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The Sciences of the Artificial

Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools -- chaos, adaptive systems,...

A New Family of Mesoporous Molecular Sieves Prepared with Liquid Crystal Templates

The synthesis, characterization, and proposed mechanism of formation of a new family of silicatelaluminosilicate mesoporous molecular sieves designated as M41S is described. MCM-41, one member of this family, exhibits a hexagonal arrangement of uniform...

THE SOCIAL READJUSTMENT RATING SCALE

IN PREVIOUS studies [l] it has been established that a cluster of social events requiring change in ongoing life adjustment is significantly associated with the time of illness onset. Similarly, the relationship of what has been called ‘life stress,’...

Agency Problems and the Theory of the Firm

This paper attempts to explain how the separation of security ownership and control, typical of large corporations, can be an efficient form of economic organization. We first set aside the presumption that a corporation has owners in any meaningful sense....

Single-crystal structure validation with the program PLATON

The results of a single-crystal structure determination when in CIF format can now be validated routinely by automatic procedures. In this way, many errors in published papers can be avoided. The validation software generates a set of ALERTS detailing...

Testing for a Unit Root in Time Series Regression

This paper proposes some new tests for detecting the presence of a unit root in quite general time series models. Our approach is nonparametric with respect to nuisance parameters and thereby allows for a very wide class of weakly dependent and possibly...

Statistical methods in medical research

The explanation and implementation of statistical methods for the medical researcher or statistician remains an integral part of modern medical research. This book explains the use of experimental and analytical biostatistics systems. Its accessible style...

Petri nets: Properties, analysis and applications

Starts with a brief review of the history and the application areas considered in the literature. The author then proceeds with introductory modeling examples, behavioral and structural properties, three methods of analysis, subclasses of Petri nets and...

The electronic properties of graphene

This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic...

A Behavioral Model of Rational Choice

Introduction, 99. — I. Some general features of rational choice, 100.— II. The essential simplifications, 103. — III. Existence and uniqueness of solutions, 111. — IV. Further comments on dynamics, 113. — V. Conclusion, 114. — Appendix, 115.

Increasing Returns and Economic Geography

This paper develops a two-region, two-sector general equilibriun model of location. The location of agricultural production is fixed, but ionopolistcally competitive manufacturing finns choose their location to maximize profits. If transportation costs...

Light Scattering by Small Particles

Light Scattering by Small Particles

Role of Insulin Resistance in Human Disease

Resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is present in the majority of patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and in ∼25% of nonobese individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance. In...

Cancer statistics, 2015

Each year the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected...

Visible-Light Photocatalysis in Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Oxides

To use solar irradiation or interior lighting efficiently, we sought a photocatalyst with high reactivity under visible light. Films and powders of TiO2- x N x have revealed an improvement over titanium dioxide (TiO2) under visible light (wavelength <...

DETERMINANTS OF CORPORATE BORROWING

Many corporate assets, particularly growth opportunities, can be viewed as call options. The value of such ‘real options’ depends on discretionary future investment by the firm. Issuing risky debt reduces the present market value of a firm holding...

Fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed: algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations

We devise new numerical algorithms, called PSC algorithms, for following fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front also can be passively advected by an underlying flow. These...

Volume of Fluid (VOF) MeThod for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries

Several methods have been previously used to approximate free boundaries in tinitedifference numerical simulations. A simple, but powerful, method is described that is based on the concept of a fractional volume of fluid (VOF). This method is shown to...

On Limits of Wireless Communications in a Fading Environment when UsingMultiple Antennas

This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bit-rates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine...

A = B?

In this prescription we'll describe one technique for working with extremely large integers having perhaps thousands of digits, using only standard hardware and software. This technique uses modular arithmetic in a way that lets us recover the actual...

Bevacizumab plus Irinotecan, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

background Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has shown promising preclinical and clinical activity against metastatic colorectal cancer, particularly in combination with chemotherapy. methods Of 813 patients...

The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases

Sydney Chapman, T. G. Cowling, David Park

Geography and Trade

"I have spent my whole professional life as an international economist thinking and writing about economic geography, without being aware of it," begins Paul Krugman in the readable and anecdotal style that has become a hallmark of his writings. Krugman...

The WEKA data mining software: an update

More than twelve years have elapsed since the first public release of WEKA. In that time, the software has been rewritten entirely from scratch, evolved substantially and now accompanies a text on data mining [35]. These days, WEKA enjoys widespread acceptance...

Being and Time

Martin Heidegger, John Macquarrie, Edward J. Robinson

Electron affinities of the first‐row atoms revisited. Systematic basis sets and wave functions

The calculation of accurate electron affinities (EAs) of atomic or molecular species is one of the most challenging tasks in quantum chemistry. We describe a reliable procedure for calculating the electron affinity of an atom and present results for hydrogen,...

WordNet : an electronic lexical database

Adam Kilgarriff, Christiane Fellbaum

A Theory of Human Motivation

A Theory of Human Motivation

Ant colony optimization

Swarm intelligence is a relatively new approach to problem solving that takes inspiration from the social behaviors of insects and of other animals. In particular, ants have inspired a number of methods and techniques among which the most studied and...

First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Determination of Cosmological Parameters

WMAP precision data enable accurate testing of cosmological models. We find that the emerging standard model of cosmology, a flat � -dominated universe seeded by a nearly scale-invariant adiabatic Gaussian fluctuations, fits the WMAP data. For the WMAP...

A Theory of Social Comparison Processes

Hypothesis I: There exists, in the human organism, a drive to evaluate his opinions and his abilities. While opinions and abilities may, at first glance, seem to be quite different things, there is a close functional tie between them. They act together...

A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood

The increase in the number of large data sets and the complexity of current probabilistic sequence evolution models necessitates fast and reliable phylogeny reconstruction methods. We describe a new approach, based on the maximumlikelihood principle,...

Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior

We develop and analyze low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. The underlying techniques exploit space diversity available through cooperating terminals' relaying signals...

The "What" and "Why" of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior

Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories,...

The hippocampus as a cognitive map

Aryeh Routtenberg, John O'Keefe, Lynn Nadel

Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation

Research studies focusing on the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples were reviewed for the years 1961 through June, 1986. A meta-analysis of the BDI's internal consistency estimates...

Differential Evolution – A Simple and Efficient Heuristic for Global Optimization over Continuous Spaces

A new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non-differentiable continuous space functions is presented. By means of an extensive testbed it is demonstrated that the new method converges faster and with more certainty than many other...

Population biology of plants

John L. Harper, Begon, M.Harper, J.L.Towsend, C.R.

Manual of clinical microbiology

Patrick R. Murray, Ellen Jo Baron, James H. Jorgensen, Michael A. Pfaller, Robert H. Yolken

Data clustering: a review

Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad...

Principles of neural science

Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessell

The stopping and range of ions in solids

This chapter reviews the physics associated with the penetration of energetic ions into solids. It describes the quantitative evaluation of how the ions lose energy to the solid and the final distribution of these ions after they stop within the solid....

Limited-dependent and qualitative variables in econometrics

This book presents the econometric analysis of single-equation and simultaneous-equation models in which the jointly dependent variables can be continuous, categorical, or truncated. Despite the traditional emphasis on continuous variables in econometrics,...

Competitive strategy : techniques for analyzing industries and competitors

Now nearing its 60th printing in English and translated into nineteen languages, Michael E. Porter's  Competitive Strategy has transformed the theory, practice, and teaching of business strategy throughout the world. Electrifying in its simplicity --...

Support-Vector Networks

The support-vector network is a new learning machine for two-group classification problems. The machine conceptually implements the following idea: input vectors are non-linearly mapped to a very high-dimension feature space. In this feature space a linear...

Isolation of Putative Progenitor Endothelial Cells for Angiogenesis

Putative endothelial cell (EC) progenitors or angioblasts were isolated from human peripheral blood by magnetic bead selection on the basis of cell surface antigen expression. In vitro, these cells differentiated into ECs. In animal models of ischemia,...

Definitions for Sepsis and Organ Failure and Guidelines for the Use of Innovative Therapies in Sepsis

Roger C. Bone, R.A. Balk, Frank B. Cerra, R. Phillip Dellinger, Alan M. Fein, William A. Knaus, Roland M. H. Schein, Sibbald Wj

Genetic Algorithms

From the Publisher:Genetic algorithms are probabilistic search techniques based on the principles of biological evolution. As a biological organism evolves to more fully adapt to its environment, a genetic algorithm follows a path of analysis from which...

The psychology of attitudes

Alice H. Eagly, Shelly Chaiken

Dynamic Programming

This classic book is an introduction to dynamic programming, presented by the scientist who coined the term and developed the theory in its early stages. In Dynamic Programming, Richard E. Bellman introduces his groundbreaking theory and furnishes a new...

Response surface methodology : process and product optimization using designed experiments

Raymond H. Myers, Douglas C. Montgomery, Christine M. Anderson-Cook

Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells

Sayda M. Elbashir, Jens Harborth, Winfried Lendeckel, Abdullah Yalcin, Klaus Weber

Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis

The purpose of this article is to determine whether the positive association between social support and well-being is attributable more to an overall beneficial effect of support (main- or direct-effect model) or to a process of support protecting persons...

Activating Mutations in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Underlying Responsiveness of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer to Gefitinib

background Most patients with non–small-cell lung cancer have no response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, about 10 percent of patients have a rapid and often dramatic clinical...

A robust layered control system for a mobile robot

A new architecture for controlling mobile robots is described. Layers of control system are built to let the robot operate at increasing levels of competence. Layers are made up of asynchronous modules that communicate over low-bandwidth channels. Each...

The advanced theory of statistics

The advanced theory of statistics

A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of two proteins.

A computer adaptable method for finding similarities in the amino acid sequences of two proteins has been developed. From these findings it is possible to determine whether significant homology exists between the proteins. This information is used to...

Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models

In this paper we consider estimation of the autoregressive error components model. When the autoregressive parameter is moderately large and the number of time series observations is moderately small, the usual Generalised Methods of Moments (GMM) estimator...

Self—Consistent Molecular Orbital Methods. XII. Further Extensions of Gaussian—Type Basis Sets for Use in Molecular Orbital Studies of Organic Molecules

Two extended basis sets (termed 5–31G and 6–31G) consisting of atomic orbitals expressed as fixed linear combinations of Gaussian functions are presented for the first row atoms carbon to fluorine. These basis functions are similar to the 4–31G...

Object recognition from local scale-invariant features

An object recognition system has been developed that uses a new class of local image features. The features are invariant to image scaling, translation, and rotation, and partially invariant to illumination changes and affine or 3D projection. These features...

A translation approach to portable ontology specifications

To support the sharing and reuse of formally represented knowledge among AI systems, it is useful to define the common vocabulary in which shared knowledge is represented. A specification of a representational vocabulary for a shared domain of discourse—definitions...

Nonlinear Control Systems

Alberto Isidori, M. Thoma, Eduardo D. Sontag, Bradley W. Dickinson, Alfred Fettweis, James L. Massey

Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008

Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20...

Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion

A new definition of scale-space is suggested, and a class of algorithms used to realize a diffusion process is introduced. The diffusion coefficient is chosen to vary spatially in such a way as to encourage intraregion smoothing rather than interregion...

Usability Engineering

Written by the author of the best-selling HyperText & HyperMedia, this book is an excellent guide to the methods of usability engineering. The book provides the tools needed to avoid usability surprises and improve product quality. Step-by-step information...

Spectrometric identification of organic compounds

Robert M. Silverstein, G. Clayton Bassler

PHYLOGENIES AND THE COMPARATIVE METHOD

Recent years have seen a growth in numerical studies using the comparative method. The method usually involves a comparison of two phenotypes across a range of species or higher taxa, or a comparison of one phenotype with an environmental variable. Objectives...

The theory of the growth of the firm

There are not many books that are genuine classics, and only a handful in business and management whose insights and ideas last for 50 years and more. This book is one of the very few 'must reads' for anybody seriously interested in the role of management...

The Amyloid Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease: Progress and Problems on the Road to Therapeutics

It has been more than 10 years since it was first proposed that the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be caused by deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in plaques in brain tissue. According to the amyloid hypothesis, accumulation of...

The Pfam protein families database

Pfam is a widely used database of protein families, currently containing more than 13 000 manually curated protein families as of release 26.0. Pfam is available via servers in the UK (http://pfam. ...

Higher transcendental functions

Bateman Manuscript, Harry Bateman, Arthur Erdélyi

The elements of statistical learning: data mining, inference, and prediction

During the past decade there has been an explosion in computation and information technology. With it have come vast amounts of data in a variety of fields such as medicine, biology, finance, and marketing. The challenge of understanding these data has...

The Cost of Capital, Corporation Finance and the Theory of Investment

The potential advantages of the market-value approach have long been appreciated; yet analytical results have been meager. What appears to be keeping this line of development from achieving its promise is largely the lack of an adequate theory of the...

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