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Publications in 1956

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The magical number seven, plus or minus two : Some limits on our capacity for processing information

First, the span of absolute judgment and the span of immediate memory impose severe limitations on the amount of information that we are able to receive, process, and remember. By organizing the stimulus input simultaneously into several dimensions and...

A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth

I. Introduction, 65. — II. A model of long-run growth, 66. — III. Possible growth patterns, 68. — IV. Examples, 73. — V. Behavior of interest and wage rates, 78. — VI. Extensions, 85. — VII. Qualifications, 91.

Introduction to numerical analysis

Introduction to numerical analysis

Microdetermination of Phosphorus

P. S. Chen, T. Y. Toribara, Huber R. Warner

On the Theory of Oxidation‐Reduction Reactions Involving Electron Transfer. I

A mechanism for electron transferreactions is described, in which there is very little spatial overlap of the electronic orbitals of the two reacting molecules in the activated complex. Assuming such a mechanism, a quantitative theory of the rates of...

Theory of Propagation of Elastic Waves in a Fluid‐Saturated Porous Solid. I. Low‐Frequency Range

A theory is developed for the propagation of stress waves in a porous elastic solid containing compressible viscous fluid. The emphasis of the present treatment is on materials where fluid and solid are of comparable densities as for instance in the case...

Three models for the description of language

We investigate several conceptions of linguistic structure to determine whether or not they can provide simple and "revealing" grammars that generate all of the sentences of English and only these. We find that no finite-state Markov process that produces...

Theory of Propagation of Elastic Waves in a Fluid‐Saturated Porous Solid. II. Higher Frequency Range

The theory of propagation of stress waves in a porous elastic solid developed in Part I for the low‐frequency range is extended to higher frequencies. The breakdown of Poiseuille flow beyond the critical frequency is discussed for pores of flat and...

A continuous performance test of brain damage.

H. Enger Rosvold, Allan F. Mirsky, Irwin Sarason, Jr. Bransome Edwin D., Lloyd Henry Beck

Shock Waves on the Highway

A simple theory of traffic flow is developed by replacing individual vehicles with a continuous “fluid” density and applying an empirical relation between speed and density. Characteristic features of the resulting theory are a simple “graph-shearing”...

Turbulent Gravitational Convection from Maintained and Instantaneous Sources

Theories of convection from maintained and instantaneous sources of buoyancy are developed, using methods which are applicable to stratified body fluids with any variation of density with height; detailed solutions have been presented for the case of...

Dynamics of Polymer Molecules in Dilute Solution: Viscoelasticity, Flow Birefringence and Dielectric Loss

The problem of the motions of a chain molecule diffusing in a viscous fluid under the influence of external forces or currents is considered for a particular model. This model is a chain of beads connected by ideal springs. Hydrodynamic interaction between...

ON A ROUTING PROBLEM

Richard Bellman

On the Stress Distribution at the Base of a Stationary Crack

In an earlier paper it was suggested that a knowledge ofthe elastic-stress variation in the neighborhood of anangular corner of an infinite plate would perhaps be ofvalue in analyzing the stress distribution at the base of aV-notch. As a part of a more...

An algorithm for quadratic programming

Marguerite Frank, Philip Wolfe

On the Dispersion of a Solute in a Fluid Flowing through a Tube

Sir Geoffrey Taylor has recently discussed the dispersion of a solute under the simultaneous action of molecular diffusion and variation of the velocity of the solvent. A new basis for his analysis is presented here which removes the restrictions imposed...

Studies in the Economics of Transportation

Martin J. Beckmann, C B McGuire

Theory of Mechanical Damping Due to Dislocations

A quantitative theory of damping and modulus changes due to dislocations is developed. It is found that the model used by Koehler of a pinned dislocation loop oscillating under the influence of an applied stress leads to two kinds of loss, one frequency...

New Magnetic Anisotropy

W. H. Meiklejohn, Charles P. Bean

General Systems Theory---The Skeleton of Science

In recent years increasing need has been felt for a body of systematic theoretical constructs which will discuss the general relationships of the empirical world. This is the quest of General Systems Theory. It does not seek, of course, to establish a...

Thermoelasticity and Irreversible Thermodynamics

A unified treatment is presented of thermoelasticity by application and further developments of the methods of irreversible thermodynamics. The concept of generalized free energy introduced in a previous publication plays the role of a ``thermoelastic...

Protein chromatography on calcium phosphate columns.

Arne Tiselius, Stellan Hjertén, Östen Levin

The law of the wake in the turbulent boundary layer

The mean-velocity profile in the turbulentboundary layer is representedby a linear combination of two universalfunctions. One is the well-establishedlaw of the wall. The other, calledthe law of the wake, is interpreted interms of the large-scale structure...

ROTATION-VIBRATION SPECTRA OF DEUTERATED WATER VAPOR

Spectra of heavy water have been obtained under high resolution between 1.25—4.1μ (2400—8000 cm—1). Approximately 4500 lines have been measured, and the majority of them analyzed into ten bands of D2O and nine bands of HDO. The analysis is described...

A New Sensitive Chemical Actinometer. II. Potassium Ferrioxalate as a Standard Chemical Actinometer

The earlier experiments with potassium ferrioxalate have been extended and a detailed study has been made of the photolysis of the acidified solutions previously recommended for chemical actinometry (Parker 1953). Accurate values of quantum efficiency...

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Action of x-rays on mammalian cells.

Theodore T. Puck, Philip I. Marcus

The chemical constitution of natural fats

The chemical constitution of natural fats

Rate Processes and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra. II. Hindered Internal Rotation of Amides

Mathematical methods are presented for calculating rate constants of processes which narrow nuclear magnetic resonance absorption lines having discrete components. High resolution proton spectra show that the R1CO‐NR2R3 skeletons of N,N‐dimethylformamide...

THE DETERMINATION OF GLYCOGEN IN LIVER AND MUSCLE BY USE OF ANTHRONE REAGENT

Nicholas V. Carroll, Robert W. Longley, Joseph H. Roe

A MODIFICATION OF RECEPTOR THEORY

Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.7M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. 379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393

The Continuum Theory of Lattice Defects

The chapter presents a discussion on the continuum theory of lattice defects. The continuum analog of a crystal containing imperfections is an elastic body in a state of stress not produced by surface and body forces. The appropriate tool for handling...

THE PREHENSILE MOVEMENTS OF THE HUMAN HAND

1. The prehensile movements of the hand as a whole are analysed from both an anatomical anda functional viewpoint.2. It is shown that movements of the hand consist of two basic patterns of movements which are termed precision grip and power grip.3. In...

The zero error capacity of a noisy channel

The zero error capacity C_o of a noisy channel is defined as the least upper bound of rates at which it is possible to transmit information with zero probability of error. Various properties of C_o are studied; upper and lower bounds and methods of evaluation...

Theory of the Electronic Spectra and Structure of the Polyacenes and of Alternant Hydrocarbons

A previously given theory of the electronic spectra and structure of complex unsaturated molecules is further elucidated by listing specific formulas for the charge density, bond order, transition moment, and configuration interaction matrix elements....

The complementary genic systems in flax and flax rust

The type of pustule developed on a host variety following inoculation with a race of rust is the criterion both of the reaction of that variety to the race and of the pathogenicity of that race to the variety. Races of rust—genes for pathogenicity—are...

EVOLUTION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS AND SLOPES IN BADLANDS AT PERTH AMBOY, NEW JERSEY

To analyze the development of erosional topography the writer studied geomorphic processes and landforms in a small badlands area at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. The badlands developed on a clay-sand fill and were morphologically similar to badlands and areas...

The Continuous Culture of Bacteria; a Theoretical and Experimental Study

SUMMARY: A theoretical treatment of continuous culture is given, which allows quantitative prediction of the steady-state concentrations of bacteria and substrate in the culture, and how these may be expected to vary with change of medium, concentration...

Variation of Peak Temperature With Heating Rate in Differential Thermal Analysis

In differential thermal analysis, the temperature at which the maximum deflection is observed varies with heating rate for certain types of reactions. An expression can be derived relating this variation with the kinetics of the reaction. By making a...

The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium

K. G. Denbigh, Cecil V. King

The Turbulent Boundary Layer

This chapter discusses the simple case of the turbulent boundary layer in a constant pressure field and considers the complex problem of the effects of pressure gradients, and variable wall roughness. The concepts of boundary layer phenomena, in general,...

Annual Review of Entomology.

T. E. Mittler, F. J. Radovsky, V. H. Resh

A new interpretation of information rate

If the input symbols to a communication channel represent the outcomes of a chance event on which bets are available at odds consistent with their probabilities (i.e., “fair” odds), a gambler can use the knowledge given him by the received symbols...

An Unusual Variant of Acute Idiopathic Polyneuritis (Syndrome of Ophthalmoplegia, Ataxia and Areflexia)

THE purpose of this communication is to report 3 cases of an acute neurologic illness characterized among other features by total external ophthalmoplegia, severe ataxia and loss of the tendon reflexes. The clinical picture in all 3 cases was so similar...

Dielectric behavior and structure

Charles P. Smyth, Benson R. Sundheim

The Flow of Cohesionless Grains in Fluids

Part I. The results of previous experiments (Bagnold 1954) on the stresses set up in a uniform gravity-free dispersion of solid grains when uniformly sheared in a fluid are applied to the non-uniform case of grain flow over a gravity bed, assuming the...

Social Indifference Curves

I. Introduction: widespread use of community indifference curves, 1. — II. Attempts to justify the use of community indifference curves, 3. — III. Proof of the nonexistence of community indifference contours, 4. — IV. Nature of Scitovsky's community...

Electrostatic Free Energy and Other Properties of States Having Nonequilibrium Polarization. I

Various processes such as electron transferreactions,redox reactions at electrodes, and electronic excitation of dissolved ions may proceed by way of intermediate states whose electrical polarization is not in equilibrium with the field arising from the...

MAGNITUDE AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES

This paper is in continuation of previous investigations (Gutenberg and Richter, Paper I, 1942; Paper I I , 1956). The earthquake magnitude has statistical and other uses independent of the relation between magnitude and energy. Indeed, it is possible...

Theoretical Considerations Governing the Choice of the Optimum Semiconductor for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

The theory of the photovoltaiceffect is used to predict the characteristics of a semiconductor which would operate with an optimum efficiency as a photovoltaicsolar energy converter. The existence of such an optimum material results from the interaction...

Measurement of size and turnover rate of body glucose pool by the isotope dilution method.

R. Steele, Joseph S. Wall, R. C. De Bodo, Norman Altszuler, S. P. Kiang, C. Bjerknes

Physical Theory for Capillary Flow Phenomena

From the assumption that the microscopic behavior of the liquid in an unsaturated porous medium is controlled by the physical laws of surface tension and viscousflow,differential equations governing the macroscopic flow in such a medium are deduced. No...

The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence : together with extracts from Newton's Principia and Opticks

Samuel Clarke, Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, Freiherr von, H. G. Alexander

Indirect Hyperfine Interactions in the Paramagnetic Resonance Spectra of Aromatic Free Radicals

It is shown that an electron spin polarization associated with an odd electron in a π‐molecular orbital in an aromatic free radical can, through an atomic exchange coupling mechanism, produce an appreciable resultant electron spin polarization in s‐atomic...

Structure of collagen

An arrangement of three non-coaxial helical chains linked to one another by hydrogen bonds approximately perpendicular to the length of the chains was suggested as the basis of the structure of collagen two years ago. This structure explained the occurrence...

The Elastic and Thermo-elastic Properties of Composite Media

In a continuation of a previous paper, it is shown here how the gross bulk and shear moduli of a composite material consisting of a suspension of grains or a compact of grains may be deduced. The grains are assumed to be perfectly bonded to the suspending...

The biochemistry and physiology of bone

Geoffrey H. (Geoffrey Howard) Bourne

Signal Theory

It is suggested that much of the subject matter now lumped under the heading of "circuit theory" might better be called "system theory," which in turn may be separated into three subdivisions-that which deals with the representation of the physical elements;...

INSULIN-I131 METABOLISM IN HUMAN SUBJECTS: DEMONSTRATION OF INSULIN BINDING GLOBULIN IN THE CIRCULATION OF INSULIN TREATED SUBJECTS 1

Solomon A. Berson, Rosalyn S. Yalow, Arthur Bauman, Marcus A. Rothschild, Katharina Newerly

Limit Theorems for Stochastic Processes

Let us consider a sequence of processes $\xi _n (t)$ such that the multivariate distribution of $\xi _n (t_1 ),\xi _n (t_2 ), \cdots ,\xi _n (t_k )$ tends to the multivariate distribution of $\xi _0 (t_1 ),\xi _0 (t_2 ), \cdots ,\xi _0 (t_k )$ for all...

Photometric determination of chlorides in water.

D. M. Zall, D.H. Fisher, Muriel Garner

Elasticity, Fracture and Flow

In this monograph I have attempted to set out, in as elementary a form as possible, the basic mathematics of the theories of elasticity, plasticity, viscosity, and rheology, together with a discussion of the properties of the materials involved and the...

The Statistical Distribution of the Maxima of a Random Function

This paper studies the statistical distribution of the maximum values of a random function which is the sum of an infinite number of sine waves in random phase. The results are applied to sea waves and to the pitching and rolling motion of a ship.

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