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Publications in 1958

Page 1
Constitution of binary alloys

Kurt Anderko, H. W. Salzberg

The Cost of Capital, Corporation Finance and the Theory of Investment

The potential advantages of the market-value approach have long been appreciated; yet analytical results have been meager. What appears to be keeping this line of development from achieving its promise is largely the lack of an adequate theory of the...

Automatic recording apparatus for use in the chromatography of amino acids.

Darrel H. Spackman, William H. Stein, Stanford Moore

The human condition

The human condition

Free Energy of a Nonuniform System. I. Interfacial Free Energy

It is shown that the free energy of a volume V of an isotropic system of nonuniform composition or density is given by : NV∫V [f 0(c)+κ(▿c)2]dV, where NV is the number of molecules per unit volume, ▿c the composition or density...

From Max Weber : essays in sociology

Max Weber, H. Gerth, Charles W. Mills

Modified Spin‐Echo Method for Measuring Nuclear Relaxation Times

A spin echo method adapted to the measurement of long nuclear relaxation times (T 2) in liquids is described. The pulse sequence is identical to the one proposed by Carr and Purcell, but the rf of the successive pulses is coherent, and a phase shift of...

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION OF THE LIFE TABLE METHOD IN ANALYZING SURVIVAL

patients. Although the proportion of patients alive 5 years after diagnosis (S-year survival rate) is the most frequently used index for measuring the efficacy of therapy in cancer, an increasing number of investigators are reporting on the manner in...

Theory of the Fermi interaction

The representation of Fermi particles by two-component Pauli spinors satisfying a second order differential equation and the suggestion that in β decay these spinors act without gradient couplings leads to an essentially unique weak four-fermion coupling....

AN EXACT CONSUMPTION LOAN MODEL OF INTEREST WITH OR WITHOUT THE SOCIAL CONTRIVANCE OF MONEY

AN EXACT CONSUMPTION LOAN MODEL OF INTEREST WITH OR WITHOUT THE SOCIAL CONTRIVANCE OF MONEY

Generalized Hamiltonian Dynamics

The author's procedure for passing from the Lagrangian to the Hamiltonian when the momenta are not independent functions of the velocities is put into a simpler and more practical form, the main results being obtained by a direct solution of the equations...

Liquidity Preference as Behavior Towards Risk

One of basic functional relationships in the Keynesian model of the economy is the liquidity preference schedule, an inverse relationship between the demand for cash balances and the rate of interest. This aggregative function must be derived from some...

The automatic creation of literature abstracts

Excerpts of technical papers and magazine articles that serve the purposes of conventional abstracts have been created entirely by automatic means. In the exploratory research described, the complete text of an article in machine-readable form is scanned...

The inverted microscope method of estimating algal numbers and the statistical basis of estimations by counting

SummaryVarious methods for the estimation of populations of algae and other small freshwater organisms are described. A method of counting is described in detail. It is basically that of Utermohl and uses an inverted microscope.If the organisms are randomly...

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE PERMEABILITY OF BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES TO NON-ELECTROLYTES

The application of the conventional permeability equations to the study of biological membranes leads often to contradictions. It is shown that the equations generally used, based on two permeability coefficients—the solute permeability coefficient...

Nature of the Glass Transition and the Glassy State

The thermodynamic properties of amorphous phases of linear molecular chains are obtained from statistical mechanics by means of a form of the quasi‐lattice theory which allows for chain stiffness and the variation of volume with temperature. A second‐order...

Nonpenetrating Traumatic Injury of the Heart

Loren F. Parmley, William C. Manion, Thomas W. Mattingly

The Nature of the Frog Skin Potential

Summary. 1. The outside of the isolated frog skin in the absence of penetrating anions behaves over a wide range of concentrations as a sodium electrode, while the inward-facing surface behaves like a potassium electrode.2. A theory concerning the origin...

Reaction Rates by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

The Bloch equations for nuclear magnetic resonance are modified to describe the magnetic resonance of a single nuclear species X which is transferred back and forth between two (or more) magnetic environments (A,B) by kinetic molecular processes. The...

The Penetration of a Fluid into a Porous Medium or Hele-Shaw Cell Containing a More Viscous Liquid

When a viscous fluid filling the voids in a porous medium is driven forwards by the pressure of another driving fluid, the interface between them is liable to be unstable if the driving fluid is the less viscous of the two. This condition occurs in oil...

Calculation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Aromatic Hydrocarbons

The free electron model of Pauling is used to calculate the magnetic field around a benzene ring which is rotating rapidly about all axes in an external magnetic field. It is assumed that the π electrons precess in two circular paths, one on each side...

Surface Waves

This paper calls attention to some of the most important and easily recognizable forms of surface wave, pointing out that their essential common characteristic is the evanescent field structure over the wave front, as represented by equiphase planes....

Cosmical Electrodynamics

The spectacular results of radio astronomy have increased interest in the broader field of electromagnetic phenomena in cosmical physics. This subject is introduced here by a discussion of the various possible types of disturbance which may propagate...

Reactions of Gaseous Molecule Ions with Gaseous Molecules. V. Theory

Ion‐molecule reactions of the sort observed as secondary reactions in mass spectrometers have been treated by the methods of the modern kinetic theory; that is, the rate of reaction is expressed in terms of the velocity distribution functions of the...

ALGEBRAIC ANALYSIS OF MANY VALUED LOGICS(

This paper is an attempt at developing a theory of algebraic systems that would correspond in a natural fashion to the No-valued propositional calculus(2). For want of a better name, we shall call these algebraic systems MV-algebras where MV is supposed...

Determination of Molecular Structures from Ground State Rotational Constants

Kraitchman has shown that a single isotopic substitution on an atom is sufficient to determine directly the coordinates of that atom with respect to the principal axes of the original molecule. Kraitchman's formulas represent exact solutions of the equations...

Infrared and Optical Masers

Arthur L. Schawlow, Charles H. Townes

Experimental studies on predation: Dispersion factors and predator-prey oscillations

Experimental studies on the role of dispersion in predator-prey relations was studied under controlled laboratory conditions using the phytophagous mite Eotetranychus sexmaculatus as prey, and the mite Typhlodromus occidentalis as predator. The...

Linear programming and economic analysis

Robert Dorfman, Paul A. Samuelson

Traffic Dynamics: Studies in Car Following

The manner in which vehicles follow each other on a highway without passing and the propagation disturbances down a line of vehicles has been investigated. Experimental data is presented which indicates that the acceleration at time t of a car which is...

A Communication Technique for Multipath Channels

Application of principles of statistical communication theory has led to a new communication system, called Rake, designed expressly to work against the combination of random multipath and additive noise disturbances. By coding the Mark-Space sequence...

Dependency on Medium and Temperature of Cell Size and Chemical Composition during Balanced Growth of Salmonella typhimurium

Cell mass, the average number of nuclei/cell and the content of RNA and DNA were studied in Salmonella typhimurium during balanced (steady state) growth in different media. These quantities could be described as exponential functions of the growth rates...

A colorimetric method for determining low concentrations of mercaptans

1. 1. A method for the determination of mercaptans is described. It depends on the interchange of bis(p-nitrophenyl)disulfide and mercaptan anions at pH 8.0.2. 2. A study of the specificity of the reaction indicates that it occurs only...

How To Choose a Leadership Pattern.

Robert Tannenbaum, Warren H. Schmidt

Method and Theory in American Archaeology

Gordon R. Willey, Philip Phillips

The concentration and isotopic abundances of atmospheric carbon dioxide in rural areas

The concentration and isotopic abundances of atmospheric carbon dioxide in rural areas

Theory of Isotropic Hyperfine Interactions in π-Electron Radicals

Indirect protonhyperfineinteractions in π‐electron radicals are first discussed in terms of a hypothetical CH fragment which holds one unpaired π electron and two σ‐CH bonding electrons. Molecular orbital theory and valence bond theory yield almost...

Social class and mental illness: Community study.

August B. Hollingshead, Fredrick C. Redlich

Chemotherapy of cancer: regional perfusion utilizing an extracorporeal circuit.

Oscar Creech, Edward T. Krementz, Robert F. Ryan, J. N. Winblad

A Method for Solving Traveling-Salesman Problems

The traveling-salesman problem is a generalized form of the simple problem to find the smallest closed loop that connects a number of points in a plane. Efforts in the past to find an efficient method for solving it have met with only partial success....

Flora of West Tropical Africa.

Hutchinson, J.Dalziel, J.M., J. C. D. Hutchinson

Chemistry of Pacific pelagic sediments

The chemical and mineralogical composition of pelagic sediments from the East Pacific Ocean has been determined with the aim of defining the ultimate sources and the mechanisms of formation of the solid phases. The distribution of elements between sea-water,...

THE REPLICATION OF DNA IN ESCHERICHIA COLI.

Studies of bacterial transformation and bacteriaphage infection (1-5) strongly indicate that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) can carry and transmit hereditary information and can direct its own replication. Hypotheses for the mechanism of DNA replication...

Outline of an algorithm for integer solutions to linear programs

Outline of an algorithm for integer solutions to linear programs

BOUND STATES OF A MANY-PARTICLE SYSTEM

Rigorous formal solutions of the bound state Schrodinger equation are constructed in terms of an arbitrary complete set of single particle wave functions. From these solutions one sees without effort that Rayleigh Schrodinger pertubation expansion of...

The Anatomy of Market Failure

Introduction, 351. — I. The conditions of market efficiency, 353. — II. Neoclassical external economies: a digression, 356. — III. Statical externalities: an ordering, 363. — IV. Comments, 371. — V. Efficiency, markets and choice of institutions,...

Theory of diffusion-limited precipitation

Theory of diffusion-limited precipitation

On the minimum audible angle

The difference limen for the azimuth of a source of pure tones was measured as a function of the frequency of the tone and the direction of the source. Tone pulses between 250 and 10 000 cps were sounded in the horizontal plane around the head of a subject...

COMPLEX ALLOY STRUCTURES REGARDED AS SPHERE PACKINGS. I. DEFINITIONS AND BASIC PRINCIPLES

COMPLEX ALLOY STRUCTURES REGARDED AS SPHERE PACKINGS. I. DEFINITIONS AND BASIC PRINCIPLES

Reconstituted rattail collagen used as substrate for tissue cultures on coverslips in Maximow slides and roller tubes.

Liquifaction of the plasma clot and subsequent retraction of both the original explant and the outgrowth zone is a major problem of prolonged in vitro maintenance of many young (embryonic and newborn) and neoplastic tissues. Ehrmann and Gey have recently...

The Size Distribution of Business Firms

Herbert A. Simon, Charles P. Bonini

Channels with side information at the transmitter

In certain communication systems where information is to be transmitted from one point to another, additional side information is available at the transmitting point. This side information relates to the state of the transmission channel and can be used...

Size Effect in Heterogeneous Nucleation

Assuming a spherical nucleating particle, the effect of particle size and surface properties upon nucleation efficiency is investigated. A general result is derived which is then applied to the condensation,sublimation, and freezing of water on foreign...

Antibiotics as tools for metabolic studies. I. A survey of toxic antibiotics in respiratory, phosphorylative and glycolytic systems

Approximately 50 toxic antibiotics were tested as possible inhibitors of respiratory and phosphorylating systems in mitochondria and of glycolysis by Ascites tumor cells.Oligomycin, Nigericin, and Dianemycin inhibited respiration and phosphate uptake...

ASYMPTOTIC NORMALITY AND EFFICIENCY OF CERTAIN NONPARAMETRIC TEST STATISTICS

Theorems of Wald and Wolfowitz, Noether, Hoeffding, Lehmann, Madow, and Dwass have given sufficient conditions for the asymptotic normality of TN. In this paper we extend some of these results to cover more situations with F s G. In particular it is shown...

Adiabatic Rate Processes at Electrodes. I. Energy‐Charge Relationships

The distinction between adiabatic and nonadiabaticreaction mechanisms at an electrode/solution interface is emphasized; in general, only adiabatic or near‐adiabatic paths are important in thermally activated reactions. The role of the dielectric in...

Isotropic Nuclear Resonance Shifts

It is shown that isotropic (or average) nuclear resonance shifts for a nucleus in a paramagnetic molecule in solution, and in a polycrystallinesolid, can be used to distinguish between Fermi contact and ``pseudocontact'' contributions to isotropic nuclear‐hyperfine...

On the Function and Evolution of Electric Organs in Fish

1. The electric discharges of Gymnarchus niloticus and of representative species of seven genera of the Mormyridae have been examined in their natural habitat in Africa and in the laboratory.2. Comparable investigations of the South American Gymnotidae...

Parallel-Coupled Transmission-Line-Resonator Filters

This paper describes the synthesis of band-pass transmission-line filters consisting of series of half-wavelength resonant conductors such as strips. The design differs from the usual end-coupled strip configuration in that successive strips are parallel...

Pigments of rat liver microsomes.

The total hemin content of washed rat liver microsomes is 2.15 times the cytochrome b5 content, only a small part being due to bound hemoglobin. The content of flavine is that of cytochrome b5. The flavine probably does not contribute to the DPNH reduced...

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