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Publications in 1950

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Human Behaviour and the Principle of Least Effort.

P. Sargant Florence, George Kingsley Zipf

I.—COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE

I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude...

THE BARGAINING PROBLEM

A new treatment is presented of a classical economic problem, one which occurs in many forms, as bargaining, bilateral monopoly, etc. It may also be regarded as a nonzero-sum two-person game. In this treatment a few general assumptions are made concerning...

Equilibrium points in n-person games

Equilibrium points in n-person games

On the Isotopic Chemistry of Carbonates and a Paleotemperature Scale

The temperature variation of the fractionation of oxygen in exchange reactions between dissolved carbonate and water and between calcite and water and calculated on theoretical grounds, and checked experimentally. In the course of the experiments it was...

Theory of Reproducing Kernels.

Theory of Reproducing Kernels.

Dating the endometrial biopsy.

It is asserted that examination of the endometrium during the secretory phase yields more information about the time of ovulation degree of progestational change and normality of the endometrium than any other test used in sterility studies. Attention...

Detection of Sugars on Paper Chromatograms

W. E. Trevelyan, D. P. Procter, J. S. Harrison

The sociology of Georg Simmel

Georg Simmel, Kurt H. Wolff

Diffusional Viscosity of a Polycrystalline Solid

According to a suggestion of Nabarro, any crystal can change its shape by self‐diffusion in such way as to yield to an applied shearing stress, and this can cause the macroscopic behavior of a polycrystallinesolid to be like that of a viscous fluid....

REPRODUCTIVE and LARVAL ECOLOGY OF MARINE BOTTOM INVERTEBRATES

Summary1. In analysing the ecological conditions of an animal population we have above all to focus our attention upon the most sensitive stages within the life cycle of the animal, that is, the period of breeding and larval development.2. Most animal...

On the Non-Orthogonality Problem Connected with the Use of Atomic Wave Functions in the Theory of Molecules and Crystals

The treatment of molecules and crystals by the Heitler‐London method or by the collective electron model can be based on the atomic orbitals φμ of the system. These orbitals are in general overlapping, and the corresponding overlap integrals S μν,...

LESS COMMON METALS

D. B. Broughton

Soil conditions and plant growth.

E. J. Russell, E. W. Russell

A Viscosity Equation for Gas Mixtures

By application of the kinetic theory, with several simplifying assumptions, the previous equation of Buddenberg and the author has been modified to give a general equation for viscosity as a function of molecular weights and viscosities of the pure components...

The Statistical Mechanical Theory of Transport Processes. IV. The Equations of Hydrodynamics

The equations of hydrodynamics—continuity equation,equation of motion, and equation of energy transport—are derived by means of the classical statistical mechanics. Thereby, expressions are obtained for the stress tensor and heat current density in...

Second‐Order Transition Temperatures and Related Properties of Polystyrene. I. Influence of Molecular Weight

Dilatometric and viscometric data on fractionated polystyrenes containing diethylbenzene end groups are presented over wide temperature ranges. The second‐order transition temperature, viscosity‐temperature coefficient, and specific volume all change...

A Method for the Numerical Calculation of Hydrodynamic Shocks

The equations of hydrodynamics are modified by the inclusion of additional terms which greatly simplify the procedures needed for stepwise numerical solution of the equations in problems involving shocks. The quantitative influence of these terms can...

Formation of Crystal Nuclei in Liquid Metals

The known facts about nucleation phenomena in liquid metals are interpreted satisfactorily on the basis of the critical size and interfacial energy concepts. In large continuous masses nucleation is almost always catalyzed by extraneous interfaces. However,...

THE DETERMINATION OF HYDROXYPROLINE

Robert E. Neuman, Milan A. Logan

TRANSMISSION OF ELASTIC WAVES THROUGH A STRATIFIED SOLID MEDIUM

The transmission of a plane elastic wave at oblique incidence through a stratified solid medium consisting of any number of parallel plates of different material and thickness is studied theoretically. The matrix method is used to systematize the analysis...

Ferromagnetic compounds of manganese with perovskite structure

Various manganites of the general formula La3+Mn3+O32−-Me2+Mn4+O32− have been prepared in the form of polycrystalline products. Perovskite structures were found, i.a. for all mixed crystals LaMnO3CaMnO3, for LaMnO3SrMnO3 containing up to 70%...

Intramolecular Reaction in Polycondensations. I. The Theory of Linear Systems

For three types of linear polycondensing systems, equilibrium molecular size distributions, including rings as allowable species, are derived. Average molecular weights and amounts of ring and chain fractions are calculated therefrom. The fractions of...

Bandwagon, Snob, and Veblen Effects in the Theory of Consumers' Demand

I. The nature of the problem, 183. — II. Functional and nonfunctional demand, 188. — III. The bandwagon effect, 190. — IV. The snob effect, 199. — V. The Veblen effect, 202. — VI. Mixed effects, 205. — VII. Conclusion, 206.

The Lonely Crowd

Etude de sociologie comportementale sur l'Amerique ecrite en collaboration avec Reuel Denney et Nathan Glazer

On the Formulation of Rheological Equations of State

The invariant forms of rheological equations of state for a homogeneous continuum, suitable for application to all conditions of motion and stress, are discussed. The right invariance properties can most readily be recognized if the frame of reference...

On the Stability of Gas Bubbles in Liquid‐Gas Solutions

With the neglect of the translational motion of the bubble, approximate solutions may be found for the rate of solution by diffusion of a gas bubble in an undersaturated liquid‐gas solution; approximate solutions are also presented for the rate of growth...

The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize

This article, which contained no data, represents a departure from McClintock's previous published work, which had been based primarily on empirical data collected during research. It demonstrated again her fascination with the fundamental theoretical...

Process Heat Transfer

It is the object of this text to provide fundamental instruction in heat transfer while employing the methods and language of industry. This treatment of the subject has evolved from a course given at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn over a period...

The Instability of Liquid Surfaces when Accelerated in a Direction Perpendicular to their Planes. I

It is shown that, when two superposed fluids of different densities are accelerated in a direction perpendicular to their interface, this surface is stable or unstable according to whether the acceleration is directed from the heavier to the lighter fluid...

Theoretical limitations on the broadband matching of arbitrary impedances

Thesis (Sc.D.) Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Electrical Engineering, 1947.

The Force Exerted by Surface Waves on Piles

Jack R. Morison, J.W. Johnson, S.A. Schaaf

Effect of Change of Scale on Sintering Phenomena

It is shown that when certain plausible assumptions are fulfilled simple scaling laws govern the times required to produce, by sintering at a given temperature, geometrically similar changes in two or more systems of solid particles which are identical...

THE TAGGING OF RED CELLS AND PLASMA PROTEINS WITH RADIOACTIVE CHROMIUM 1

In preparation for the present study, arc spectrography 3 was used to demonstrate the presence of trace amounts of chromium in human tissues, including the blood. Tissue analyses were performed on samples of normal human blood by means of a colorimetric...

A Theory of the Origin of Microseisms

In the past it has been considered unlikely that ocean waves are capable of generating microseismic oscillations of the sea bed over areas of deep water, since the decrease of the pressure variations with depth is exponential, according to the first-order...

Statistical Mechanics of Swelling of Network Structures

Inaccuracies in previously published theories dealing with the swelling of networkpolymers in solvents are pointed out. The treatment of Flory and Rehner, based on the tetrahedral model, is overly restrictive and leads to an entropy of swelling which...

Heritability of Threshold Characters.

Everett R. Dempster, Lerner Im

Optimal inventory policy

WE ipropose to outline a method for deriving optimal rules of inventory policy for finished goods. The problem of inventories exists not only for business enterprises but also for nonprofit agencies such as governmental establishments and their various...

ON THE WIND-DRIVEN OCEAN CIRCULATION

Streamlines of oceanic mass transport are derived from solutions to a vertically integrated vorticity equation which relates planetary vorticity, lateral stress curl, and the curl of the stress exerted by the winds on the sea surface. These solutions...

HEAT REGULATION IN SOME ARCTIC AND TROPICAL MAMMALS AND BIRDS

P. F. Scholander, Raymond J. Hock, Vladimir Walters, Fred George Johnson, Laurence Irving

Some Studies in Molecular Orbital Theory I. Resonance Structures and Molecular Orbitals in Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

The predictions of qualitative resonance theory, as to the electronic structures of unsaturated hydrocarbons, are analyzed in terms of LCAO molecular orbital theory. The following results are proved for ``alternant'' hydrocarbons, that is, hydrocarbons...

Empiricism, semantics and ontology

Rudolf Carnap, Paul Benacerraf, Hilary Putnam

Frequency Analysis of Variable Networks

This paper describes an approach to the analysis of linear variable networks which is essentially an extension of the frequency analysis techniques commonly used in connection with fixed networks. It is shown that a function H(jω; t), termed the system...

Numerical Integration of the Barotropic Vorticity Equation

A method is given for the numerical solution of the barotropic vorticity equation over a limited area of the earth's surface. The lack of a natural boundary calls for an investigation of the appropriate boundary conditions. These are determined by a heuristic...

Genetical studies on the skeleton of the mouse

Genetical studies on the skeleton of the mouse

The Mechanics of Large Bubbles Rising through Extended Liquids and through Liquids in Tubes

Part I describes measurements of the shape and rate of rise of air bubbles varying in volume from 1$\cdot $5 to 200 cm.$^{3}$ when they rise through nitrobenzene or water. Measurements of photographs of bubbles formed in nitrobenzene show that the greater...

Methods in the general biology and genetics of paramecium aurelia

Methods in the general biology and genetics of paramecium aurelia

Space-time structure

Erwin Schrödinger

The Kinetics of Phase Transitions in Binary Systems

A kinetic theory of phase transitions in two‐component systems is presented which is applicable to the transitions, vapor to liquid and liquid to liquid. The rate of the transition is characterized by a two‐dimensional vector which can be used in...

Remarks on Bloch's Method of Sound Waves applied to Many-Fermion Problems

The fact implied by Bloch several years ago that in some approximate sense the behavior of an assembly of Fermi particles can be described by a quantized field of sound waves in the Fermi gas, where the sound field obeys Bose statistics, is proved in...

Structural Investigations by Means of Nuclear Magnetism. II. Hindered Rotation in Solids

The experimental absorption line widths, for nuclei with spin 1/2, at nuclear magnetic resonance are given as a function of temperature for a number of molecular crystals. Temperatures ranged from 90°K to the melting points of the compounds. In some...

The electrical activity of the mammalian olfactory bulb

The olfactory bulb of the rabbit shows potential oscillations of two kinds: induced waves set up by strong olfactory stimuli and intrinsic waves due to the persistent activity of cells in the bulb. In deep anaesthesia the intrinsic activity is suppressed...

Teaching of psychology.

Clark-Kennedy Ae, MacCALMAN Dr, Harris Ad, Miller E, D. W. McElwain, Bion Wr, Field He, Partridge J, Rickman J

The biological degradation of soluble cellulose derivatives and its relationship to the mechanism of cellulose hydrolysis.

Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. 485486487488489490491492493494495496497

Wild animals in captivity.

H. Hediger, G. Sircom

Microscopic Observation of the Solidification of Small Metal Droplets

The solidification behavior of small metal (10 to 100 micron diameter) droplets has been observed on a high temperature microscope stage. An abrupt change in surface appearance and in the case of high melting metals a sudden brightening (``blick'') accompanies...

Nuclear magnetic relaxation and resonnance line shift in metals

A detailed theory is given of the nuclear relaxation time in metals. The 1/T law of H e i t l e r and T e l l e r, which is imposed by the statistics of the electrons, is obtained by using the Bloch approximation of metals. An approximate relation is...

The Elastic Constants of a Solid containing Spherical Holes

The effective bulk and shear moduli are calculated by a self-consistent method due to Frohlich and Sack. The bulk modulus k is determined by applying a hydrostatic pressure, and the shear modulus μ by applying a simple homogeneous shear stress, to a...

Training in clinical psychology

Conference on Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology, Victor C. Raimy

Kinetics of Heterogeneous Nucleation

Consider a phase transition α⇄β. Stable β‐embryos can be retained in the temperature range of α‐stability in cavities of suitable extraneous solids present in the system. Retained β‐embryos may nucleate the α→β‐transformation in the...

Measurement and prediction

Samuel Andrew Stouffer

Blocking Action in the Middle Troposphere and its Effect upon Regional Climate

The results of a semi-statistical study of 112 cases of blocking action in the upper westerlies are presented; areas of most frequent occurrence, characteristic movement and persistence, and seasonal and yearly trends of blocking activity are determined....

High Energy Nuclear Events

A statistical method for computing high enetgy collisions of protons with multiple production' 01 particles is discussed. The method consists in assuming that as a result of fairly strong inter­ actions between nucleons and mesons the probauilities of...

Surface Waves and Their Application to Transmission Lines

In this paper the applicability of non‐radiating surface waves for transmission lines is investigated. Two types of waves are considered. The first one, originally studied by A. Sommerfeld, is guided by a cylindrical conductor of finite conductivity....

A portion of the system silica-water

The solubility of quartz plates in water has been measured at temperatures ranging to 610 degrees C and at pressures ranging to 1,750 bars. Rate of solution of the quartz plates depends on temperature, orientation of the quartz plate and on minute compositional...

Some theory of sampling

W. Edwards Deming

Laws of Flow in Rough Pipes

An experimental investigation is made of the turbulent flow of water in pipes with various degrees of relative roughness. The pipes range in size from 25 to 100 millimeters in diameter and from 1800 to 7050 millimeters in length. Flow velocities permitted...

Statistical Mechanics of Dilute Polymer Solutions. II

New thermodynamic relationships applicable to dilute solutions of heterogeneous high polymers are derived. The function previously given to express the interaction between two polymer molecules of equal size is modified to include chemically similar polymer...

X‐Ray Measurement of Order in Single Crystals of Cu3Au

X‐ray diffraction methods have been used to measure long‐ and short‐range order parameters for single crystals of the alloyCu3Au held at elevated temperatures. It is shown that short‐range order parameters may be obtained by a three‐dimensional...

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