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Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index: A Simple, Accurate Method for Assessing Insulin Sensitivity In Humans

Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. The “gold standard” glucose clamp and minimal model analysis are two established methods for determining...

Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME-MD 1000 study.

Objective. —To assess the validity and utility of PRIME-MD (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders), a new rapid procedure for diagnosing mental disorders by primary care physicians.Design. —Survey; criterion standard.Setting. —Four primary...

Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64.

C. N. Hales, David J. P. Barker, P. M. S. Clark, L J Cox, C. H. D. Fall, Clive Osmond, P Winter

Cancer Statistics, 2010†‡

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data regarding cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data...

Plasma Homocysteine as a Risk Factor for Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

Background In cross-sectional studies, elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been associated with poor cognition and dementia. Studies of newly diagnosed dementia are required in order to establish whether the elevated homocysteine levels precede the...

Intracoronary autologous bone-marrow cell transfer after myocardial infarction: the BOOST randomised controlled clinical trial

Summary Background Emerging evidence suggests that stem cells and progenitor cells derived from bone marrow can be used to improve cardiac function in patients after acute myocardial infarction. In this randomised trial, we aimed to assess whether intracoronary...

2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation; European Society of Cardiology; Guidelines; Anticoagulation; Novel oral anticoagulants; Left atrial appendage occlusion; Rate control; Cardioversion; Rhythm control; Antiarrhythmic drugs; Upstream therapy; Pulmonary vein isolation;...

Cardiovascular Events Associated with Rofecoxib in a Colorectal Adenoma Chemoprevention Trial

background Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) may be associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events, but only limited long-term data have been available for analysis. We report on the cardiovascular outcomes associated with the use...

EFFECT OF PSYCHOSOCIAL TREATMENT ON SURVIVAL OF PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC BREAST CANCER

The effect of psychosocial intervention on time of survival of 86 patients with metastatic breast cancer was studied prospectively. The 1 year intervention consisted of weekly supportive group therapy with self-hypnosis for pain. Both the treatment (n...

The Spread of the Obesity Epidemic in the United States, 1991-1998

Context The increasing prevalence of obesity is a major public health concern, since obesity is associated with several chronic diseases.Objective To monitor trends in state-specific data and to examine changes in the prevalence of obesity among adults.Design...

Glycemic Durability of Rosiglitazone, Metformin, or Glyburide Monotherapy

Background The efficacy of thiazolidinediones, as compared with other oral glucose-lowering medications, in maintaining long-term glycemic control in type 2 diabetes is not known. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone, metformin, and glyburide as initial...

Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal-occult-blood test

Summary Background Case-control studies and a voluntary-based follow-up study have suggested that repeated screening with faecal-occult-blood (FOB) tests can lead to a reduction in mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this randomised study...

Functional Gastroduodenal Disorders

While widely used in research, the 1991 Rome criteria for the gastroduodenal disorders, especially symptom subgroups in dyspepsia, remain contentious. After a comprehensive literature search, a consensus-based approach was applied, supplemented by input...

A nonparametric method for automatic correction of intensity nonuniformity in MRI data

A novel approach to correcting for intensity nonuniformity in magnetic resonance (MR) data is described that achieves high performance without requiring a model of the tissue classes present. The method has the advantage that it can be applied at an early...

Development of an upper extremity outcome measure: The DASH (disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and head)

This paper describes the development of an evaluative outcome measure for patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions. The goal is to produce a brief, self-administered measure of symptoms and functional status, with a focus on physical function,...

ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 Guidelines for Device-Based Therapy of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 Guideline Update for

Andrew E. Epstein, John P. DiMarco, Kenneth A. Ellenbogen, N.A. Mark Estes, Roger A. Freedman, Leonard S. Gettes, A. Marc Gillinov, Gabriel Gregoratos, Stephen C. Hammill, David L. Hayes, Mark A. Hlatky, L. Kristin Newby, Richard L. Page, Mark H. Schoenfeld, Michael J. Silka, Lynne Warner Stevenson, Michael O. Sweeney

Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial

Summary Background Reversal of the progressive increase in frequency of atopic disease would be an important breakthrough for health care and wellbeing in Western societies. In the hygiene hypothesis this increase is attributed to reduced microbial exposure...

Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys

Summary Background Data for trends in prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema over time are scarce. We repeated the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) at least 5 years after Phase One, to examine changes...

Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on the Risk of Death

Background —Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes substantial morbidity. It is uncertain whether AF is associated with excess mortality independent of associated cardiac conditions and risk factors.Methods and Results —We examined the mortality of subjects...

Efficacy of B-cell-targeted therapy with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

background An open-label study indicated that selective depletion of B cells with the use of rituximab led to sustained clinical improvements for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. To confirm these observations, we conducted a randomized, double-blind,...

The TIMI Risk Score for Unstable Angina/Non–ST Elevation MI: A Method for Prognostication and Therapeutic Decision Making

Elliott M. Antman, Marc Cohen, Bernink Pj, Carolyn H. McCabe, Thomas Horacek, Gary Papuchis, Branco Mautner, Ramón Corbalán, David Radley, Eugene Braunwald

Exercise Training and Nutritional Supplementation for Physical Frailty in Very Elderly People

Background Although disuse of skeletal muscle and undernutrition are often cited as potentially reversible causes of frailty in elderly people, the efficacy of interventions targeted specifically at these deficits has not been carefully studied. Methods...

Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Across a Biological Gradient of Serum Hepatitis B Virus DNA Level

Chien-Jen Chen, Hwai-I Yang, Jun Su, Chin-Lan Jen, San-Lin You, Sheng-Nan Lu, Guan-Tarn Huang, Uchenna H. Iloeje

Systematic reviews in health care : meta-analysis in context

The second edition of this best-selling book has been thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the significant changes and advances made in systematic reviewing. New features include discussion on the rationale, meta-analyses of prognostic and diagnostic...

Ipilimumab plus dacarbazine for previously untreated metastatic melanoma

Background Ipilimumab monotherapy (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight), as compared with glycoprotein 100, improved overall survival in a phase 3 study involving patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. We conducted a phase 3 study...

Circulating Tumor Cells, Disease Progression, and Survival in Metastatic Breast Cancer

background We tested the hypothesis that the level of circulating tumor cells can predict survival in metastatic breast cancer. methods In a prospective, multicenter study, we tested 177 patients with measurable metastatic breast cancer for levels of...

Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in the United States

Context As the epidemiology of infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) changes, accurate information on the scope and magnitude of MRSA infections in the US population is needed.Objectives To describe the incidence and distribution...

Involvement of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin—Producing Staphylococcus aureus in Primary Skin Infections and Pneumonia

Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin that causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis. It is produced by fewer than 5% of Staphylococcus aureus strains. A collection of 172 S. aureus strains were screened for PVL genes by polymerase chain...

Peripheral Arterial Disease Detection, Awareness, and Treatment in Primary Care

Adam T. Hirsh, Michael H. Criqui, Diane Treat-Jacobson

Prevalence of Hypertension in the US Adult Population Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991

Vicki L. Burt, Paul K. Whelton, Edward J. Roccella, Clarice D. Brown, Jeffrey A. Cutler, Millicent Higgins, Michael J. Horan, Darwin R. Labarthe

Decline in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after the Introduction of Protein–Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine

background In early 2000, a protein–polysaccharide conjugate vaccine targeting seven pneumococcal serotypes was licensed in the United States for use in young children. methods We examined population-based data from the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance...

Improving Primary Care for Patients With Chronic Illness

The chronic care model is a guide to higher-quality chronic illness management within primary care. The model predicts that improvement in its 6 interrelated components—self-management support, clinical information systems, delivery system redesign,...

Guide to Clinical Preventive Services

The physician's degree of resourcefulness, i.e., the ability to deal skillfully and promptly with new situations, is important for changing the health behaviors of patients within the constraints of a brief office visit. This quality, however, was in...

Using Standardized Serum Creatinine Values in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equation for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate

Andrew S. Levey, Josef Coresh, Tom Greene, Lesley A. Stevens, Yaping Zhang, Stephen Hendriksen, John W. Kusek, Frederick Van Lente

Effect of clinical guidelines on medical practice: a systematic review of rigorous evaluations.

Although interest in clinical guidelines has never been greater uncertainty persists about whether they are effective. The debate has been hampered by the lack of a rigorous overview. We have identified 59 published evaluations of clinical guidelines...

The relevance of the Lewy body to the pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

The Lewy body is a distinctive neuronal inclusion that is always found in the substantia nigra and other specific brain regions in Parkinson's disease. It is mainly composed of structurally altered neurofilament, and occurs wherever there is excessive...

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses

Adeeba Binti Kamarulzaman

Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life

David J. P. Barker, Keith M. Godfrey, Peter D. Gluckman, Jane E. Harding, Julie A. Owens, Jeffrey S. Robinson

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma outcome prediction by gene- expression profiling and supervised machine learning

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults, is curable in less than 50% of patients. Prognostic models based on pre-treatment characteristics, such as the International Prognostic Index (IPI), are currently used...

Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence.

Background: Depression and anxiety are common in medical patients and are associated with diminished health status and increased health care utilization. This article presents a quantitative review and synthesis of studies correlating medical patients’...

Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy.

Historical reports indicate that the observation of an adverse effect on the fetus of chronic maternal alcoholism is not new. Three additional cases of the fetal alcohol syndrome have been recognised in two newborn infants and a 7-month-old baby. The...

Qualitative research in health care

This fully revised and updated edition of Qualitative Research in Health Care offers a clear and accessible introduction to conducting and interpreting qualitative research, incorporating new examples, references and chapters relevant for a comprehensive...

European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012)

Examines Cardiovascular disease:  Prevention  Risk assessment  Risk management  Smoking  Nutrition  Physical activity  Psychosocial factors

Antitumor Activity of Thalidomide in Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Background Patients with myeloma who relapse after high-dose chemotherapy have few therapeutic options. Since increased bone marrow vascularity imparts a poor prognosis in myeloma, we evaluated the efficacy of thalidomide, which has antiangiogenic properties,...

Percutaneous Transcatheter Implantation of an Aortic Valve Prosthesis for Calcific Aortic Stenosis First Human Case Description

Alain Cribier, Hélène Eltchaninoff, Assaf Bash, Christophe Tron, Geneviève Derumeaux, Frédéric Anselme, Martin B. Leon

Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2014 Update

Alan S. Go, Dariush Mozaffarian, Véronique L. Roger, Emelia J. Benjamin, Jarett D. Berry, Michael J. Blaha, Shifan Dai, Earl S. Ford, Caroline S. Fox, Sheila Franco, Heather J. Fullerton, Cathleen Gillespie, Susan M. Hailpern, John A. Heit, Virginia J. Howard, Mark D. Huffman, Suzanne Judd, Brett Kissela, Steven J. Kittner, Daniel T. Lackland, Judith H. Lichtman, Lynda D. Lisabeth, Rachel H. Mackey, David J. Magid, Gregory M. Marcus, Ariane J. Marelli, David B. Matchar, Darren K. McGuire, Emile R. Mohler, Claudia S. Moy, Michael E. Mussolino, Robert W. Neumar, Graham Nichol, Dilip K. Pandey, Nina P. Paynter, Matthew J. Reeves, Paul D. Sorlie, Joel Stein, Amytis Towfighi, Tanya N. Turan, Salim S. Virani, Daniel Woo, Melanie B. Turner

Intensive Insulin Therapy and Pentastarch Resuscitation in Severe Sepsis

Background The role of intensive insulin therapy in patients with severe sepsis is uncertain. Fluid resuscitation improves survival among patients with septic shock, but evidence is lacking to support the choice of either crystalloids or colloids. Methods...

Ranibizumab versus Verteporfin for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Of the 423 patients enrolled, 94.3% of those given 0.3 mg of ranibizumab and 96.4% of those given 0.5 mg lost fewer than 15 letters, as compared with 64.3% of those in the verteporfin group (P<0.001 for...

Effects of atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute coronary syndromes. The MIRACL study : A randomized controlled trial.

Effects of atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute coronary syndromes. The MIRACL study : A randomized controlled trial.

Linking clinical variables with health-related quality of life. A conceptual model of patient outcomes.

HEALTH-related quality of life (HRQL) is increasingly used as an outcome in clinical trials, effectiveness research, and research on quality of care. Factors that have facilitated this increased usage include the accumulating evidence that measures of...

Incidence of coronary heart disease and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The Framingham Study.

The first report from the Framingham Study that demonstrated an inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) was based on four years of surveillance. These participants, aged...

Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: The Maastricht III Consensus Report

Extracts in abstract form and comments have been published in Italian. Short extracts have been published in GI Forefront, based on a presentation to the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology and a European short version release.Since the Maastricht conference...

VIRAL LOAD AND HETEROSEXUAL TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPE 1

The authors examined the influence of viral load in relation to other risk factors for the heterosexual transmission of HIV type 1 (HIV-1). In a community-based study of 15127 persons in a rural district of Uganda the authors identified 415 couples in...

Early and sustained dual oral antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: A randomized controlled trial

Context Following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), short-term clopidogrel therapy in addition to aspirin leads to greater protection from thrombotic complications than aspirin alone. However, the optimal duration of combination oral antiplatelet...

European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE)

Objective: To construct a scoring system for the prediction of early mortality in cardiac surgical patients in Europe on the basis of objective risk factors. Methods: The EuroSCORE database was divided into developmental and validation subsets. In the...

Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin as Adjuvant Treatment for Colon Cancer

background The standard adjuvant treatment of colon cancer is fluorouracil plus leucovorin (FL). Oxaliplatin improves the efficacy of this combination in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment with FL plus oxaliplatin...

The Relation of Overweight to Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Children and Adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study

David S. Freedman, William H. Dietz, Sathanur R. Srinivasan, Gerald S. Berenson

A textbook of histology

Alexander A. Maximow, William Bloom

2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines

Neil J. Stone, Jennifer G. Robinson, Alice H. Lichtenstein, C. Noel Bairey Merz, Conrad B. Blum, Robert H. Eckel, Anne C. Goldberg, David F. Gordon, Daniel Levy, Patrick E. McBride, J. Sanford Schwartz, Susan T. Shero, Sidney C. Smith, Karol E. Watson, Peter W.F. Wilson

DEVELOPMENT OF A CROHN'S DISEASE ACTIVITY INDEX National Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study

. Needing a single index of degree of illness in Crohn's disease, the National Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study group collected data prospectively from 187 visits of 112 patients with Crohn's disease of the small bowel, colon, or both. Information on...

Human bone marrow stromal cells suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by cellular or nonspecific mitogenic stimuli.

CD2+ T lymphocytes obtained from either the donor of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or a third party were cultured in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) with either allogeneic dendritic cells (DCs) or peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). When autologous...

Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery.

Background Weight loss causes changes in appetite and energy expenditure that promote weight regain. Ghrelin is a hormone that increases food intake in rodents and humans. If circulating ghrelin participates in the adaptive response to weight loss, its...

ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: The Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS)

European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation Reiner, Zeljko Catapano, Alberico L De Backer, Guy Graham, Ian Taskinen, Marja-Riitta Wiklund, Olov Agewall, Stefan Alegria, Eduardo Chapman, M John Durrington, Paul Erdine, Serap Halcox,...

Aging, natural death, and the compression of morbidity.

The average length of life has risen from 47 to 73 years in this century, but the maximum life span has not increased. Therefore, survival curves have assumed an ever more rectangular form. Eighty per cent of the years of life lost to nontraumatic, premature...

The relaxation response.

Benson H, John F. Beary, Mark P. Carol

The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: Proposals for the Revision of the TNM Stage Groupings in the Forthcoming (Seventh) Edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours

Peter Goldstraw, John Crowley, Kari Chansky, Dorothy Giroux, Patti A. Groome, Ramon Rami-Porta, Pieter E. Postmus, Valerie W. Rusch, Leslie H. Sobin

Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance

Diabetes and obesity are two metabolic diseases characterized by insulin resistance and a low-grade inflammation. Seeking an inflammatory factor causative of the onset of insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes, we have identified bacterial lipopolysaccharide...

Martindale the complete drug reference

Volume A. Drug monographs -- volume B. Preparations ; Manufacturers ; Pharmaceutical terms in various languages ; General index ; Cyrillic index

Assessment of quality-of-life outcomes

Since 1948, when the World Health Organization defined health as being not only the absence of disease and infirmity but also the presence of physical, mental, and social well-being,1 quality-of-life issues have become steadily more important in health...

Patient Self-management of Chronic Disease in Primary Care

Patients with chronic conditions make day-to-day decisions about—selfmanage—their illnesses. This reality introduces a new chronic disease paradigm: the patient-professional partnership, involving collaborative care and self-management education....

Ghrelin Enhances Appetite and Increases Food Intake in Humans

Ghrelin is a recently identified endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It is synthesized predominantly in the stomach and found in the circulation of healthy humans. Ghrelin has been shown to promote increased food intake, weight...

Peginterferon-α2a and Ribavirin Combination Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C: A Randomized Study of Treatment Duration and Ribavirin Dose

BACKGROUND: Treatment with pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin for 48 weeks is more effective than conventional interferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of 24 or 48 weeks...

Proposed Modifications to the Duke Criteria for the Diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis

Jennifer S. Li, Daniel J. Sexton, Nathan W. Mick, Richard E. Nettles, Vance G. Fowler, Thomas J. Ryan, Thomas M. Bashore, G. Ralph Corey

Increasing prevalence of overweight among US adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1960 to 1991.

Objective. —To examine trends in overweight prevalence and body mass index of the US adult population.Design. —Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys with an in-person interview and a medical examination, including measurement of height...

Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS), endorsed by the Inte

Marius M. Hoeper, Marc Humbert, Adam Torbicki, Jean-Luc Vachiery, Paul A. Corris, Sean Gaine, J. Simon R. Gibbs, Miguel Angel Gomez-Sanchez, Guillaume Jondeau, Walter Klepetko, Andrew Peacock, Lewis J. Rubin, Michael J. Zellweger, Gérald Simonneau, Angelo Auricchio, Jeroen J. Bax, Claudio Ceconi, Veronica Dean, Gerasimos Filippatos, Christian Funck-Brentano, Richard Hobbs, Peter Kearney, Theresa McDonagh, Keith McGregor, Bogdan A. Popescu, Zeljko Reiner, Udo Sechtem, Michal Tendera, Panos E. Vardas, Felicita Andreotti, Riccardo Asteggiano, Ray Benza, Rolf M.F. Berger, Damien Bonnet, Marion Delcroix, Luke Howard, Anastasia Kitsiou, Irene Lang, Aldo P. Maggioni, Jens Erik Nielsen-Kudsk, Pasquale Perrone-Filardi, Maria Teresa Subirana Domenech, Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Jose Luis Zamorano

A Comparison of Enalapril with Hydralazine–Isosorbide Dinitrate in the Treatment of Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

Background and Methods. To define better the efficacy of vasodilator therapy in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure, we compared the effects of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate with those of enalapril in 804 men receiving digoxin and...

Number and Migratory Activity of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Inversely Correlate With Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease

Mariuca Vasa, Stephan Fichtlscherer, Alexandra Aicher, Klaudia Adler, Carmen Urbich, Hans Martin, Andreas M. Zeiher, Stefanie Dimmeler

Years of life lost due to obesity.

Context Public health officials and organizations have disseminated health messages regarding the dangers of obesity, but these have not produced the desired effect.Objective To estimate the expected number of years of life lost (YLL) due to overweight...

Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1991

This report on the 1988 civilian noninstitutionalized population residing in the US presents estimates of acute conditions episodes of persons injured restriction in activity limitation of activity due to chronic conditions prevalence of chronic conditions...

The 2001 Bethesda System: Terminology for Reporting Results of Cervical Cytology

Objectives The Bethesda 2001 Workshop was convened to evaluate and update the 1991 Bethesda System terminology for reporting the results of cervical cytology. A primary objective was to develop a new approach to broaden participation in the consensus...

Benefit of Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients with Symptomatic Moderate or Severe Stenosis

Background Previous studies have shown that carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis (defined as stenosis of 70 to 99 percent of the luminal diameter) is beneficial up to two years after the procedure. In this clinical...

2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines

Clyde W. Yancy, Mariell Jessup, Biykem Bozkurt, Javed Butler, Donald E. Casey, Mark H. Drazner, Gregg C. Fonarow, Stephen A. Geraci, Tamara B. Horwich, James L. Januzzi, Maryl R. Johnson, Edward K. Kasper, Frederick A. Masoudi, Patrick E. McBride, John J.V. McMurray, Judith E. Mitchell, Pamela N. Peterson, Barbara Riegel, Lynne Warner Stevenson, W.H. Wilson Tang, Emily J. Tsai, Bruce L. Wilkoff

Plasma Concentration of Interleukin-6 and the Risk of Future Myocardial Infarction Among Apparently Healthy Men

Background —Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a central role in inflammation and tissue injury. However, epidemiological data evaluating the role of IL-6 in atherogenesis are sparse.Methods and Results —In a prospective study involving 14 916 apparently...

K-ras Mutations and Benefit from Cetuximab in Advanced Colorectal Cancer

Background Treatment with cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, improves overall and progression-free survival and preserves the quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer that has not responded...

Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in the United States, 1973-2002

Context Increasing cancer incidence is typically interpreted as an increase in the true occurrence of disease but may also reflect changing pathological criteria or increased diagnostic scrutiny. Changes in the diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules may...

Effect sizes for interpreting changes in health status.

Jennifer J. Anderson, Robert F. Meenan

Active transport of sodium as the source of electric current in the short-circuited isolated frog skin.

Patient AccessPatients and/or caregivers may access this content for use in relation to their own personal healthcare or that of a family member only. Terms and conditions will apply.

Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients in the Asia-Pacific region with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma occur in the Asia-Pacific region, where chronic hepatitis B infection is an important aetiological factor. Assessing the efficacy and safety of new therapeutic options in an Asia-Pacific population is thus important....

Medical problem solving : an analysis of clinical reasoning

Arthur S. Elstein, Lee S. Shulman, Sprafka Sa

Human Papillomavirus and Survival of Patients with Oropharyngeal Cancer

Background Oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinomas caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with favorable survival, but the independent prognostic significance of tumor HPV status remains unknown. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis...

The relaxation response.

Herbert Benson, John F. Beary, Mark P. Carol

Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial comparing salmeterol at a dose of 50 μg plus fluticasone propionate at a dose of 500 μg twice daily (combination regimen), administered with a single inhaler, with placebo, salmeterol alone, or fluticasone...

The Battered-Child Syndrome

The battered-child syndrome, a clinical condition in young children who have received serious physical abuse, is a frequent cause of permanent injury or death. The syndrome should be considered in any child exhibiting evidence of fracture of any bone,...

Randomized Phase III Trial of Pemetrexed Versus Docetaxel in Patients With Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated With Chemotherapy

Purpose To compare the efficacy and toxicity of pemetrexed versus docetaxel in patients with advanced non‐small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Eligible patients had a performance status 0...

Independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation in a population-based cohort. The Framingham Heart Study.

Objective. —To determine the independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation.Design. —Cohort study.Setting. —The Framingham Heart Study.Subjects. —A total of 2090 men and 2641 women members of the original cohort, free of a history of atrial...

Infliximab and Methotrexate in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Background Neutralization of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) for three to six months reduces the symptoms and signs of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the capacity of this approach to effect a more sustained benefit and its effect on joint damage are...

Error in Medicine

FOR YEARS, medical and nursing students have been taught Florence Nightingale's dictum—first, do no harm.1 Yet evidence from a number of sources, reported over several decades, indicates that a substantial number of patients suffer treatment-caused...

Caregiving as a Risk Factor for Mortality: The Caregiver Health Effects Study

Context There is strong consensus that caring for an elderly individual with disability is burdensome and stressful to many family members and contributes to psychiatric morbidity. Researchers have also suggested that the combination of loss, prolonged...

From Vulnerable Plaque to Vulnerable Patient A Call for New Definitions and Risk Assessment Strategies: Part I

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease results in 19 million deaths annually, and coronary heart disease accounts for the majority of this toll. Despite major advances in treatment of coronary heart disease patients, a large number of victims of the disease...

Surgeon Volume and Operative Mortality in the United States

Background Although the relation between hospital volume and surgical mortality is well established, for most procedures, the relative importance of the experience of the operating surgeon is uncertain. Methods Using information from the national Medicare...

Renal-cell carcinoma

Robert J. Motzer, Neil H. Bander, David M. Nanus

Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People

The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) developed a practical clinical definition and consensusdiagnosticcriteriaforage-relatedsarcopenia.EWGSOPincludedrepresentativesfromfourparticipantorganisations, i.e. the European Geriatric...

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