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A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells

Masashi Yanagisawa, Hiroki Kurihara, Sadao Kimura, Yoko Tomobe, Mieko Kobayashi, Youji Mitsui, Yoshio Yazaki, Katsutoshi Goto, Tomoh Masaki

Geant4—a simulation toolkit

G eant 4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter. It includes a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits. The physics processes offered cover a comprehensive range, including electromagnetic,...

Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana

Summary The Agrobacterium vacuum infiltration method has made it possible to transform Arabidopsis thaliana without plant tissue culture or regeneration. In the present study, this method was evaluated and a substantially modified transformation method...

A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelationconsistent Covariance Matrix

This paper describes a simple method of calculating a heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix that is positive semi-definite by construction. It also establishes consistency of the estimated covariance matrix under fairly general...

Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis

A new method for automatic indexing and retrieval is described. The approach is to take advantage of implicit higher-order structure in the association of terms with documents (“semantic structure”) in order to improve the detection of relevant documents...

Cancer Statistics, 2009†‡

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the...

Semiconductor Clusters, Nanocrystals, and Quantum Dots

Current research into semiconductor clusters is focused on the properties of quantum dots-fragments of semiconductor consisting of hundreds to many thousands of atoms-with the bulk bonding geometry and with surface states eliminated by enclosure in a...

Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't.

It's about integrating individual clinical expertise and the best external evidenceEvidence based medicine, whose philosophical origins extend back to mid-19th century Paris and earlier, remains a hot topic for clinicians, public health practitioners,...

Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns with a Complementary DNA Microarray

A high-capacity system was developed to monitor the expression of many genes in parallel. Microarrays prepared by high-speed robotic printing of complementary DNAs on glass were used for quantitative expression measurements of the corresponding genes....

An iterative image registration technique with an application to stereo vision

Image registration finds a variety of applications in computer vision. Unfortunately, traditional image registration techniques tend to be costly. We present a new image registration technique that makes use of the spatial intensity gradient of the images...

Bootstrap Methods: Another Look at the Jackknife

We discuss the following problem given a random sample X = (Xl' X 2 , ••• , Xn) from an unknown probability distribution F, estimate the sampling distribution of some prespecified random variable R(X, F), on the basis of the observed data x. (Standard...

Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs

The commonly observed high diversity of trees in tropical rain forests and corals on tropical reefs is a nonequilibrium state which, if not disturbed further, will progress toward a low-diversity equilibrium community. This may not happen if gradual changes...

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COINTEGRATION VECTORS

We consider a nonstationary vector autoregressive process which is integrated of order 1, and generated by i.i.d. Gaussian errors. We then derive the maximum likelihood estimator of the space of cointegration vectors and the likelihood ratio test of the...

ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE HETEROZYGOSITY AND GENETIC DISTANCE FROM A SMALL NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS

The magnitudes of the systematic biases involved in sample heterozygosity and sample genetic distances are evaluated, and formulae for obtaining unbiased estimates of average heterozygosity and genetic distance are developed. It is also shown that the...

Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process

Raymond E. Miles, Charles C. Snow, Alan D. Meyer, H.J. Coleman

Linear models and empirical bayes methods for assessing differential expression in microarray experiments.

The problem of identifying differentially expressed genes in designed microarray experiments is considered. Lonnstedt and Speed (2002) derived an expression for the posterior odds of differential expression in a replicated two-color experiment using a...

An Attributional Theory of Achievement Motivation and Emotion

A theory of motivation and emotion is proposed in which causal ascriptions play a key role. It is first documented that in achievement-related contexts there are a few dominant causal perceptions. The perceived causes of success and failure share three...

Graph Theory

Graph theory is a flourishing discipline containing a body of beautiful and powerful theorems of wide applicability. Its explosive growth in recent years is mainly due to its role as an essential structure underpinning modern applied mathematics computer...

Eigenfaces vs. Fisherfaces: recognition using class specific linear projection

We develop a face recognition algorithm which is insensitive to large variation in lighting direction and facial expression. Taking a pattern classification approach, we consider each pixel in an image as a coordinate in a high-dimensional space. We take...

Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes

Gene-expression analysis is increasingly important in biological research, with real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) becoming the method of choice for high-throughput and accurate expression profiling of selected genes. Given the increased sensitivity,...

The art of case study research

Karen E. Johnson, Robert E. Stake

Experimental and computational approaches to estimate solubility and permeability in drug discovery and development settings

Experimental and computational approaches to estimate solubility and permeability in discovery and development settings are described. In the discovery setting ‘the rule of 5’ predicts that poor absorption or permeation is more likely when there are...

The Anatomy of the Grid: Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations

"Grid" computing has emerged as an important new field, distinguished from conventional distributed computing by its focus on large-scale resource sharing, innovative applications, and, in some cases, high performance orientation. In this article, the...

A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR QUANTITATION OF LOW LEVELS OF DNA DAMAGE IN INDIVIDUAL CELLS

Human lymphocytes were either exposed to X-irradiation (25 to 200 rads) or treated with H2O2 (9.1 to 291 μM) at 4 °C and the extent of DNA migration was measured using a single-cell microgel electrophoresis technique under alkaline conditions. Both...

Significance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response

Microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes to identify changes in expression between different biological states. Methods are needed to determine the significance of these changes while accounting for the enormous number of genes.We...

Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents

An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call ant system (AS). We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this...

A Second Generation Force Field for the Simulation of Proteins, Nucleic Acids, and Organic Molecules

We present the derivation of a new molecular mechanical force field for simulating the structures, conformational energies, and interaction energies of proteins, nucleic acids, and many related organic molecules in condensed phases. This effective two-body...

The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.

A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness...

The Large N Limit of Superconformal Field Theories and Supergravity

: We show that the large $N$ limit of certain conformal field theories in various dimensions include in their Hilbert space a sector describing supergravity on the product of Anti-deSitter spacetimes, spheres and other compact manifolds. This is shown...

Scheduling Algorithms for Multiprogramming in a Hard-Real-Time Environment

The problem of multiprogram scheduling on a single processor is studied from the viewpoint of the characteristics peculiar to the program functions that need guaranteed service. It is shown that an optimum fixed priority scheduler possesses an upper bound...

Strategic assets and organizational rent

We build on an emerging strategy literature that views the firm as a bundle of resources and capabilities, and examine conditions that contribute to the realization of sustainable economic rents. Because of (1) resource-market imperfections and (2) discretionary...

Molecular portraits of human breast tumours

Charles M. Perou, Therese Sørlie, Michael B. Eisen, Matt van de Rijn, Stefanie S. Jeffrey, Christian A. Rees, Jonathan R. Pollack, Douglas T. Ross, Hilde Johnsen, Lars A. Akslen, Øystein Fluge, Alexander Pergamenschikov, Cheryl F. Williams, Shirley Zhu, Per Eystein Lønning, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Patrick O. Brown, David Botstein

NMRPipe: A multidimensional spectral processing system based on UNIX pipes*

Summary The NMRPipe system is a UNIX software environment of processing, graphics, and analysis tools designed to meet current routine and research-oriented multidimensional processing requirements, and to anticipate and accommodate future demands and...

Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter

D. W. Nelson, L. E. Sommers, D. L. Sparks, A. L. Page, P. A. Helmke, R. H. Loeppert, P. N. Soltanpour, M. A. Tabatabai, C. T. Johnston, M. E. Sumner

Macroeconomics and Reality

Existing strategies for econometric analysis related to macroeconomics are subject to a number of serious objections, some recently formulated, some old. These objections are summarized in this paper, and it is argued that taken together they make it...

PLINK: A Tool Set for Whole-Genome Association and Population-Based Linkage Analyses

Whole-genome association studies (WGAS) bring new computational, as well as analytic, challenges to researchers. Many existing genetic-analysis tools are not designed to handle such large data sets in a convenient manner and do not necessarily exploit...

Parkinsonism onset, progression, and mortality

Margaret M. Hoehn, Melvin D. Yahr

ANFIS: adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system

The architecture and learning procedure underlying ANFIS (adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system) is presented, which is a fuzzy inference system implemented in the framework of adaptive networks. By using a hybrid learning procedure, the proposed...

Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis

Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret...

Translating the Histone Code

Chromatin, the physiological template of all eukaryotic genetic information, is subject to a diverse array of posttranslational modifications that largely impinge on histone amino termini, thereby regulating access to the underlying DNA. Distinct histone...

Cancer statistics, 2012†‡

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the...

Ab initio effective core potentials for molecular calculations. Potentials for K to Au including the outermost core orbitals

Ab initio effective core potentials (ECP’s) have been generated to replace the innermost core electron for third‐row (K–Au), fourth‐row (Rb–Ag), and fifth‐row (Cs–Au) atoms. The outermost core orbitals—corresponding to the n s 2 n p 6...

Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system

The concept of one event happening before another in a distributed system is examined, and is shown to define a partial ordering of the events. A distributed algorithm is given for synchronizing a system of logical clocks which can be used to totally...

Haploview: analysis and visualization of LD and haplotype maps

Summary: Research over the last few years has revealed significant haplotype structure in the human genome. The characterization of these patterns, particularly in the context of medical genetic association studies, is becoming a routine research activity....

Determining Optical Flow

Berthold K. P. Horn, Brian G. Schunck

The Forms of Capital

Pierre Bourdieu

Fast parallel algorithms for short-range molecular dynamics

Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region....

Conserved seed pairing, often flanked by adenosines, indicates that thousands of human genes are microRNA targets.

We predict regulatory targets of vertebrate microRNAs (miRNAs) by identifying mRNAs with conserved complementarity to the seed (nucleotides 2–7) of the miRNA. An overrepresentation of conserved adenosines flanking the seed complementary sites in mRNAs...

Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy

This paper attempts to explain why innovating firms often fail to obtain significant economic returns from an innovation, while customers, imitators and other industry participants benefit. Business strategy - particularly as it relates to the firm's...

THE CORNERSTONES OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: A RESOURCE-BASED VIEW

This paper elucidates the underlying economics of the resource-based view of competitive advantage and integrates existing perspectives into a parsimonious model of resources and firm performance. The essence of this model is that four conditions underlie...

A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis

Eric R. Fearon, Bert Vogelstein

Analysis of panel data

This book provides a comprehensive, coherent, and intuitive review of panel data methodologies that are useful for empirical analysis. Substantially revised from the second edition, it includes two new chapters on modeling cross-sectionally dependent...

Glucose clamp technique : A method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance

Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to insulin (euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration...

Generalized Linear Models

SUMMARY The technique of iterative weighted linear regression can be used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters with observations distributed according to some exponential family and systematic effects that can be made linear by a suitable...

Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks

An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. In such an environment, it may be necessary for one mobile host to enlist the aid of...

A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change.

The construction of a depression rating scale designed to be particularly sensitive to treatment effects is described. Ratings of 54 English and 52 Swedish patients on a 65 item comprehensive psychopathology scale were used to identify the 17 most commonly...

NMR of proteins and nucleic acids

NMR of proteins and nucleic acids

Principles of biomedical ethics

Tom L. Beauchamp, James F. Childress

Normalized cuts and image segmentation

We propose a novel approach for solving the perceptual grouping problem in vision. Rather than focusing on local features and their consistencies in the image data, our approach aims at extracting the global impression of an image. We treat image segmentation...

THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ULTRACENTRIFUGALLY SEPARATED LIPOPROTEINS IN HUMAN SERUM

In the past few years several methods have been developed for the analysis of serum lipoproteins. Lindgren, Elliott, and Gofman (1) have utilized the relatively low density of the lipoproteins to separate them from the other serum proteins by ultracentrifugal...

Robust Real-Time Face Detection

This paper describes a face detection framework that is capable of processing images extremely rapidly while achieving high detection rates. There are three key contributions. The first is the introduction of a new image representation called the “Integral...

RISK, RETURN AND EQUILIBRIUM: EMPIRICAL TESTS

This paper tests the relationship between average return and risk for New York Stock Exchange common stocks. The theoretical basis of the tests is the "two-parameter" portfolio model and models of market equilibrium derived from the two-parameter portfolio...

The nature of prejudice

Gordon W. Allport

Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay

A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical...

An introduction to genetic algorithms

From the Publisher:"This is the best general book on Genetic Algorithms written to date. It covers background, history, and motivation; it selects important, informative examples of applications and discusses the use of Genetic Algorithms in scientific...

Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity: Reply

Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity: Reply

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions in terms of the networks of genes and molecules. The major component of KEGG is the PATHWAY database that consists of graphical diagrams of biochemical...

The Architecture of Cognition

Now available in paper, The Architecture of Cognition is a classic work that remains relevant to theory and research in cognitive science. The new version of Anderson's theory of cognitive architecture -- Adaptive Control of Thought (ACT*) -- is a theory...

Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes

Evidence is reviewed which suggests that there may be little or no direct intro­ spective access to higher order cognitive processes. Subjects are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware...

Cluster Analysis

Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organising multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques...

Ab initio effective core potentials for molecular calculations. Potentials for the transition metal atoms Sc to Hg

Ab initio effective core potentials (ECP’s) have been generated to replace the Coulomb, exchange, and core‐orthogonality effects of the chemically inert core electron in the transition metal atoms Sc to Hg. For the second and third transition series...

A Method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide

There are several statistical methods used in biology (entomology) for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide, based on relating the number of dead insects in the treated plat to the number of live ones in the untreated plat. In order to make experimental...

A Global Measure of Perceived Stress

Sheldon Cohen, Tom Kamarck, Robin J. Mermelstein

A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies

The present research develops and tests a theoretical extension of the Technology Acceptance Model TAM that explains perceived usefulness and usage intentions in terms of social influence and cognitive instrumental processes. The extended model, referred...

Pastry: Scalable, Decentralized Object Location, and Routing for Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems

This paper presents the design and evaluation of Pastry, a scalable, distributed object location and routing substrate for wide-area peer-to-peer ap- plications. Pastry performs application-level routing and object location in a po- tentially very large...

The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses...

A New Mixing of Hartree-Fock and Local Density-Functional Theories

Previous attempts to combine Hartree–Fock theory with local density‐functional theory have been unsuccessful in applications to molecular bonding. We derive a new coupling of these two theories that maintains their simplicity and computational efficiency,...

Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice

The concept of an agent has become important in both artificial intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with...

Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a two-stage model

Parameters on which models for terrestrial lead isotope evolution are based have recently been revised. These parameters are the isotopic composition of troilite lead, the age of the meteorite system and the decay constants of uranium and thorium. As...

The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time

Stephen W. Hawking, George F. R. Ellis

Kinetics of Phase Change. I General Theory

The theory of the kinetics of phase change is developed with the experimentally supported assumptions that the new phase is nucleated by germ nuclei which already exist in the old phase, and whose number can be altered by previous treatment. The density...

A note on two problems in connexion with graphs

A note on two problems in connexion with graphs

Independent component analysis

Independent component models have gained increasing interest in various fields of applications in recent years. The basic independent component model is a semiparametric model assuming that a p-variate observed random vector is a linear transformation...

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