results of calculations of photoelectric cross-sections for the Kα lines of magnesium at 1254 eV and of aluminum at 1487 eV are presented. All of the subshell cross-sections are given for Z values up to 96. The calculations were carried out relativistically...

A theory of data

Clyde H. Coombs

Human factors in engineering and design

Mark S. Sanders, Ernest J. McCormick

Remembrance of Places Passed: Spatial Memory in Rats

Rats were tested on an eight-arm maze in a paradigm of sampling with replacement from a known set of items until the entire set was sampled. The first three experiments demonstrated that the animals performed efficiently, choosing an average of more than...

The Complexity of Flowshop and Jobshop Scheduling

NP-complete problems form an extensive equivalence class of combinatorial problems for which no nonenumerative algorithms are known. Our first result shows that determining a shortest-length schedule in an m-machine flowshop is NP-complete for m ≥ 3....

Nuclear DNA Amounts in Angiosperms

Collected lists of nuclear DNA amounts estimated for a total of almost 1000 angiosperm species were published by Bennett & Smith (Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 274, 227-274 (1976)), and by Bennett et al. (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 216, 179-199 (1982 a)). Subsequently,...

The theory and practice of industrial pharmacy

Leon Lachman, Herbert A. Lieberman, Joseph L. Kanig

Paper: A survey of design methods for failure detection in dynamic systems

In this paper we survey a number of methods for the detection of abrupt changes (such as failures) in stochastic dynamical systems. We concentrate on the class of linear systems, but the basic concepts, if not the detailed analyses, carry over to other...

A lattice model of secure information flow

This paper investigates mechanisms that guarantee secure information flow in a computer system. These mechanisms are examined within a mathematical framework suitable for formulating the requirements of secure information flow among security classes....

Geochemistry of eocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from the Kastamonu area, Northern Turkey

Analytical data for Sr, Rb, Cs, Ba, Pb, rare earth elements, Y, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Sn, Nb, Mo, Ni, Co, V, Cr, Sc, Cu and major elements are reported for eocene volcanic rocks cropping out in the Kastamonu area, Pontic chain of Northern Turkey. SiO2% versus...

Formulas for stress and strain

R. J. Roark, W. C. Young, R. Plunkett

Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence

\, SUMMARY In 1967, Overmier and Seligman found that dogs exposed to inescapable and unavoidable electric shocks in one situation later failed to learn to escape shock in a different situation where escape was possible. Shortly thereafter Seligman and...

The presence of glutathione and glutathione reductase in chloroplasts: A proposed role in ascorbic acid metabolism.

Both glutathione and an NADPH-dependent glutathione reductase are present in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. It is proposed that glutathione functions to stabilise enzymes of the Calvin cycle, and it may also act to keep ascorbic acid in...

Task complexity and contingent processing in decision making: An information search and protocol analysis

Two process tracing techniques, explicit information search and verbal protocols, were used to examine the information processing strategies subjects use in reaching a decision. Subjects indicated preferences among apartments. The number of alternatives...

Elastic moduli of a cracked solid

Bernard Budiansky, Richard J. O'Connell

Antipsychotic drug doses and neuroleptic/dopamine receptors.

Philip Seeman, Tyrone Lee, M. Chau-Wong, K. P. Wong

An Algorithm for Subgraph Isomorphism

Subgraph isomorphism can be determined by means of a brute-force tree-search enumeration procedure. In this paper a new algorithm is introduced that attains efficiency by inferentially eliminating successor nodes in the tree search. To assess the time...

A Space-Economical Suffix Tree Construction Algorithm

A new algorithm is presented for constructing auxiliary digital search trees to aid in exact-match substring searching. This algorithm has the same asymptotic running time bound as previously published algorithms, but is more economical in space. Some...

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