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Decreased Catecholamine Sensitivity and β-Adrenergic-Receptor Density in Failing Human Hearts

To identify the role of the myocardial β-adrenergic pathway in congestive heart failure, we examined β-adrenergic-receptor density, adenylate cyclase and creatine kinase activities, muscle contraction in vitro, and myocardial contractile protein levels...

Systems Analysis of Adverse Drug Events

To the Editor. —There is no question that the contributions made by Dr Bates and colleagues1 and Dr Leape and colleagues2 are important to our knowledge and understanding of adverse drug events. Their research could make a real difference in the health...

Improved Survival with Preoperative Radiotherapy in Resectable Rectal Cancer

Background Adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer has been extensively studied, but no trial has unequivocally demonstrated improved overall survival with radiotherapy, despite a reduction in the rate of local recurrence. Methods Between March 1987 and...

Depression following myocardial infarction : impact on 6-month survival

Objective. —To determine if the diagnosis of major depression in patients hospitalized following myocardial infarction (Ml) would have an independent impact on cardiac mortality over the first 6 months after discharge.Design. —Prospective evaluation...

Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults

DeWitt S. Goodman, Stephen B. Hulley, C. E. Davis, Valentin Fuster, John C. LaRosa, Albert Oberman, Ernst J. Schaefer, Daniel Steinberg, W.Virgil Brown, Scott M. Grundy, Diane M. Becker, Edwin L. Bierman, Neil J. Stone, Donald B. Hunninghake, Jacqueline Dunbar, Henry N. Ginsberg, D. Roger Illingworth, Harold C. Sadin, James I. Cleeman, H. Bryan Brewer, Nancy D. Ernst, William T. Friedewald, Jeffrey M. Hoeg, Basil M. Rifkind, David Gordon

Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Trial, Phase I: A comparison between intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and intravenous streptokinase. Clinical findings through hospital discharge.

Intravenous administration of 80 mg of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, 40, 20, and 20 mg in successive hours) and streptokinase (SK, 1.5 million units over 1 hr) was compared in a double-blind, randomized trial in 290 patients with evolving...

Improving Chronic Illness Care: Translating Evidence Into Action

Edward H. Wagner, Brian T. Austin, Connie Davis, Mike Hindmarsh, Judith Schaefer, Amy E. Bonomi

Mineral Metabolism, Mortality, and Morbidity in Maintenance Hemodialysis

Mortality rates in ESRD are unacceptably high. Dis- orders of mineral metabolism (hyperphosphatemia, hypercal- cemia, and secondary hyperparathyroidism) are potentially modifiable. For determining associations among disorders of mineral metabolism, mortality,...

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate to a Cardiomyocyte Phenotype in the Adult Murine Heart

Catalin Toma, Mark F. Pittenger, Kevin S. Cahill, Barry J. Byrne, Paul D. Kessler

Shared decision-making in the medical encounter: what does it mean? (or it takes at least two to tango).

Shared decision-making is increasingly advocated as an ideal model of treatment decision-making in the medical encounter. To date, the concept has been rather poorly and loosely defined. This paper attempts to provide greater conceptual clarity about...

Infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis.

Background: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor (alpha), is an established treatment for Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis. Methods: Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies - the...

Observations on the systemic administration of autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2 to patients with metastatic cancer

We describe here the preliminary results of the systemic administration of autologous lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and the recombinant-derived lymphokine interleukin-2 to patients with advanced cancer. This regimen was based on animal models...

Interventions for preventing obesity in children

Childhood obesity can cause social, psychological and health problems, and is linked to obesity later in life and poor health outcomes as an adult. Obesity development is related to physical activity and nutrition. To prevent obesity, 55 studies conducted...

Homocysteine and atherothrombosis.

In 1969, McCully made the clinical observation linking elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations with vascular disease.1 He reported autopsy evidence of extensive arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis in two children with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine...

Guías de práctica clínica para el manejo de la candidiasis: actualización del 2009, de la Infectious Diseases Society of America

Peter G. Pappas, Carol A. Kauffman, David R. Andes, D. Benjamin, Thierry Calandra, John E. Edwards, Scott G. Filler, John F. Fisher, Bart-Jan Kullberg, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Annette C. Reboli, John H. Rex, Thomas J. Walsh, Jack D. Sobel

Impact of Aortic Stiffness on Survival in End-Stage Renal Disease

Background—Damage to large arteries is a major factor in the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increased arterial stiffness and intima-media thickness, together with increased pulse pressure,...

Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS)

SummaryBackground Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is thought to have a role in prevention of atherosclerosis, through inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. Some epidemiological studies have shown an association between high dietary intake or high...

A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder : The GAD-7

Robert L. Spitzer, Kurt Kroenke, Janet B. W. Williams, Bernd Löwe

A simple noninvasive index can predict both significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C

Information on the stage of liver fibrosis is essential in managing chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. However, most models for predicting liver fibrosis are complicated and separate formulas are needed to predict significant fibrosis and cirrhosis....

Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

Influence of the Internal-Mammary-Artery Graft on 10-Year Survival and Other Cardiac Events

We compared patients who received an internal-mammary-artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery alone or combined with one or more saphenous-vein grafts (n = 2306) with patients who had only saphenous-vein bypass grafts (n = 3625). The 10-year...

Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Mortality in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Background Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are a risk factor for coronary heart disease, but the prognostic value of homocysteine levels in patients with established coronary artery disease has not been defined. Methods We prospectively investigated...

Guidelines on myocardial revascularization The Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS)

Guidelines on myocardial revascularization : The Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS)

Chronic graft-versus-host syndrome in man ☆: A long-term clinicopathologic study of 20 seattle patients

This study of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) describes the clinical, pathologic and laboratory features, and the causes of morbidity and mortality in 20 patients who received allogeneic marrow transplants from HLA identical sibling donors. Chronic...

Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) feasibility study

Jenny L Donovan, Freddie C. Hamdy, David Neal, Peters Tj, Steven Oliver, L. Brindle, D. Jewell, Philip Powell, David Gillatt, Daniel Dedman, Nicola Mills, Monica L. Smith, Sian Noble, A. Lane

European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice

Guidelines aim to present all the relevant evidence on a particular issue in order to help physicians to weigh the benefits and risks of a particular diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. They should be helpful in everyday clinical decision-making.A great...

Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Revision 2006 A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee

Improving diet and lifestyle is a critical component of the American Heart Association's strategy for cardiovascular disease risk reduction in the general population. This document presents recommendations designed to meet this objective. Specific goals...

Postmenopausal estrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease. Ten-year follow-up from the nurses' health study.

Meir J. Stampfer, Colditz Ga, Walter C. Willett, Manson Je, B. Rosner, Speizer Fe, Hennekens Ch

Neurohumoral Features of Myocardial Stunning Due to Sudden Emotional Stress

background Reversible left ventricular dysfunction precipitated by emotional stress has been reported, but the mechanism remains unknown. methods We evaluated 19 patients who presented with left ventricular dysfunction after sudden emotional stress. All...

AHA/ACC Guidelines for Secondary Prevention for Patients With Coronary and Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: 2006 Update Endorsed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Sidney C. Smith, Jerilyn Allen, Steven N. Blair, Robert O. Bonow, Lawrence M. Brass, Gregg C. Fonarow, Scott M. Grundy, Loren F. Hiratzka, Daniel W. Jones, Harlan M. Krumholz, Lori Mosca, Richard C. Pasternak, Thomas A. Pearson, Marc A. Pfeffer, Kathryn A. Taubert

Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: executive summary (update 2005) The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology

Karl Swedberg, John G.F. Cleland, Henry Dargie, Helmut Drexler, Ferenc Follath, Michel Komajda, Luigi Tavazzi, Otto A. Smiseth, Gavazzi A, Axel Haverich, Arno W. Hoes, Willem J. Remme

A Critical Appraisal of the Quality of Quality-of-Life Measurements

Objective. —To evaluate how well quality of life is being measured in the medical literature and to offer a new approach to the measurement.Data Sources. —Original English-language articles having the term "quality of life" in their titles were identified...

Beneficial Effects of Combined Colestipol-Niacin Therapy on Coronary Atherosclerosis and Coronary Venous Bypass Grafts

The Cholesterol-Lowering Atherosclerosis Study (CLAS) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, angiographic trial testing combined colestipol hydrochloride and niacin therapy in 162 nonsmoking men aged 40 to 59 years with previous coronary bypass surgery....

Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27 000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study

Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the most predictive measure for different ethnic populations is not clear. We aimed to assess whether markers of obesity, especially waist-to-hip ratio, would be stronger indicators of myocardial...

Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results from the Fracture Intervention Trial.

Context.— Alendronate sodium reduces fracture risk in postmenopausal women who have vertebral fractures, but its effects on fracture risk have not been studied for women without vertebral fractures.Objective.— To test the hypothesis that 4 years of...

Wall stress and patterns of hypertrophy in the human left ventricle.

A B S T R A C T It is generally recognized that chronic left ventricular (LV) pressure overload results primarily in wall thickening and concentric hypertrophy, while chronic LV volume overload is characterized by chamber enlargement and an eccentric...

Systematic review of randomized trials for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: Chemoembolization improves survival

There is no standard treatment for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Survival benefits derived from medical interventions are controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the evidence of the impact of medical...

Preexposure Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men Who Have Sex with Men

The study subjects were followed for 3324 person-years (median, 1.2 years; maximum, 2.8 years). Of these subjects, 10 were found to have been infected with HIV at en rollment, and 100 became infected during follow-up (36 in the FTC–TDF group and 64...

New visual acuity charts for clinical research.

Frederick L. Ferris, Aaron Kassoff, George H. Bresnick, Ian L. Bailey

Atorvastatin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Undergoing Hemodialysis

background Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the benefit of statins in such patients receiving hemodialysis, who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease and death, has not been...

The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance.

The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance.

Vitamin E Consumption and the Risk of Coronary Disease in Women

Background Interest in the antioxidant vitamin E as a possible protective nutrient against coronary disease has intensified with the recognition that oxidized low-density lipoprotein may be involved in atherogenesis. Methods In 1980, 87,245 female nurses...

Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States.

Context Obesity is a major health problem in the United States, but the number of obesity-attributable deaths has not been rigorously estimated.Objective To estimate the number of deaths, annually, attributable to obesity among US adults.Design Data from...

Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy reported in meta-analyses?

Summary Background Few meta-analyses of randomised trials assess the quality of the studies included. Yet there is increasing evidence that trial quality can affect estimates of intervention efficacy. We investigated whether different methods of quality...

The resurgence of platinum-based cancer chemotherapy

The accidental discovery of the anticancer properties of cisplatin and its clinical introduction in the 1970s represent a major landmark in the history of successful anticancer drugs. Although carboplatin — a second-generation analogue that is safer...

The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Part I. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease.

John C. Morris, Albert Heyman, Richard C. Mohs, J. P. Hughes, G. van Belle, Gerda G. Fillenbaum, E. D. Mellits, Christopher M. Clark

The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study A Randomized Trial Determines That Topical Ocular Hypotensive Medication Delays or Prevents the Onset of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

Michael A. Kass, Dale K. Heuer, Eve J. Higginbotham, Chris A. Johnson, John L. Keltner, J. Philip Miller, Richard K. Parrish, M. Roy Wilson, Mae O. Gordon

Birth and Death of Bone Cells: Basic Regulatory Mechanisms and Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Osteoporosis1

The adult skeleton regenerates by temporary cellular structures that comprise teams of juxtaposed osteoclasts and osteoblasts and replace periodically old bone with new. A considerable body of evidence accumulated during the last decade has shown that...

Estimated Risks of Radiation-Induced Fatal Cancer from Pediatric CT

OBJECTIVE. In light of the rapidly increasing frequency of pediatric CT examinations, the purpose of our study was to assess the lifetime cancer mortality risks attributable to radiation from pediatric CT.MATERIALS AND METHODS. Organ doses as a function...

TREATMENT OF ASPERGILLOSIS: CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES OF THE INFECTIOUS DISEASES SOCIETY OF AMERICA

Thomas J. Walsh, Elias Anaissie, David W. Denning, Raoul Herbrecht, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Kieren A. Marr, Vicki A. Morrison, Brahm H. Segal, William J. Steinbach, David A. Stevens, Jo-Anne H. van Burik, John R. Wingard, Thomas F. Patterson

The Inverse Relation between Fish Consumption and 20-Year Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease

The relationship between fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality is examined for a group of men living in Zutphen Netherlands. "Information about the fish consumption of 852 middle-aged men without coronary heart disease was collected in...

Results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial after completion of 5 years' adjuvant treatment for breast cancer

Results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial after completion of 5 years' adjuvant treatment for breast cancer The standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive localised breast...

A Population-Based Perspective of the Hospital Incidence and Case-Fatality Rates of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: The Worcester DVT Study

Frederick A. Anderson, H. Brownell Wheeler, Robert J. Goldberg, David W. Hosmer, Nilima A. Patwardhan, Borko Jovanovic, Ann Forcier, James E. Dalen

Once-Yearly Zoledronic Acid for Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Background A single infusion of intravenous zoledronic acid decreases bone turnover and improves bone density at 12 months in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We assessed the effects of annual infusions of zoledronic acid on fracture risk during...

Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction: the CHARM-Preserved Trial

Summary Background Half of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), but few treatments have specifically been assessed in such patients. In previous studies of patients with CHF and low LVEF or...

HTLV-I ASSOCIATED MYELOPATHY, A NEW CLINICAL ENTITY

Mitsuhiro Osame, Shuji Izumo, Naomi Ijichi, Hiroyoko Amitani, Akihiro Igata, Makoto Matsumoto, Tara M

Role of computerized physician order entry systems in facilitating medication errors.

Ross Koppel, Joshua P. Metlay, Abigail Cohen, Brian Abaluck, A. Russell Localio, Stephen E. Kimmel, Brian L. Strom

The estimation of the bactericidal power of the blood

Arnold Miles, S. S. Misra, J. O. Irwin

An Epidemic, Toxin Gene-Variant Strain of Clostridium difficile

background Recent reports suggest that the rate and severity of Clostridium difficile –associated disease in the United States are increasing and that the increase may be associated with the emergence of a new strain of C. difficile with increased virulence,...

Molecular Bases of the Acute Coronary Syndromes

The acute coronary syndromes, including unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction, currently constitute a major preoccupation of clinical cardiology. This century has witnessed a remarkable evolution in our clinical concepts of these syndromes....

Immunohistochemical and Clinical Characterization of the Basal-Like Subtype of Invasive Breast Carcinoma

Purpose: Expression profiling studies classified breast carcinomas into estrogen receptor (ER)/luminal, normal breast-like, HER2 overexpressing, and basal-like groups, with the latter two associated with poor outcomes. Currently, there exist clinical...

Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data

Despite more than 70 randomised trials, the effect of chemotherapy on non-metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma remains uncertain. We did three meta-analyses of the impact of survival on chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment.

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a comprehensive research synthesis.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the effects of antipsychotics—both the newer ones and the conventional ones—on body weight. Method: A comprehensive literature search identified 81 English- and non-English-language...

Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer.

Bernard Fisher, John Bryant, Norman Wolmark, Eleftherios P. Mamounas, Ann M. Brown, Edwin R. Fisher, D L Wickerham, Mirsada Begovic, André Robidoux, Richard G. Margolese, Anatolio B. Cruz, A W Lees, Harry D. Bear

American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Guideline Recommendations for Immunohistochemical Testing of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Breast Cancer

Purpose: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor(ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors aspredictive markers.Methods: The American Society of...

Trends in Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in the United States, 1988-2000

Context Prior analyses of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data through 1991 have suggested that hypertension prevalence is declining, but more recent self-reported rates of hypertension suggest that the rate is increasing.Objective...

Prevalence, Age Distribution, and Gender of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Analysis and Implications

William M. Feinberg, Andreas Laupacis, Richard A. Kronmal, Robert G. Hart

Common carotid intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study

Michiel L. Bots, Arno W. Hoes, Peter J. Koudstaal, Albert Hofman, Diederick E. Grobbee

A Self-complete Measure of Health Status for Chronic Airflow Limitation: The St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire

SUMMARY A need wasIdentified for a fixed-format self-complete questionnaire for measuring health In chronic airflow limitation. A 76·ltem questionnaire was developed, the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Three component scores were calculated:...

Morbidity at Bone Graft Donor Sites

Edward M. Younger, Michael W. Chapman

Development of Eating Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents

The prevalence of obesity among children is high and is increasing. We know that obesity runs in families, with children of obese parents at greater risk of developing obesity than children of thin parents. Research on genetic factors in obesity has provided...

Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder

Objective. —To estimate the rates and patterns of major depression and bipolar disorder based on cross-national epidemiologic surveys.Design and Setting. —Population-based epidemiologic studies using similar methods from 10 countries: the United States,...

DOES CORRECTIONAL TREATMENT WORK? A CLINICALLY RELEVANT AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY INFORMED META‐ANALYSIS *

D. A. Andrews, Ivan Zinger, J. V. Bonta, Paul Gendreau, Francis T. Cullen

Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects: a prospective investigation

We performed magnetic resonance imaging on sixty-seven individuals who had never had low-back pain, sciatica, or neurogenic claudication. The scans were interpreted independently by three neuro-radiologists who had no knowledge about the presence or absence...

Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study.

Enhancing daily functioning and well-being is an increasingly advocated goal in the treatment of patients with chronic conditions. We evaluated the functioning and well-being of 9385 adults at the time of office visits to 362 physicians in three US cities,...

Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels in Overweight and Obese Adults

Context Human adipose tissue expresses and releases the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6, potentially inducing low-grade systemic inflammation in persons with excess body fat.Objective To test whether overweight and obesity are associated with low-grade...

A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of adding a protease inhibitor to two nucleoside analogues to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are not clear. We compared treatment with the protease inhibitor indinavir in addition to zidovudine...

A Controlled Trial to Improve Care for Seriously III Hospitalized Patients: The Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments (SUPPORT)

Objectives. —To improve end-of-life decision making and reduce the frequency of a mechanically supported, painful, and prolonged process of dying.Design. —A 2-year prospective observational study (phase I) with 4301 patients followed by a 2-year controlled...

Oxford textbook of palliative medicine

Derek Doyle, Geoffrey Hanks, Neil MacDonald

Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute hemispheric stroke. The European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS)

Objective. —To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke.Design. —Randomized, prospective, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled...

Antibiotic Therapy in Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Jure Manfreda, C. P. W. Warren, Hershfield Es, G. K. M. Harding, N. A. Nelson

Principles and practice of radiation oncology

Carlos A. Perez, Luther W. Brady

Myocardial Reperfusion Injury

Lethal reperfusion injury is a paradoxical type of myocardial injury caused by the restoration of coronary blood flow after an ischemic episode. This review focuses on the mechanisms of the injury, on attempts to protect the heart against it, and on promising...

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Patients Treated with Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin or Unfractionated Heparin

Background Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, defined by the presence of heparin-dependent IgG antibodies, typically occurs five or more days after the start of heparin therapy and can be complicated by thrombotic events. The frequency of heparin-induced...

Laparoscopy-assisted colectomy versus open colectomy for treatment of non-metastatic colon cancer: a randomised trial

Summary Background Although early reports on laparoscopy-assisted colectomy (LAC) in patients with colon cancer suggested that it reduces perioperative morbidity, its influence on long-term results is unknown. Our study aimed to compare efficacy of LAC...

Effects of risedronate treatment on vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis : a randomized controlled trial

Context Risedronate, a potent bisphosphonate, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Paget disease of bone and other metabolic bone diseases but, to our knowledge, it has not been evaluated in the treatment of established postmenopausal osteoporosis.Objective...

Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Context The survival benefit of well-performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is well-documented, but little objective data exist regarding actual CPR quality during cardiac arrest. Recent studies have challenged the notion that CPR is uniformly...

Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: prospective analysis of 18 820 patients

Objective To ascertain the current burden of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through a prospective analysis of all admissions to hospital. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Two large general hospitals in Merseyside, England. Participants 18...

Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: randomised trial—the Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II

The ELITE study showed an association between the angiotensin II antagonist losartan and an unexpected survival benefit in elderly heart-failure patients, compared with captopril, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. We did the ELITE II Losartan...

Hemodynamic Shear Stress and Its Role in Atherosclerosis

Adel M. Malek, Seth L. Alper, Seigo Izumo

Human Gastric Carcinogenesis: A Multistep and Multifactorial Process—First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Evidence from pathology and epidemiology studies has been provided for a human model of gastric carcinogenesis with the following sequential stages: chronic gastritis; atrophy; intestinal metaplasia; and dysplasia. The initial stages of gastritis and...

The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction.

A prospective epidemiological study of the early stages of the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was performed on London working men. The findings showed that forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) falls gradually over a lifetime,...

Guidelines for the Echocardiographic Assessment of the Right Heart in Adults: A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Endorsed by the European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology,

Lawrence G. Rudski, Renee L. Bess, Farooq A. Chaudhry, Benjamin W. Eidem, Gregory J. Ensing, Kathryn E. Glas, Sandra L. Hagen-Ansert, Rebecca T. Hahn, Jeannie Heirs, Shunichi Homma, Sanjiv Kaul, Smadar Kort, Peg Knoll, Wyman W. Lai, Roberto M. Lang, Steven Lavine, Steven J. Lester, Renee Margossian, Victor Mor-Avi, Sherif F. Nagueh, Alan S. Pearlman, Patricia A. Pellikka

Concurrent Cisplatin-Based Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

Background and Methods On behalf of the Gynecologic Oncology Group, we performed a randomized trial of radiotherapy in combination with three concurrent chemotherapy regimens — cisplatin alone; cisplatin, fluorouracil, and hydroxyurea; and hydroxyurea...

Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework.

This paper proposes the RE-AIM model for evaluating public health interventions that assesses five dimensions namely reach efficacy adoption implementation and maintenance. These dimensions occur at multiple levels such as the organizational or community...

Intrauterine Infection and Preterm Delivery

Preterm delivery is the chief problem in obstetrics today, accounting for 70 percent of perinatal mortality and nearly half of long-term neurologic morbidity.1,2 Approximately 10 percent of all births are preterm, but most of the serious illness and death...

Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with persistent ST-segment elevation The Task Force on the management of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction of the European Society of Cardiology:

Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with persistent ST-segment elevation : the Task Force on the Management of ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology

A Randomized Trial of Surgery in the Treatment of Single Metastases to the Brain

To assess the efficacy of surgical resection of brain metastases from extracranial primary cancer, we randomly assigned patients with a single brain metastasis to either surgical removal of the brain tumor followed by radiotherapy (surgical group) or...

Coronary artery calcium score combined with Framingham score for risk prediction in asymptomatic individuals.

Context Guidelines advise that all adults undergo coronary heart disease (CHD) risk assessment to guide preventive treatment intensity. Although the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is often recommended for this, it has been suggested that risk assessment...

2009 Focused Updates: ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (Updating the 2004 Guideline and 2007 Focused Update) and ACC/AHA/SCAI Guidelines on Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (Updating the 2005

Frederick G. Kushner, Mary M. Hand, Sidney C. Smith, Spencer B. King, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Elliott M. Antman, Steven R. Bailey, Eric R. Bates, James C. Blankenship, Donald E. Casey, Lee A. Green, Judith S. Hochman, Alice K. Jacobs, Harlan M. Krumholz, Douglass A. Morrison, Joseph P. Ornato, David L. Pearle, Eric D. Peterson, Michael A. Sloan, Patrick L. Whitlow, David O. Williams

Phase II Trial of Cetuximab in Patients With Refractory Colorectal Cancer That Expresses the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

Purpose To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity of single-agent cetuximab in patients with chemotherapyrefractory colorectal cancer whose tumors express the epidermal growth factor receptor. Patients and Methods Phase II, open-label clinical trial....

CLOSED-CHEST CARDIAC MASSAGE

When cardiac arrest occurs, either as standstill or as ventricular fibrillation, the circulation must be restored promptly; otherwise anoxia will result in irreversible damage. There are two techniques that may be used to meet the emergency: one is to...

Polychemotherapy for early breast cancer: An overview of the randomised trials

O Abe, Enomoto K, Koyama H, Y Nomura, Kazuko Sakai, K Sugimachi, T Tominaga, Junichi Uchino, M Yoshida, J Benraadt, Ao van de Velde, J.A. van Dongen, J.B. Vermorken, G Giokas, B Lissaios, Vernon Harvey, Tm Holdaway, Rg Kay, Bh Mason, A. S. Coates, J. F. Forbes, C. Focan, J.P. Lobelle, Gall Gates, J Powell, Durand M, Louis Mauriac, S. Bartholomeus, Martine Piccart, Rebecca Gelman, Iain Henderson, Shapiro Cl, Hancock A, Mb Masood, D Parker, Jammie Price, Stewart M. Jackson, Joseph Ragaz, J Mace-Lesec'h, J. L. Haybittle, Donald Berry, Hyman B. Muss, Larry Norton, M Baum, J Houghton, Deborah K. Riley, Dent Dm, Gudgeon Ca, A Hacking, Nh Gordon

The Natural History of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Background & Aims: The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the community remains unknown. We sought to determine survival and liver-related morbidity among community-based NAFLD patients. Methods: Four hundred twenty patients...

Randomised trial of interferon α2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon α2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus

Only 15–20% of patients with chronic hepatitis C achieve a sustained virological response with interferon therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of interferon α2b in combination with oral ribavirin with interferon alone,...

2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)

Hypertension is the most common condition seen in primary care and leads to myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and death if not detected early and treated appropriately. Patients want to be assured that blood pressure (BP) treatment will reduce...

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