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Publications in 1949

Page 1
Determination of serum proteins by means of the biuret reaction.

Allan G. Gornall, C. J. Bardawill, Maxima M. David

Communication in the Presence of Noise

A method is developed for representing any communication system geometrically. Messages and the corresponding signals are points in two "function spaces," and the modulation process is a mapping of one space into the other. Using this representation,...

Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG.

1. 1. Stimulation of the reticular formation of the brain stem evokes changes in the EEG, consisting of abolition of synchronized discharge and introduction of low voltage fast activity in its place, which are not mediated by any of the known ascending...

Therapeutic criteria in rheumatoid arthritis

This report summarizes recommendations for uniform therapeutic criteria in rheumatoid arthritis. The need for such criteria arose from the recognition of the confusing language and standards found in the many therapeutic reports on this disease. In an...

Basic principles of curriculum and instruction

Ralph W. Tyler, Peter S. Hlebowitsh

The methodology of the social sciences

Max Weber, Edward Shils, Henry A. Finch

The ventricular complex in left ventricular hypertrophy as obtained by unipolar precordial and limb leads

The electrocardiographic patterns of left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular strain in standard limb lead records have received considerable attention from investigators1–10. Less detailed attention has been paid to the pattern of left ventricular...

Rate of Nucleation in Condensed Systems

On the basis of the nucleationtheory developed by Volmer, Becker, and co‐workers, and the theory of absolute reaction rates, an expression is derived for the absolute rate of nucleation in condensed systems.

Long Waves and Cyclone Waves

By obtaining complete solutions, satisfying all the relevant simultaneous differential equations and boundary conditions, representing small disturbances of simple states of steady baroclinic large-scale atmospheric motion it is shown that these simple...

Space-time approach to quantum electrodynamics

In this paper two things are done. (1) It is shown that a considerable simplification can be attained in writing down matrix elements for complex processes in electrodynamics. Further, a physical point of view is available which permits them to be written...

The theory of positrons

The problem of the behavior of positrons and electrons in given external potentials, neglecting their mutual interaction, is analyzed by replacing the theory of holes by a reinterpretation of the solutions of the Dirac equation. It is possible to write...

A calculation of the viscous force exerted by a flowing fluid on a dense swarm of particles

SummaryA calculation is given of the viscous force, exerted by a flowing fluid on a dense swarm of particles. The model underlying these calculations is that of a spherical particle embedded in a porous mass. The flow through this porous mass is decribed...

The Dimensions of Chain Molecules Containing Branches and Rings

Formulas for the mean square radii of various branched and ringed polymer molecules are developed under the usual assumptions regarding the statistics of chain configuration. For branched molecules, the mean square radii vary less rapidly with molecular...

Principles of animal ecology

W. C. Allee, Orlando Park, Alfred E. Emerson, Thomas Park, Karl P. Schmidt

The Effect of Droplet Size on Surface Tension

The effect of droplet size on surface tension is given theoretical consideration with the help of results of the Gibbs thermodynamic theory of capillarity and of previous results of the author as to the sign and magnitude of superficial densities. It...

Classification of Spectra of Cata‐Condensed Hydrocarbons

The classification of π‐orbitals in a cata‐condensed aromatic system is like that of the orbitals of a free electron traveling in a one‐dimensional loop of constant potential around the perimeter. To take into account electron interaction, certain...

The avian egg

A. L. Romanoff, A. J. Romanoff

Scattering by an Inhomogeneous Solid

A general treatment of the scattering of radiation by an inhomogeneous material is developed. It is shown how scattering measurements can be used to obtain the average square of the fluctuations in refractive index or electron density and a correlation...

Induced Fibration of Suspensions

This paper describes some of the phenomena found to have their origin in electrically induced fibration of small particles in fluid liquid suspension. Particular attention is given to induced shear resistances found in layers of the fluid (0.01...

The Statistical Mechanical Theory of Surface Tension

A general statistical mechanical theory of interfacial phenomena is developed and expressions are derived relating the surface tension and other superficial thermodynamic functions to the potential of intermolecular force and molecular distribution functions....

The aims of education and other essays

The aims of education and other essays

Determination of Electronic Structure of Molecules from Nuclear Quadrupole Effects

Nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in molecules depend on the nuclear quadrupole moments and the variation in electrostatic field at the nucleus. It is shown that this variation of electric field is usually simply related to the molecular electronic...

Social class in America.

No authorship indicated

Theory of Growth of Spherical Precipitates from Solid Solution

The radius of a spherical precipitate particle growing in a solid solution of initially uniform composition may be shown to be equal to α(Dt)½, where D is the atomic diffusion coefficient, t the time of growth, and α, the growth coefficient, is a dimensionless...

THE TERMINAL VELOCITY OF FALL FOR WATER DROPLETS IN STAGNANT AIR

The terminal velocities for distilled water droplets falling through stagnant air are accurately determined. More than 1500 droplets of mass from 0.2 to 100,000 micrograms, embracing droplets so small that Stokes' law is obeyed up to...

A Direct Method of Determining Preferred Orientation of a Flat Reflection Sample Using a Geiger Counter X‐Ray Spectrometer

A new reflection method is described for determining pole figures of flat samples with a Geiger counter x‐ray spectrometer. The chief advantage of the method is that the experimental data may be used directly without corrections for changes in geometry...

The Theoretical Resolution Limit of the Electron Microscope

The resolving power of the electron microscope and the contrast in the image are calculated for different conditions of focusing, illumination and aperture. These conditions can change the limit of resolution by a factor of about 3. The contrast in the...

A manual of the penicillia

Kenneth B. Raper, Charles Thom

The Configuration of Real Polymer Chains

The average configuration of polymer molecules in solution is markedly influenced by the obvious requirement, ordinarily disregarded in problems relating to molecular configuration, that two elements of the molecule are forbidden from occupying the same...

Triplet-Singlet Transitions in Organic Molecules. Lifetime Measurements of the Triplet State

The emission lifetimes of the metastable triplet states (phosphorescent states) of a large variety of organic molecules have been measured. The lifetimes are in the range from 10−4 to about 10 seconds. It is shown that the transition probabilities corresponding...

Thermodynamics of Crystallization in High Polymers. IV. A Theory of Crystalline States and Fusion in Polymers, Copolymers, and Their Mixtures with Diluents

The configurational entropy of a mixture of solvent and polymer molecules composed of segments connected by flexible bonds has been derived for the case in which the lattice they occupy contains limited regions of perfect order (i.e., the crystallites),...

The Thermodynamics of High Polymer Solutions. V. Phase Equilibria in the Ternary System: Polymer 1—Polymer 2—Solvent

A thermodynamicanalysis of phase equilibria similar to that developed in Part IV when applied to the ternary system of two polymers and a solvent leads to an explanation of the usual incompatibility of different high polymers in solution. Unless their...

On the Interaction of Nuclear Spins in a Crystalline Lattice

The exchange of energy between a system of nuclear spins, immersed in a strong magnetic field Ho, and the lattice vibrations of insulating crystals has been investigated experimentally by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance absorption. The resonance...

Factors of evolution : the theory of stabilizing selection

I. I. (Ivan Ivanovich) Shmalʹgauzen, Isadore L. Dordick, Theodosius Dobzhansky

The theory of p-n junctions in semiconductors and p-n junction transistors

In a single crystal of semiconductor the impurity concentration may vary from p-type to n-type producing a mechanically continuous rectifying junction. The theory of potential distribution and rectification for p-n junctions is developed with emphasis...

Cysteine Protection against X Irradiation.

H.M. Patt, E.B. Tyree, R.L. Straube, D.E. Smith

Magic, Science and Religion

Marvin K. Opler, Bronislaw Malinowski, Robert Redfield

A Numerical Method for Predicting the Perturbations of the Middle Latitude Westerlies

It is shown that the large-scale quasi-stationary disturbances of the middle-latitude westerlies are produced by the forced ascent of the westerly current over the continental land masses. Friction is found to have an important modifying effect on the...

Theory of Focusing Radiators

An approximate theory has been derived describing part of the sound field due to a concave spherical radiator, vibrating with uniform normal velocity; the radius a of the circular boundary is assumed to be large relative to the wave‐length and large...

Spectral Resemblances of Cata‐Condensed Hydrocarbons

The spectra of naphthalene, anthracene, naphthacene, phenanthrene, 1,2‐benzanthrene, chrysene, and acenaphthene in n‐heptane solution are extended to 1700A. Electronic energy levels of 17 such cata‐condensed hydrocarbons are collected and compared....

A Quantum-Mechanical Theory of Light Absorption of Organic Dyes and Similar Compounds

The most important organic compounds which absorb visible light can be classified into three groups typified: (a) by symmetrical polymethines, (b) by porphyrines, (c) by polyenes. Recently it was shown that the position of the absorption maxima of symmetrical...

Embedding Theorems for Groups

Graham Higman, B. H. Neumann, Hanna Neuman

Politics Among Nations; The Struggle for Power and Peace

Norman J. Padelford, Hans J. Morgenthau

The Radiation theories of Tomonaga, Schwinger, and Feynman

The Radiation theories of Tomonaga, Schwinger, and Feynman

The S matrix in quantum electrodynamics

The S matrix in quantum electrodynamics

Le deuxième sexe

Simone de Beauvoir

The measurement of coronary blood flow, oxygen consumption, and efficiency of the left ventricle in man.

The left ventricular coronary blood flow and left ventricular oxygen consumption per unit weight have been determined in twenty-six patients by means of the nitrous oxide method in conjunction with catheterization of the coronary sinus. The studies were...

The Basis of the Electron Theory of Metals, with Special Reference to the Transition Metals

It is shown that the collective electron and London-Heitler models are not to be regarded as different approximations to the same exact wave function for solids in which, according to the former model, there is a partially filled zone of energy levels....

The Normal Vibrations of Polyatomic Molecules as Treated by Urey‐Bradley Field

A method of setting up the vibrational secular equation for polyatomic molecules of ``Urey‐Bradley field'' type is described. By this method the vibration frequencies of CCl4, CBr4, CH4, CD4, CCl3Br, CCl2Br2, CClBr3, CCl3H, CCl2H2, CClH3, CCl3D, CCl2D2,...

The Serological Comparison of Strains of Influenza Virus.

SUMMARY: The antigens of eight strains of influenza virus were compared by a simple and economical complement-fixation technique in which drops on Perspex sheets replaced larger volumes of reagents in racks of tubes. By this means more extensive tests...

Classical Electrodynamics in Terms of Direct Interparticle Action

Many of our present hopes to understand thebehavior of matter and energy rely upon thenotion of field. Consequently it may be appropriate tore-examine critically the origin and use of this century oldconcept. This idea developed in the study of classicalelectromagnetism...

On Rings of Operators. Reduction Theory

On Rings of Operators. Reduction Theory

The Relative Reaction Velocities of Isotopic Molecules

The rate constants for competitive reactions of isotopic molecules are considered from the theory of ``absolute rates'' and the collision theory. Formulas are derived for the ratio of the rate constants and the difference in the activation energies for...

Statistical Mechanics of Adsorption. V. Thermodynamics and Heat of Adsorption

The thermodynamics of an adsorbate on an inert adsorbent is discussed in some detail. Heats of adsorption are given particular attention in an attempt to clarify and extend the available methods in this field. It is found that the true equilibrium ΔH=TΔS...

Effect upon the EEG of acute injury to the brain stem activating system

The effect upon the EEG in the unanesthetized “encephale isole” of acute brain stem lesions in a position to involve the ascending reticular activating system has been studied.

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