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Publications in 1953

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Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines

A general method, suitable for fast computing machines, for investigating such properties as equations of state for substances consisting of interacting individual molecules is described. The method consists of a modified Monte Carlo integration over...

Higher transcendental functions

Bateman Manuscript, Harry Bateman, Arthur Erdélyi

Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid

We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (D.N.A.). This structure has novel features which are of considereble biological interest.

Dispersion on a Sphere

Any topological framework requires the development of a theory of errors of characteristic and appropriate mathematical form. The paper develops a form of theory which appears to be appropriate to measurements of position on a sphere. The primary problems...

A Theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids

The term ``sensitized luminescence'' in crystalline phosphors refers to the phenomenon whereby an impurity (activator, or emitter) is enabled to luminesce upon the absorption of light in a different type of center (sensitizer, or absorber) and upon the...

Essays in positive economics

"Stimulating, provocative, often infuriating, but well worth reading."—Peter Newman, Economica "His critical blast blows like a north wind against the more pretentious erections of modern economics. It is however a healthy and invigorating blast, without...

The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Alix Strachey, Alan Walker Tyson, A. J. Richards

Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces

The interpretation of certain phenomena occuring at nominally flat surfaces in stationary or sliding contact is dependent on the assumed distribution of the real area of contact between the surfaces. Since there is little direct evidence on which to base...

Variation of O18 content of waters from natural sources

A number of marine water and fresh water samples were examined for the relative ratio, and the variation of this ratio was determined to a precision of ± 0.1%. In the case of surface marine waters, for a range of salinity of 29.40%.,...

A Theory of the Linear Viscoelastic Properties of Dilute Solutions of Coiling Polymers

The necessary coordination of the motions of different parts of a polymer molecule is made the basis of a theory of the linear viscoelastic properties of dilute solutions of coiling polymers. This is accomplished by use of the concept of the submolecule,...

Actively acquired tolerance of foreign cells.

R. E. Billingham, L. Brent, P. B. Medawar

Some Experiments on the Recognition of Speech, with One and with Two Ears

This paper describes a number of objective experiments on recognition, concerning particularly the relation between the messages received by the two ears. Rather than use steady tones or clicks (frequency or time‐point signals) continuous speech is...

A Semi-Empirical Theory of the Electronic Spectra and Electronic Structure of Complex Unsaturated Molecules. II

The theory of electronic spectra and electronic structure, the elucidation of which was begun in the first paper of this series, is further developed and applied to ethylene, butadiene, benzene, pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, and s‐triazine. A realistic...

Veld types of South Africa

Veld types of South Africa

TWO PERSON COOPERATIVE GAMES

In this paper, the autor extends his previous treatment of «The Bargaining Problem» to a wider class of situations in which threats can play a role/ A new approach is introduced involving the elaboration of the threat concept.

Revised carbonate-water isotopic temperature scale

The relationship between temperature and O^(18) content relative to that for a Cretaceous belemnite of the Pee Dee formation previously reported (Epstein, Buchsbaum, Lowenstam, and Urey, 1951) has been re-determined using modified procedures for removing...

The dispersion of surface waves on multilayered media

A matrix formalism developed by W. T. Thomson is used to obtain the phase velocity dispersion equations for elastic surface waves of Rayleigh and Love type on multilayered solid media. The method is used to compute phase and group velocities of Rayleigh...

A new status index derived from sociometric analysis

For the purpose of evaluating status in a manner free from the deficiencies of popularity contest procedures, this paper presents a new method of computation which takes into accountwho chooses as well ashow many choose. It is necessary to introduce,...

A study of non-blocking switching networks

This paper describes a method of designing arrays of crosspoints for use in telephone switching systems in which it will always be possible to establish a connection from an idle inlet to an idle outlet regardless of the number of calls served by the...

A Collective Description of-Electron Interactions: III. Coulomb Interactions in a Degenerate Electron Gas

N this paper we wish to develop a collective descrip­ tion of the behavior of the electrons in -a dense electron gas which will be appropriate when a quan­ tum-mechanical treatment of the electronic motion is required, as is the case for the electrons...

Room acoustics

Hale J. Sabine

The Distribution of Solute in Crystals Grown from the Melt. Part I. Theoretical

The incorporation of solute elements into single crystals of germaniumgrown from the melt is examined in terms of a simple model. The theory takes account of the contribution of solute transport in the melt, owing to diffusion and fluid motion, to the...

A Proposal for a New Method of Evaluation of the Newborn Infant

In this article, Apgar described her innovative method for assessing the viability of newborn infants by assigning "scores" of 0, 1, or 2 to the infant's respiration, pulse, color, muscle tone, and response to stimuli one minute after...

Assessing similarity between profiles.

Lee J. Cronbach, Goldine C. Gleser

Determination of Molecular Structure from Microwave Spectroscopic Data

A method is described for determining the position of an atom in a molecule from spectroscopicmeasurements on two isotopic species of the molecule. The method is applied to various types of molecules; explicit expressions are derived for linear, symmetric...

The international electrotechnical commission

The international electrotechnical commission is concerned with the development of international agreement on electrical standards. The president of the Commission reports herein on actions taken at the organization's recent meetings in Holland.

The structure of turbulence in fully developed pipe flow

Measurements, principally with a hot-wire anemometer, were made in fully developed turbulent flow in a 10-inch pipe at speeds of approximately 10 and 100 feet per second. Emphasis was placed on turbulence and conditions near the wall. The results include...

Mass Transport in Water Waves

It was shown by Stokes that in a water wave the particles of fluid possess, apart from their orbital motion, a steady second-order drift velocity (usually called the mass-transport velocity). Recent experiments, however, have indicated that the mass-transport...

Laminar Flow in Channels with Porous Walls

The Navier‐Stokes equations have been solved to obtain a complete description of the fluid flow in a channel having a rectangular cross section and two equally porous walls. The scope has been limited to two‐dimensional incompressible steady‐state...

THE MAJOR DETERMINANTS IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL GAIT

Human locomotion is a phenomenon of the most extraordinary complexity in which so great are the multitude of individual motions occurring simultaneously in the three planes of space that analysis is difficult without some unifying principle. The adoption...

Color in Business Science and Industry

For a number of years the Optical Society of America has run parallel sessions one of which is devoted to papers on spectroscopy and the other to papers on color. The ardent spectroscopist has thus been carefully isolated from color problems since instantaneous...

Probability and information theory, with applications to radar

Probability and information theory, with applications to radar

Basic theory of the magneto-telluric method of geophysical prospecting

From Ampere’s Law (for a homogeneous earth) and from Maxwell’s equations using the concept of Hertz vectors (for a multilayered earth), solutions are obtained for the horizontal components of the electric and magnetic fields at the surface due to...

Adsorption Studies on Clay Minerals. II. A Formulation of the Thermodynamics of Exchange Adsorption

Expressions for thermodynamic equilibrium constants are set up for the ion‐exchange equilibria of models defined in terms of operational variables. Formulas summarizing the methods for the computation of the requisite activity coefficients are given....

Communication and persuasion : psychological studies of opinion change

Carl I. Hovland, Irving L. Janis, Harold H. Kelley

1 - A Theory of Vocational Development

This chapter discusses a theory of vocational development, a theory inherent in and emergent from the research and philosophy of psychologists and counselors. Occupational choice is a developmental process, which takes place over a period of some 10 years....

The physiological differentiation between fear and anger in humans.

The physiological differentiation between fear and anger in humans.

A New Roundness Scale for Sedimentary Particles

A new roundness scale is proposed. This scale is defined by six roundness classes. Two sets of clay models were prepared to characterize each roundness class. One set shows a high sphericity, the other a low sphericity. Photographs of these models are...

Effects of fear-arousing communications

Irving L. Janis, Seymour Feshbach

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE MULTIPLETS IN LIQUIDS

Multiple magnetic resonance lines have been observed for H1, F19, and P31 nuclei in compounds such as PH3, PF3, F2PO(OH), and BrF5, in the liquid state. The multiplets consisted of two to seven equally spaced narrow components, symmetrically placed about...

AN OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC DYNAMICS

The dynamics of a line of traffic composed of n vehicles is studied mathematically. It is postulated that the movements of the several vehicles are controlled by an idealized ``law of separation.'' The law considered in the analysis specifies that each...

Isolation of a Cytopathogenic Agent from Human Adenoids Undergoing Spontaneous Degeneration in Tissue Culture

Wallace P. Rowe, Robert J. Huebner, Loretta K. Gilmore, Robert H. Parrott, Thomas G. Ward

Fluctuations and Irreversible Processes

Lars Onsager, Stefan Machlup

Standard x-ray diffraction powder patterns

H. E. Swanson, R.P. Stinchfield, Eloise H. Evans

Random walk with persistence and external bias

The partial differential equation of the random walk problem with persistence of direction and external bias is derived. By persistence of direction or internal bias we mean that the probability a particle will travel in a given direction need not be...

DEUTERIUM CONTENT OF NATURAL WATERS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

A mass spectrometric method for the accurate determination of the hydrogen-deuterium ratio has been developed. It is possible to determine this ratio to ± 0.10% using material of “normal abundance”, i.e., 1 part D in 6700 parts H....

An Investigation of Whistling Atmospherics

The paper, which is in two parts, describes an investigation of the nature and origin of the 'whistling atmospherics' or 'whistlers' which are sometimes observed at frequencies below 15 kc/s. The first part describes an experimental study of their properties,...

Prolegomena to a theory of language

Louis Hjelmslev, Francis J. Whitfieid

Feedback Theory-Some Properties of Signal Flow Graphs

The equations characterizing a systems problem may be expressed as a network of directed branches. (The block diagram of a servomechanism is a familiar example.) A study of the topological properties of such graphs leads to techniques which have proven...

International trade statistics

Oskar Morgenstern, R. G. D. Allen, J. Edward Ely

Polarization of Nuclei in Metals

Polarization of Nuclei in Metals

The Theory of the Market Economy

Clark Lee Allen, Heinrich von Stackelberg, Alan T. Peacock

On the Theory and Design of Acoustic Resonators

Absorption and scattering from resonators in a free field as well as in walls are discussed. The effect of different aperture geometries on the resonance frequency of resonators is considered and illustrated by examples. Considering losses due to viscosity,heat...

Some Aspects of the Flow of Stratified Fluids: I. A Theoretical Investigation

The following paper is the first of a series of two relating to the problem of ititcrnal oscillations of a fluid in a gravity field with vertical gradients of density and velocity. The theoretical analysis in this paper will be supplenicnted by a report...

Dissociation, Chemical Exchange, and the Proton Magnetic Resonance in Some Aqueous Electrolytes

The position of the protonmagnetic resonance is concentration dependent in aqueous solutions of electrolytes yielding hydrogen containing ions. Chemical exchange averages the chemical shifts in the protonresonance position over the different chemical...

The composition of the stone meteorites and the origin of the meteorites

A study has been made of some 350 chemical analyses of stone meteorites available in the literature, and criteria have been applied in an attempt to select those which are more reliable. It is found that the chondrites fall into two distinct groups with...

Traumatic avoidance learning: the outcomes of several extinction procedures with dogs.

HE persistence of behavior with no obvious reinforcement poses special problems for theories of learning. But numerous experimental studies confirm the clinical observation that traumatically acquired habits maintain a marked resistance to extinction...

Annual review of psychology

Calvin P. Stone, Donald W. Taylor, Mark R. Rosenzweig, Lyman W. Porter, Janet Taylor Spence, John M. Darley, Donald J. Foss, Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler, Alan E. Kazdin, Robert J. Sternberg, Shelley E. Taylor

SALT NUCLEI IN MARINE AIR AS A FUNCTION OF ALTITUDE AND WIND FORCE

Large differences are shown to occur in the numbers and sizes of sea-salt particles in marine air over the sea as the altitude, position, and the time of sampling are varied. Increases in the amount of air-borne salt near cloud base are related to increases...

The Production Function and the Theory of Capital

This chapter discusses the production function and the theory of capital. The dominance in neo-classical economic teaching of the concept of a production function has had an enervating effect upon the development of the subject. The neo-classical system...

Major Uses of Land in the United States

Major Uses of Land in the United States

The map method for synthesis of combinational logic circuits

THE SEARCH for simple abstract techniques to be applied to the design of switching systems is still, despite some recent advances, in its early stages. The problem in this area which has been attacked most energetically is that of the synthesis of efficient...

On the Changes in the Spectral Distribution of Kinetic Energy for Twodimensional, Nondivergent Flow

Total kinetic energy as well as total vorticity squared are integral quantitics which cannot change in the course of time in a twodimensional flow of a homogeneous, nondivergent, and inviscid fluid when the fluid is isolated from the surroundings. The...

Personality in nature, society, and culture

Clyde Kluckhohn, Henry A. Murray

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