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Publications in 1948

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Natural Evaporation from Open Water, Bare Soil and Grass

Two theoretical approaches to evaporation from saturated surfaces are outlined, the first being on an aerodynamic basis in which evaporation is regarded as due to turbulent transport of vapour by a process of eddy diffusion, and the second being on an...

Foundations of economic analysis

Foundations of economic analysis

Space-time approach to non-relativistic quantum mechanics

Non-relativistic quantum mechanics is formulated here in a different way. It is, however, mathematically equivalent to the familiar formulation. In quantum mechanics the probability of an event which can happen in several different ways is the absolute...

What is Life

A. Cornelius Benjamin, Erwin Schrödinger

On the Structure of a Catalyst Surface

Our previous results have been criticized by T. L. Hill on the ground that we considered energies of adsorption ranging from − ∞ to ∞. We have accordingly revised our former theory. It appears that, if we assume localized adsorption without interaction,...

Advances in applied mechanics

Misès R, Theodore von Kármán, Hugh L. Dryden, John W. Hutchinson, Theodore Yaotsu Wu, G. G. (Gorimir Gorimirovich) Chernyĭ

A Mechanism of Magnetic Hysteresis in Heterogeneous Alloys

The Becker-Kersten treatment of domain boundary movements is widely applicable in the interpretation of magnetization curves, but it does not account satisfactorily for the higher coercivities obtained, for example, in permanent magnet alloys. It is suggested...

Relaxation effects in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Absorption

N. Bloembergen, E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound

Overcoming Resistance to Change

Lester Coch, John R. P. French

KNEE JOINT CHANGES AFTER MENISCECTOMY

Changes in the knee joint after meniscectomy include ridge formation, narrowing of the joint space, and flattening of the femoral condyle. Investigations suggest that these changes are due to loss of the weight-bearing function of the meniscus. Meniscectomy...

New Contributions to the Optics of Intensely Light-Scattering Materials. Part I

The system of differential equations of Kubelka-Munk, -di=-(S+K)idx+Sjdx,         dj=-(S+K)jdx+Sidx(i, j⋯ intensities of the light traveling inside a plane-parallel light-scattering specimen towards its unilluminated and its illuminated...

FORMULAS FOR BED-LOAD TRANSPORT

In the following paper, a brief summary is first of all given of the results and interpretation of tests already made known in former publications of the Laboratory for Hydraulic Research and Soil Mechanics at the Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich....

A mathematical model illustrating the theory of turbulence

This chapter discusses that the application of methods of statistical analysis and statistical mechanics to the problem of turbulent fluid motion has attracted much attention in recent years. It investigated a complicated system of nonlinear equations,...

The Intrinsic Viscosities and Diffusion Constants of Flexible Macromolecules in Solution

A theory of the intrinsic viscosities and translational diffusion constants of flexible macromolecules is developed on the basis of the random coil model with hindered internal rotation. Proper account is taken of the hydrodynamicinteraction of the monomer...

The Scattering of Light and the Radial Distribution Function of High Polymer Solutions

A radial distribution function of polymer segments in a solution of a high polymer may be defined as a quantity proportional to the density of segments at a given distance from some given segment. An approximate expression is derived for this function...

Physical Adsorption on Non‐Uniform Surfaces

Analysis of adsorption on a uniform surface using the quasi‐chemical theory of interaction shows that the hypotheses of the BET theory lead to substantially no adsorption beyond the first layer if E 2 = EL , and stepwise isotherms if E 1>E 2>E 3>···>EL...

Physical Limitations of Omni‐Directional Antennas

The physical limitations of omni‐directional antennas are considered. With the use of the spherical wave functions to describe the field, the directivity gain G and the Q of an unspecified antenna are calculated under idealized conditions. To obtain...

Apparatus and Methods for Measurement and Interpretation of the Angular Variation of Light Scattering; Preliminary Results on Polystyrene Solutions

A photoelectric apparatus for the measurement of the angular dependence of light scattering from solutions is described in detail and its performance is discussed. Methods of calculation for the determination of the average extension of the scattering...

Nuclear Resonance Absorption in Hydrated Crystals: Fine Structure of the Proton Line

Fine structure has been observed in the nuclear paramagnetic resonance absorption line for protons in crystalline hydrates. The magnetic field of 6820 gauss was provided by a permanent magnet, the inherent stability of which facilitated detailed study...

Kinetics of Emulsion Polymerization

As a basis for understanding emulsionpolymerization, the kinetics of free radical reactions in isolated loci is discussed subject to the condition that the free radicals are supplied to the loci from an external source. Three cases of interest are considered:...

On What There Is

Willard Van Orman Quine

THE PATH OF CARBON IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Melvin Calvin, A.A. Benson

Formation of Optical Images by X-Rays

Several conceivable methods for the formation of optical images by x-rays are considered, and a method employing concave mirrors is adopted as the most promising. A concave spherical mirror receiving radiation at grazing incidence (a necessary arrangement...

Meniere's disease.

Cawthorne T, Hewlett Ab

Intrinsic Viscosity, Diffusion, and Sedimentation Rate of Polymers in Solution

Intrinsic viscosity,diffusion and sedimentation rate of polymers in solution is calculated by a generalization of Einstein's theory for impermeable spheres. For the coiled polymer molecule a sphere is substituted which hinders the liquid flow through...

Advances in food research

George Stewart, C. O. Chichester, E. M. Mrak, B. S. Schweigert

Carcinoma of the colon and rectum.

Myers Hc, Bush Ak, Lea M

Theory and problems of social psychology

David Krech, Richard S. Crutchfield

The Intelligibility of Interrupted Speech

This paper concerns the effects of interrupting speech waves—turning them on and off intermittently or masking them with intermittent noise—upon their intelligibility. The effects were studied with various rates of interruption and with the speech...

Cohomology theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras

Claude Chevalley, Samuel Eilenberg

A Test for Symmetry in Contingency Tables

Suppose that a sample of N individuals is classified according to two arguments, A and B, in an m by m contingency table and suppose that the categories of classification A are associated in some unique way with the categories of classification B. For...

Large Elastic Deformations of Isotropic Materials. IV. Further Developments of the General Theory

The equations of motion, boundary conditions and stress-strain relations for a highly elastic material can be expressed in terms of the stored-energy function. This has been done in part I of this series (Rivlin 1948a), for both the cases of compressible...

Progress in the Statistical Theory of Turbulence.

The fundamental notion of statistical mean values in fluid mechanics was first introduced by Reynolds. His most important contributions were the definition of the mean values for the so-called Reynolds' stresses and the recognition of the analogy between...

Industrial hygiene and toxicology

F. A. (Frank Arthur) Patty

Curvature and Betti Numbers

健太郎 矢野, Salomon Bochner

Communication by Means of Reflected Power

Point-to-point communication, with the carrier power generated at the receiving end and the transmitter replaced by a modulated reflector, represents a transmission system which possesses new and different characteristics. Radio, light, or sound waves...

Dielectric Properties of Aqueous Ionic Solutions. Parts I and II

The dielectric constants and loss angles of a series of concentrated aqueous ionic solutions have been measured at wave‐lengths of 10 cm, 3 cm, and 1.25 cm. From these results the values of the static dielectric constant and relaxation time for these...

Explosives with Lined Cavities

Explosives detonated in contact with thick steel plates produce much deeper holes in the steel when there is a cavity in the explosive in contact with the plate. While this phenomenon has been known for more than 150 years, the enormous increase in penetrating...

Food and Agriculture Organisation

At the end of 1947, a series of articles dealing with the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations was published in this Review. It is now desirable to bring this information up to date in the light of more recent developments in order...

A place theory of sound localization.

A place theory of sound localization.

Magic, science and religion : and other essays

Bronislaw Malinowski, Robert Redfield

Personal values as selective factors in perception.

Leo Postman, Jerome S. Bruner, Elliott McGinnies

Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation

If the probability differential of a set of stochastic variates contains k unknown parameters, the statistical hypotheses concerning them may be simple or composite. The hypothesis leading to a complete specification of the values of the k parameters...

Laminar-boundary-layer oscillations and transition on a flat plate

This is an account of an investigation in which oscillations were discovered in the laminar boundary layer along a flat plate. These oscillations were found during the course of an experiment in which transition from laminar to turbulent flow was being...

International trade and the equalisation of factor prices

International trade and the equalisation of factor prices

STUDIES ON THE MUCOPROTEINS OF HUMAN PLASMA. I. DETERMINATION AND ISOLATION 1

Richard J. Winzler, Arthur W. Devor, John W. Mehl, Irene M. Smyth

The Magnetic Fluid Clutch

A new type of magnetic fluid and several classes of new devices utilizing this fluid have been developed at the National Bureau of Standards. One application of this fluid has been in electromagnetic clutches, but the electro-magnetically controlled mixture...

The Stark Effect for a Rigid Asymmetric Rotor

The Stark effect, arising from the interaction of a uniform electric field with a permanent electric dipole that is arbitrarily oriented within a rigid asymmetric rotor, and with a dipole induced in the rotor by the field, has been evaluated by perturbation...

Distributed Amplification

This paper presents a new principle in wide-band amplifier design. It is shown that, by an appropriate distribution of ordinary electron tubes along artificial transmission lines, it is possible to obtain amplification over much greater bandwidths than...

The Fracture of Liquids

A liquid subjected to negative pressure is metastable; vapor bubbles form spontaneously and grow until the pressure of the system rises to the equilibrium vapor pressure. The rate of bubble formation is calculated from the theory of nucleation, and the...

Table of isotopes

G.T. Seaborg, I. Perlman

Electrical Insulation Deterioration Treated as a Chemical Rate Phenomenon

The basis is presented for a more accurate interpretation of the results of physical type tests to measure the thermal aging of insulation together with a more accurate method of applying the results of such tests to predicting insulation deterioration...

Resistor-Transmission-Line Circuits

Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for a function to be the driving-point impedance of a physically realizable network consisting (essentially) of lumped resistors and lossless transmission lines. The circuits so developed are thoroughly...

The Influence of Interaural Phase on Interaural Summation and Inhibition

The difference between the binaural and monaural thresholds varies within fairly large limits. Although this binaural‐monaural difference may not vary systematically as a function of frequency when pure‐tone thresholds are measured in the quiet, the...

The Vibrational Spectra of Molecules and Complex Ions in Crystals. I. General Theory

It is shown that if a crystal is approximated as a harmonic oscillator, only a very small number of vibrational modes may be active in the infra‐red or Raman spectra. These modes are all totally symmetric with respect to translation. They must also...

Atomic Structure

Data obtained from the Rutherford scattering experiment are used to present a simple picture of the structure of the atom. This picture is shown to be in agreement with the experimental findings on the electrical nature of matter. On the assumption that...

THE SPECIFIC ESTERASE ACTIVITY OF TRYPSIN

The discovery of relatively simple peptide derivatives as substrates for proteolytic enzymes has introduced a new approach to the problem of the specifity of this group of hydrolytic enzymes. Although crystalline trypsin is known to catalyze the hydrolysis...

Quantitative X‐Ray Investigations on the Crystallinity of Cellulose Fibers. A Background Analysis

A quantitative investigation of the intensity of scatteredradiation in a series of native and regenerated cellulosic objects, including bacterial cellulose and fibers transformed into cellulose IV, is offered. The technique used involves the use of copperradiation...

LARGE ELASTIC DEFORMATIONS OF ISOTROPIC MATERIALS. I. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

forces are applied to it, and when certain points of the body are subjected to specified displacements. These problems are always dealt with on the assumption that the generaliza­ tion of Hooke's law is obeyed by the material of the body and that the...

Congressional quarterly almanac

Congressional Quarterly

Consideration of the Gibbs theory of surface tension

The Gibbs theory of surface tension is discussed. Detailed consideration is given to the structure of transition layers between phases. This provides theoreticalinformation, as to the magnitude of surface tension and as to the location of the surface...

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