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A RATING SCALE FOR DEPRESSION

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THE ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF HANDEDNESS: THE EDINBURGH INVENTORY

The need for a simply applied quantitative assessment of handedness is discussed and some previous forms reviewed. An inventory of 20 items with a set of instructions and response- and computational-conventions is proposed and the results obtained from...

The Theory of Planned Behavior

Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors...

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxi­ ety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of...

Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions

Leona S. Aiken, Stephen G. West, Raymond R. Reno

Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach

In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and...

The magical number seven, plus or minus two : Some limits on our capacity for processing information

First, the span of absolute judgment and the span of immediate memory impose severe limitations on the amount of information that we are able to receive, process, and remember. By organizing the stimulus input simultaneously into several dimensions and...

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF BRIEF MEASURES OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECT: THE PANAS SCALES

In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures...

COMMON METHOD BIASES IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND RECOMMENDED REMEDIES

Philip M. Podsakoff, Scott B. MacKenzie, Jeong-Yeon Lee, Nathan P. Podsakoff

Observational Study of Behavior: Sampling Methods

Seven major types of sampling for observational studies of social behavior have been found in the literature. These methods differ considerably in their suitability for providing unbiased data of various kinds. Below is a summary of the major recommended...

The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia

Stanley R. Kay, Abraham Fiszbein, Lewis A. Opler

Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.

People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition,...

Thought and language

A. Wilkes, L. S. Vygotsky, Eugenia Hanfmann, Gertrude Vakar

Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning

Many teaching practices implicitly assume that conceptual knowledge can be abstracted from the situations in which it is learned and used. This article argues that this assumption inevitably limits the effectiveness of such practices. Drawing on recent...

The Satisfaction with Life Scale

This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction...

Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

The STAI serves as an indicator of two types of anxiety, the state and trait anxiety, and measure the severity of the overall anxiety level.The STAI, which is appropriate for those who have at least a sixth grade reading level, contains four-point Likert...

Advances in experimental social psychology

Berkowitz, Leonard, 1926-, Mark P. Zanna

Qualitative inquiry and research design : choosing among five traditions

This book explores the philosophical underpinnings, history and key elements of five qualitative inquiry traditions: biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and case study. John W Creswell relates research designs to each of the traditions...

Verbal Reports as Data.

K. Anders Ericsson, Herbert A. Simon

Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey

Background: This study presents estimates of lifetime and 12-monthprevalence of 14 DSM-III-Rpsychiatricdisorders from the National Comorbidity Survey, the first survey to administer a structured psychiatric interview to a national probability sample in...

User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view

Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we (1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models, (2) empirically compare...

A Feature-Integration Theory of Attention

A new hypothesis about the role of focused attention is proposed. The feature-integration theory of attention suggests that attention must be directed serially to each stimulus in a display whenever conjunctions of more than one separable feature are...

Generalized Expectancies for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement

Generalized Expectancies for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement

THE BRIEF PSYCHIATRIC RATING SCALE

John E. Overall, Donald R. Gorham

THE SOCIAL READJUSTMENT RATING SCALE

IN PREVIOUS studies [l] it has been established that a cluster of social events requiring change in ongoing life adjustment is significantly associated with the time of illness onset. Similarly, the relationship of what has been called ‘life stress,’...

A Theory of Human Motivation

A Theory of Human Motivation

The "What" and "Why" of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior

Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories,...

The hippocampus as a cognitive map

Aryeh Routtenberg, John O'Keefe, Lynn Nadel

Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation

Research studies focusing on the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples were reviewed for the years 1961 through June, 1986. A meta-analysis of the BDI's internal consistency estimates...

Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis

The purpose of this article is to determine whether the positive association between social support and well-being is attributable more to an overall beneficial effect of support (main- or direct-effect model) or to a process of support protecting persons...

An Attributional Theory of Achievement Motivation and Emotion

A theory of motivation and emotion is proposed in which causal ascriptions play a key role. It is first documented that in achievement-related contexts there are a few dominant causal perceptions. The perceived causes of success and failure share three...

The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.

A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness...

A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change.

The construction of a depression rating scale designed to be particularly sensitive to treatment effects is described. Ratings of 54 English and 52 Swedish patients on a 65 item comprehensive psychopathology scale were used to identify the 17 most commonly...

The nature of prejudice

Gordon W. Allport

Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes

Evidence is reviewed which suggests that there may be little or no direct intro­ spective access to higher order cognitive processes. Subjects are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware...

The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses...

An Inventory for Measuring Clinical Anxiety: Psychometric Properties.

Aaron T. Beck, Norman Epstein, Gary C. Brown, Robert A. Steer

Lifetime Prevalence and Age-of-Onset Distributions of DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

Ronald C. Kessler, Patricia Berglund, Olga Demler, Robert Jin, Kathleen R. Merikangas, Ellen E. Walters

Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys

Valid predictions for the direction of nonresponse bias were obtained from subjective estimates and extrapolations in an analysis of mail survey data from published studies. For estimates of the magnitude of bias, the use of extrapolations led to substantial...

Mild Cognitive Impairment: Clinical Characterization and Outcome

Results: The primary distinction between control subjects and subjects with MCI was in the area of memory, while other cognitive functions were comparable. However, when the subjects with MCI were compared with the patients with very mild AD, memory performance...

Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report

Summary-A new Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) designed specifically for rating depression in the elderly was tested for reliability and validity and compared with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRS-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale...

The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The Development and Validation of a Structured Diagnostic Psychiatric Interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10

David V. Sheehan, Yves Lecrubier, K. H. Sheehan, P. Amorim, J. Janavs, E. Weiller, T. Hergueta, R. Baker, Gc Dunbar

MOOD AND MEMORY

This article describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in subjects by hyp- notic suggestion to investigate the influence of emo- tions on memory and thinking. One result was that subjects exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall...

Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective

▪ Abstract The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life is the essence of humanness. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include...

Autopoiesis and cognition : the realization of the living

Humberto R. Maturana, Francisco J. Varela, Stafford Beer

Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation

The learned helplessness hypothesis is criticized and reformulated. The old hypothesis, when applied to learned helplessness in humans, has two major problems: (a) It does not distinguish between cases in which outcomes are uncontrollable for all people...

THE ATTENTION SYSTEM OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

Michael I. Posner, Steven E. Petersen

ASSESSING COPING STRATEGIES: A THEORETICALLY BASED APPROACH

We developed a muRidimensional coping inventory to assess the different ways in which people respond to stress. Five scales (of four items each) measure conceptually distinct aspects of problemfocused coping (active coping, planning, suppression of competing...

How people learn : brain, mind, experience, and school

Bransford, John D., Ed., Brown, Ann L., Ed., Cocking, Rodney R., Ed.

A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing

This paper presents a spreading-acti vation theory of human semantic processing, which can be applied to a wide range of recent experimental results. The theory is based on Quillian's theory of semantic memory search and semantic preparation, or priming....

Illusion and Well-Being: A Social Psychological Perspective on Mental Health

Many prominent theorists have argued that accurate perceptions of the self, the world, and the future are essential for mental health. Yet considerable research evidence suggests that overly positive selfevaluations, exaggerated perceptions of control...

The psychophysics toolbox

The Psychophysics Toolbox is a software package that supports visual psychophysics. Its routines provide an interface between a high-level interpreted language (MATLAB on the Macintosh) and the video display hardware. A set of example programs is included...

Construct validity in psychological tests

Lee J. Cronbach, Paul E. Meehl

Discourse and social psychology : beyond attitudes and behaviour

`Potter and Wetherell have genuinely presented us with a different way of working in social psychology. The book's clarity means that it has the power to influence a lot of people ill-at-ease with traditional social psychology but unimpressed with (or...

A handbook of social psychology

W. C. Allee, Carl Murchison

SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models.

Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more...

Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test

An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2-choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names), and the attribute in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words...

A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality

Past work has documented and described major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior: the mastery.oriented and the helpless patterns. In this article, we present a research-based model that accounts for these patterns in terms of underlying psychological...

Orienting of attention.

Bartlett viewed thinking as a high level skill exhibiting ballistic properties that he called its “point of no return”. This paper explores one aspect of cognition through the use of a simple model task in which human subjects are asked to commit...

Subjective Well-Being: Three Decades of Progress

W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen...

Finding Structure in Time

Time underlies many interesting human behaviors. Thus, the question of how to represent time in connectionist models is very important. One approach is to represent time implicitly by its effects on processing rather than explicitly (as in a spatial representation)....

Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literatures

This paper differs from previous examinations of organizational learning in that it is broader in scope and more evaluative of the literatures. Four constructs related to organizational learning knowledge acquisition, information distribution, information...

Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson’s disease

Sporadic Parkinson’s disease involves multiple neuronal systems and results from changes developing in a few susceptible types of nerve cells. Essential for neuropathological diagnosis are α-synuclein-immunopositive Lewy neurites and Lewy bodies. The...

Features of Similarity

The metric and dimensional assumptions that underlie the geometric representation of similarity are questioned on both theoretical and empirical grounds. A new set-theoretical approach to similarity is developed in which objects are represented as collections...

AN INTEGRATIVE THEORY OF PREFRONTAL CORTEX FUNCTION

▪ Abstract The prefrontal cortex has long been suspected to play an important role in cognitive control, in the ability to orchestrate thought and action in accordance with internal goals. Its neural basis, however, has remained a mystery. Here, we...

Handbook of social psychology

Susan T. Fiske, Gardner Lindzey

The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement

Information theory has recently been employed to specify more precisely than has hitherto been possible man's capacity in certain sensory, perceptual, and perceptual-motor functions (5, 10, 13, 15, 17, 18). The experiments reported in the present paper...

The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire

We examine and refine the Pagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (PTQ Pagerstrom, 1978). The relation between each PTQ item and biochemical measures of heaviness of smoking was examined in 254 smokers. We found that the nicotine rating item and the inhalation...

Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research.

In 1984, Jacobson, Follette, and Revenstorf defined clinically significant change as the extent to which therapy moves someone outside the range of the dysfunctional population or within the range of the functional population. In the present article,...

Handbook of social psychology

Susan T. Fiske, Daniel T. Gilbert, Gardner Lindzey

Positive psychology : An introduction

Martin E. P. Seligman, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration A consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria

Article abstract-Objectiue: To improve clinical recognition and provide research diagnostic criteria for three clinical syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Methods: Consensus criteria for the three prototypic syndromes-frontotemporal...

The measurement of organizational commitment

This paper summarizes a stream of research aimed at developing and validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, is called the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)....

Distributed Hierarchical Processing in the Primate Cerebral Cortex

In recent years, many new cortical areas have been identified in the macaque monkey. The number of identified connections between areas has increased even more dramatically. We report here on (1) a summary of the layout of cortical areas associated with...

Organizational Learning and Communities-of-Practice: Toward a Unified View of Working, Learning, and Innovation

Recent ethnographic studies of workplace practices indicate that the ways people actually work usually differ fundamentally from the ways organizations describe that work in manuals, training programs, organizational charts, and job descriptions. Nevertheless,...

Possessions and Self

Russell W. Belk

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note

In the Millennium Cohort Study, ‘behaviour’ was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. This paper describes this brief behavioural screening questionnaire that provides balanced coverage of children and young people's behaviours,...

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