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Publications in 1952

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A Method for the Construction of Minimum-Redundancy Codes

An optimum method of coding an ensemble of messages consisting of a finite number of members is developed. A minimum-redundancy code is one constructed in such a way that the average number of coding digits per message is minimized.

Methods of Conjugate Gradients for Solving Linear Systems1

An iterative algorithm is given for solving a system Ax=k of n linear equations in n unknowns. The solution is given in n steps. It is shown that this method is a special case of a very general method which also includes Gaussian elimination. These general...

On Sound Generated Aerodynamically. I. General Theory

A theory is initiated, based on the equations of motion of a gas, for the purpose of estimating the sound radiated from a fluid flow, with rigid boundaries, which as a result of instability contains regular fluctuations or turbulence. The sound field...

Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations. Part II

When the potential - volume curve obtained during potentiometric titrations shows only a small potential change at the end-point, it has been customary to plot a deltaE/deltaV - volume curve and to take the peak of this curve as the equivalent point....

Control Methods Used in a Study of the Vowels

Relationships between a listener's identification of a spoken vowel and its properties as revealed from acoustic measurement of its sound wave have been a subject of study by many investigators. Both the utterance and the identification of a vowel involve...

A Generalization of Sampling Without Replacement from a Finite Universe

This paper presents a general technique for the treatment of samples drawn without replacement from finite universes when unequal selection probabilities are used. Two sampling schemes are discussed in connection with the problem of determining optimum...

Diseases of swine.

Describes the characteristics of a variety of diseases of swine, and methods for their prevention and treatment.

Ideal copolymers and the second‐order transitions of synthetic rubbers. i. non‐crystalline copolymers

Theoretical and practical evidence is put forward to show that copolymers can be treated like solutions of small molecules in the interpretation of packing phenomena, and that ideal volume-additivity of the repeating units in copolymers is frequently...

Hypsometric (area - altitude) analysis of erosional topography

The percentage hypsometric curve (area-altitude curve) relates horizontal cross-sectional area of a drainage basin to relative elevation above basin mouth. By use of dimensionless parameters, curves can be described and compared irrespective of true scale....

Asymptotic Theory of Certain "Goodness of Fit" Criteria Based on Stochastic Processes

The statistical problem treated is that of testing the hypothesis that $n$ independent, identically distributed random variables have a specified continuous distribution function F(x). If F_n(x) is the empirical cumulative distribution function and \psi(t)...

Practical organic chemistry

Frederick G. Mann, B.C. Saunders

Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation

O. H. Brownlee, Tjalling C. Koopmans

The Transactions Demand for Cash: An Inventory Theoretic Approach

Introduction, 545. — I. A simple model, 545. — II. Some consequences of the analysis, 549. — III. The simple model and reality, 552.

The Electrical Resistance of Binary Metallic Mixtures

The existing theories of the resistivity of mixtures assume regular arrangements of the two components, rather than random mixtures. A theory for a random mixture is given, based on the assumption that each crystal acts as if surrounded by a homogeneous...

The Spectra and Electronic Structure of the Tetrahedral Ions MnO4−, CrO4−−, and ClO4−

We have made use of a semiempirical treatment to calculate the energies of the molecular orbitals for the ground state and the first few excited states of permanganate, chromate, and perchlorate ions. The calculation of the excitation energies is in agreement...

Flora of the British Isles

A. R. Clapham, T. G. Tutin, Erik Warburg

A Molecular Orbital Theory of Reactivity in Aromatic Hydrocarbons

In the search for a quantitative correlation between reactivity and electronic configuration of aromatic hydrocarbons, the electron density, at each carbon atom, of the highest occupied π‐orbital in the ground state of the molecule is calculated by...

The Utility of Wealth

Harry M. Markowitz

Multidimensional scaling: I. Theory and method

Multidimensional scaling: I. Theory and method

Tables for Convenient Calculation of Median-Effective Dose (LD 50 or ED 50 ) and Instructions in Their Use

Tables for Convenient Calculation of Median-Effective Dose (LD 50 or ED 50 ) and Instructions in Their Use

A study of anxiety and learning.

George Mandler, Seymour B. Sarason

Plastic instability under plane stress

This paper examines the conditions for instability of plastic strain under plane stress for a material conforming to the Mises-Hencky yield condition and strain-hardening according to a unique relationship between root-mean-square values of shear stress...

The Franck‐Condon Principle and Its Application to Crystals

The semiclassical Franck‐Condon principle is shown to be related to the more rigorous (``exact'') quantum‐mechanical perturbation formula in the following ways: (1) the Franck‐Condon formula can be derived from the ``exact'' formula by using a mean...

The yeasts : a taxonomic study

J. Lodder, Acomina, N. J. W. Kreger-Van Rij

The psychology of human learning

Edwin B. Newman, John A. McGeoch, Arthur L. Irion

Flora of tropical East Africa

W. B. Turrill, E. Milne-Redhead

Calculation of Vibrational Relaxation Times in Gases

Vibrational relaxation times in gases are calculated with the method of Zener using an exponential repulsion in a one‐dimensional model. The constants of the interaction potential are determined by fitting it to the data of Hirschfelder, et al. The...

Algebraic projective geometry

J. G. Semple, G. T. Kneebone

Essays on the sociology of knowledge

Karl Mannheim, Paul Kecskemeti

The viscosity of suspensions of rigid spheres

An explanation is given of the dependence of the relative viscosity on the size distribution of the suspended spheres, an effect recently observed by Ward and Whitmore.(1) It is shown theoretically that if the spheres are of very diverse sizes, the relative...

Single-Sideband Transmission by Envelope Elimination and Restoration

A new type of single-sideband transmitter is described which does not require the use of linear radio-frequency amplifiers. Amplification is accomplished by a process in which the phase-modulation component of the single-sideband wave is amplified by...

The Physiological Basis of Variation in Yield

To discover the physiological basis of variation in crop yield, it is necessary to supplement laboratory studies by direct observations on crops growing in field conditions, measuring the simultaneous changes with time throughout the growth period in...

Unimolecular Dissociations and Free Radical Recombination Reactions

The steric and pressure effects associated with the recombination of free radicals both depend on the nature of the activated complex, and are therefore intimately related. From a consideration of the reverse process of unimolecular dissociation, some...

Kinetics of Solidification of Supercooled Liquid Mercury Droplets

The solidification rate of supercooled liquidmercurydroplets is strongly dependent upon the nature of foreign substances on their surface or suspended in them. Droplets (2–8 microns diameter) coated with mercury laurate solidify at rates that are proportional...

DYNAMIC BASIS OF GEOMORPHOLOGY

To place geomorphology upon sound foundations for quantitative research into fundamental principles, it is proposed that geomorphic processes be treated as gravitational or molecular shear stresses acting upon elastic, plastic, or fluid earth materials...

A Unipolar "Field-Effect" Transistor

The theory for a new form of transistor is presented. This transistor is of the "field-effect" type in which the conductivity of a layer of semiconductor is modulated by a transverse electric field. Since the amplifying action involves currents carried...

Ultraviolet absorption spectra of proteins and amino acids.

This chapter deals with the absorption spectra of proteins and amino acids. The colored proteins are conjugated proteins in which the protein carrier is colorless. This transparency of protein solutions extends into the ultraviolet region of the spectrum...

Recrystallization and grain growth

John Emmett Burke, David J. Turnbull

Tyrosinase and polyphenoloxidase. The role of metallic ions in melanogenesis.

A study was made to explain the different behaviour of animal and of vegetal polyphenol-oxidases on monohydric- and dihydric-phenols. 1. 1. It was found that the first phase of the tyrosine oxidation (the transformation of tyrosine in Dopa) is considerably...

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW

Since 1948, when the Weather Bureau discontinued the practice of publishing interpolated precipitation data, monthly and annual totals have been omitted from its publications whenever any portion of the record was missing. In view of objections by the...

GENETIC EXCHANGE IN SALMONELLA

Genetic investigations with many different bacteria have revealed parallelisms and some contrasts with the biology of higher forms. The successful application of selective enrichment techniques to the study of gene recombination in Escherichia coli (Tatum...

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE

To the Editor:— I have read in the May 10 issue of The Journal, page 169, the editorial entitled "Eradication of Malaria." I should like to congratulate you on the excellence of this editorial, which is in keeping with editorials on the same subject...

A Reversible Photoreaction Controlling Seed Germination

H. A. Borthwick, S. B. Hendricks, M. W. Parker, E. H. Toole, Vivian K. Toole

Word recognition as a function of retinal locus.

Mortimer Mishkin, Donald G. Forgays

Experimental Studies of Physical Working Capacity in Relation to Sex and Age (Summary)

In April 1952, at the central gymnastic Institute (for the first time at this institute), P. – O. Astrand defended a thesis in order to gain the Doctor of medicine degree. This thesis is of great interest and the author´s summary of that part of the...

Gravitational Convection from a Boundary Source

Elementary analyses of the mean patterns of free convection from a line source and a point source are presented without regard to the specific means by which the gravitational action is produced. The derived functional relationships are then verified...

Spin‐Orbit Interaction in Aromatic Molecules

The matrix elements of spin‐orbit interaction are obtained for polyatomic molecules using M.O. wave functions, taking account of configurational interaction. These results are then applied to the calculation of singlet‐triplet transition probabilities...

Anomalous Paramagnetism of Copper Acetate

The paramagnetic resonance spectrum of copper acetate is anomalous in that it resembles that of an ion of spin 1, and its intensity decreases as the temperature is lowered. The latter is correlated with the decreasing susceptibility found by Guha (1951)....

Boolean Algebras with Operators

Bjarni Jonnson, Alfred Tarski

Resuscitation of the heart in ventricular standstill by external electric stimulation.

THE purpose of this report is to describe the successful use in 2 patients of a quick, simple, effective and safe method of arousing the heart from ventricular standstill by an artificial, external, electric pacemaker. For the first time it was possible...

Chemistry and physiology of Los Angeles smog

Chemistry and physiology of Los Angeles smog

The Planets: Their Origin and Development

Harold C. Urey, Serge A. Korff

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