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Sociology

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The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations

In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably...

Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage

Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has be­ come a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distrib­ uted across firms and that these differences are...

The presentation of self in everyday life

hen an individual enters the presence of oth ers, they commonly seek to acquire information about him or to bring into play information about him already possessed. They will be interested in his general socio-economic status, his concep tion of self,...

Distinction : a social critique of the judgement of taste

We publish here the main part of Bourdieu text, which comprises of the fragments of his famous book “Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste” (D. Gruski is responsible for the pages for choice).

The Strength of Weak Ties

Analysis of social networks is suggested as a tool for linking micro and macro levels of sociological theory. The procedure is illustrated by elaboration of the macro implications of one aspect of small-scale interaction: the strength of dyadic ties....

Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions In Modern Italy

Robert D. Putnam, Robert D. Putnam, Raffaella Y. Nanetti

Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital

In this paper, the concept of social capital is introduced and illustrated, its forms are described, the social structural conditions under which it arises are examined, and it is used in an analysis ol dropouts from high school. Use of the concept of...

Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness

How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although...

The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields

What makes organizations so similar? We contend that the engine of rationalization and bureaucratization has moved from the competitive marketplace to the state and the professions. Once a set of organizations emerges as a field, a paradox arises: rational...

Handbook of qualitative research

Norman K. Denzin, Yvonna S. Lincoln

Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods

Jill K. Welch, Michael Quinn Patton

Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony

Many formal organizational structures arise as reflections of rationalized institutional rules. The elaboration of such rules in modern states and societies accounts in part for the expansion and increased complexity of formal organizational structures....

Using thematic analysis in psychology

Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely-acknowledged, yet widely-used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically-flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline...

An economic theory of democracy

Downs presents a rational calculus of voting that has inspired much of the later work on voting and turnout. Particularly significant was his conclusion that a rational voter should almost never bother to vote. This conclusion, especially as elaborated...

Structural equations with latent variables

Clifford C. Clogg, Kenneth A. Bollen

Separation of Ownership and Control

ABSENT fiat, the form of organization that survives in an activity is the one that delivers the product demanded by customers at the lowest price while covering costs.1 Our goal is to explain the survival of organizations characterized by separation of...

Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being

Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theo~ has focused on the social-contextual...

A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation

This paper proposes a paradigm for managing the dynamic aspects of organizational knowledge creating processes. Its central theme is that organizational knowledge is created through a continuous dialogue between tacit and explicit knowledge. The nature...

Reproduction in education, society and culture

Pierre Bourdieu, Richard Nice, Tom Bottomore

Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform

Lee S. Shulman builds his foundation for teaching reform on an idea of teaching that emphasizes comprehension and reasoning, transformation and reflection. "This emphasis is justified," he writes, "by the resoluteness with which research and policy have...

An Integrative Model Of Organizational Trust

Scholars in various disciplines have considered the causes, nature, and effects of trust. Prior approaches to studying trust are considered, including characteristics of the trustor, the trustee, and the role of risk. A definition of trust and a model...

The second industrial divide : possibilities for prosperity

Two MacArthur Prize Fellows argue that to get out of its current economic crisis industry should abandon its attachment to standardized mass production for a system of flexible specialization

The social system

THE present volume is an attempt to bring together, in systematic and generalized form, the main outlines of a conceptual scheme for the analysis of the structure and processes of social systems. In the nature of the case, within the frame of reference...

Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity

Ulrich Beck, Mark A. Ritter

A Theory of Social Comparison Processes

Hypothesis I: There exists, in the human organism, a drive to evaluate his opinions and his abilities. While opinions and abilities may, at first glance, seem to be quite different things, there is a close functional tie between them. They act together...

Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis

Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret...

Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency

This article addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Self-per- cepts of efficacy influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the...

In Search of How People Change Applications to Addictive Behaviors

How people intentionally change addictive behaviors with and without treatment is not well understood by behavioral scientists. This article summarizes research on self-initiated and professionally facilitated change of addictive behaviors using the key...

Experience and education

"Experience and Education offers educators and teachers a positive philosophy of education. It evaluates the practices of both the traditional and the progressive schools and lucidly sets forth the defects of each of them. The volume, however, is in no...

Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge

From the Publisher:In Cultivating Communities of Practice, Etienne Wenger, Richard McDermott, and William M. Snyder argue that while communities form naturally, organizations need to become more proactive and systematic about developing and integrating...

The Nature of Human Values

Andrew J. Weigert, Milton Rokeach

The economics of discrimination

This second edition of Gary S. Becker's The Economics of Discrimination has been expanded to include three further discussions of the problem and an entirely new introduction which considers the contributions made by others in recent years and some of...

The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications

?The stakeholder theory has been advanced and justified in the management literature on the basis of its descriptive accuracy, instrumental power, and normative validity. These three aspects of the theory, although interrelated, are quite distinct; they...

The measurement of psychological androgyny.

This article describes the development of a new sex-role inventory that treats masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the...

Acts of meaning

Jerome Bruner argues that the cognitive revolution, with its current fixation on mind as "information processor;" has led psychology away from the deeper objective of understanding mind as a creator of meanings. Only by breaking out of the limitations...

BIRDS OF A FEATHER: Homophily in Social Networks

■ Abstract Similarity breeds connection. This principle—the homophily principle—structures network ties of every type, including marriage, friendship, work, advice, support, information transfer, exchange, comembership, and other types of relationship....

Agency Theory: An Assessment and Review

Agency theory is an important, yet controversial, theory. This paper reviews agency theory, its contributions to organization theory, and the extant empirical work and develops testable propositions. The conclusions are that agency theory (a) offers unique...

Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games

Domestic politics and international relations are often inextricably entangled, but existing theories (particularly “state-centric” theories) do not adequately account for these linkages. When national leaders must win ratification (formal or informal)...

Causality: models, reasoning, and inference

Written by one of the preeminent researchers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern analysis of causation. It shows how causality has grown from a nebulous concept into a mathematical theory with significant applications...

Social Capital: Prospects for a New Concept

A growing number oi sociologists, political scientists, economists, and organizational theorists have invoked the concept of social capital in the search for answers to a broadening range of questions being confronted in their own fields. Seeking to clarify...

The postmodern condition : a report on knowledge

Jean-Francois Lyotard, Geoffrey Bennington, Brian Massumi, Fredric Jameson

The Handbook of social psychology

Gardner Lindzey, Elliot Aronson

Social Identity Theory and the Organization

It is argued that (a) social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons; (b) social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors...

The cognitive structure of emotions

Andrew Ortony, Gerald L. Clore, Allan Collins

Structural Inertia and Organizational Change

Theory and research on organization-environment relations from a population ecology perspective have been based on the assumption that inertial pressures on structure are strong. This paper attempts to clarify the meaning of structural inertia and to...

Not So Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust

Our task is to adopt a multidisciplinary viewof trust within and between firms, in an effort tosynthesize and give insight into a fundamentalconstruct of organizational science. We seek toidentify the shared understandings of trustacross disciplines,...

Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology

This paper reviews the origins and definitions of social capital in the writings of Bourdieu, Loury, and Coleman, among other authors. It distinguishes four sources of social capital and examines their dynamics. Applications of the concept in the sociological...

The economic approach to human behavior

Since his pioneering application of economic analysis to racial discrimination, Gary S. Becker has shown that an economic approach can provide a unified framework for understanding all human behavior. In a highly readable selection of essays Becker applies...

Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide

Sharan B. Merriam, Rosemary S. Caffarella

Dilemmas in a general theory of planning

The search for scientific bases for confronting problems of social policy is bound to fail, becuase of the nature of these problems. They are “wicked” problems, whereas science has developed to deal with “tame” problems. Policy problems cannot...

The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion

This chapter outlines the two basic routes to persuasion. One route is based on the thoughtful consideration of arguments central to the issue, whereas the other is based on the affective associations or simple inferences tied to peripheral cues in the...

Inequity In Social Exchange

The process of exchange is almost continual in human interactions, and appears to have characteristics peculiar to itself, and to generate affect, motivation, and behavior that cannot be predicted unless exchange processes are understood. This chapter...

The human condition

The human condition

The production of space

The production of space

The archaeology of knowledge

The archaeology of knowledge

STRATEGIC RESPONSES TO INSTITUTIONAL PROCESSES

This article applies the convergent insights of institutional and resource dependence perspectives to the prediction of strategic responses to institutional processes. The article offers a typology of strategic responses that vary in active organizational...

Romantic Love Conceptualized as an Attachment Process

This article explores the possibility that romantic love is an attachment process--a biosocial process by which affectional bonds are formed between adult lovers, just as affectional bonds are formed earlier in life between human infants and their parents....

Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas.

Josephine Wtulich, Clifford R. Shaw, Henry D. McKay

The Benefits of Facebook ''Friends:'' Social Capital and College Students' Use of Online Social Network Sites

This study examines the relationship between use of Facebook, a popular online social network site, and the formation and maintenance of social capital. In addition to assessing bonding and bridging social capital, we explore a dimension of social capital...

Qualitative data analysis: a sourcebook of new methods

Linda S. Lotto, Matthew B. Miles, A. Michael Huberman

A Ladder of Citizen Participation

The heated controversy over “citizen participation,” “citizen control”, and “maximum feasible involvement of the poor,” has been waged largely in terms of exacerbated rhetoric and misleading euphemisms. To encourage a more enlightened dialogue,...

The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies

In this provocative and broad-ranging work, a distinguished team of authors argues that the ways in which knowledge — scientific, social and cultural — is produced are undergoing fundamental changes at the end of the twentieth century. They claim that...

The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach

The transaction cost approach to the study of economic organization regards the transaction as the basic unit of analysis and holds that an understanding of transaction cost economizing is central to the study of organizations. Applications of this approach...

Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment

■ Abstract The recent proliferation of scholarship on collective action frames and framing processes in relation to social movements indicates that framing processes have come to be regarded, alongside resource mobilization and political opportunity...

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