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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2006 Update

1. About These Statistics2. Cardiovascular Diseases3. Coronary Heart Disease, Acute Coronary Syndrome and Angina Pectoris4. Stroke and Stroke in Children5. High Blood Pressure (and End-Stage Renal Disease)6. Congenital Cardiovascular Defects7. ...

FOLFIRI Followed by FOLFOX6 or the Reverse Sequence in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized GERCOR Study

Purpose In metastatic colorectal cancer, phase III studies have demonstrated the superiority of fluorouracil (FU) with leucovorin (LV) in combination with irinotecan or oxaliplatin over FU LV alone. This phase III study investigated two sequences: folinic...

Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans

Enhanced surveillance was implemented in the United States for human infection with influenza A viruses that could not be subtyped. Specimens were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for real-time reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction...

2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: an update of the 2010 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation--developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association.

2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation : an update of the 2010 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association

Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2009 Update

We thank Drs Sean Coady, Eric L. Ding, Brian Eigel, Gregg C. Fonarow, Linda Geiss, Cherie James, Michael Mussolino, and Michael Wolz for their valuable comments and contributions. We acknowledge Tim Anderson and Tom Schneider for their editorial contributions,...

The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials.

To comprehend the results of a randomized, controlled trial (RCT), readers must understand its design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation. That goal can be achieved only through complete transparency from authors. Despite several decades of educational...

Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection

Chronic activation of the immune system is a hallmark of progressive HIV infection and better predicts disease outcome than plasma viral load, yet its etiology remains obscure. Here we show that circulating microbial products, probably derived from the...

Transplantation of Progenitor Cells and Regeneration Enhancement in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TOPCARE-AMI)

Background—Experimental studies suggest that transplantation of blood-derived or bone marrow– derived progenitor cells beneficially affects postinfarction remodeling. The safety and feasibility of autologous progenitor cell transplantation in patients...

Why Patients Use Alternative Medicine Results of a National Study

Context.— Research both in the United States and abroad suggests that significant numbers of people are involved with various forms of alternative medicine. However, the reasons for such use are, at present, poorly understood.Objective.— To investigate...

Prevalence of Diabetes, Impaired Fasting Glucose, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in U.S. Adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence and time trends for diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults by age, sex, and race or ethnic group, based on data from the Third National Health and...

Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: An overview of the randomized trials

Salim Yusuf, Richard Peto, John Lewis, Rory Collins, Peter Sleight

Therapeutic criteria in rheumatoid arthritis

This report summarizes recommendations for uniform therapeutic criteria in rheumatoid arthritis. The need for such criteria arose from the recognition of the confusing language and standards found in the many therapeutic reports on this disease. In an...

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION OF THE LIFE TABLE METHOD IN ANALYZING SURVIVAL

patients. Although the proportion of patients alive 5 years after diagnosis (S-year survival rate) is the most frequently used index for measuring the efficacy of therapy in cancer, an increasing number of investigators are reporting on the manner in...

Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires

Recently, an increasing number of systematic reviews have been published in which the measurement properties of health status questionnaires are compared. For a meaningful comparison, quality criteria for measurement properties are needed. Our aim was...

Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study

Yasuo Ohkubo, Hideki Kishikawa, Eiichi Araki, Takao Miyata, S. Isami, Sadatoshi Motoyoshi, Yujiro Kojima, Naohiko Furuyoshi, Motoaki Shichiri

Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis: Classification of osteoarthritis of the knee

Altman Rd, Asch E, Daniel A. Bloch, George R. Bole, David G. Borenstein, Christy Wc, Cooke Td, Greenwald Ra, David S. Howell, Kaplan D, William J. Koopman, Selden Longley, Mankin Hj, Dennis J. McShane, Thomas A. Medsger, Robert F. Meenan, William P. Mikkelsen, R.W. Moskowitz, W. Murphy, B. Rothschild, Mark Segal, Frederick Wolfe

The Prevalence of Comorbid Depression in Adults With Diabetes A meta-analysis

OBJECTIVE —To estimate the odds and prevalence of clinically relevant depression in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Depression is associated with hyperglycemia and an increased risk for diabetic complications; relief of depression is associated...

Clarifying Confusion: The Confusion Assessment Method: A New Method for Detection of Delirium

Sharon K. Inouye, Christopher H. van Dyck, Cathy A. Alessi, Sharyl Balkin, Ralph I. Horwitz

Prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV affective disorders among older African Americans, Black Caribbeans, Latinos, Asians and Non-Hispanic White people

Amanda Toler Woodward, Robert Joseph Taylor, Kai McKeever Bullard, María P. Aranda, Karen D. Lincoln, Linda M. Chatters

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MULTIPLE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS

Background In adults, cardiovascular risk factors reinforce each other in their effect on cardiovascular events. However, information is scant on the relation of multiple risk factors to the extent of asymptomatic atherosclerosis in young people. Methods...

A Comparison of Laparoscopically Assisted and Open Colectomy for Colon Cancer

results At three years, the rates of recurrence were similar in the two groups — 16 percent among patients in the group that underwent laparoscopically assisted surgery and 18 percent among patients in the open-colectomy group (two-sided P=0.32;...

Measurement of health status. Ascertaining the minimal clinically important difference

In recent years quality of life instruments have been featured as primary outcomes in many randomized trials. One of the challenges facing the investigator using such measures is determining the significance of any differences observed, and commu- nicating...

Cetuximab and Chemotherapy as Initial Treatment for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

Background We investigated the efficacy of cetuximab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFIRI) as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer and sought associations between the mutation status of the KRAS gene in tumors and clinical...

Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife.

An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held in Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive consensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and diben

Health Consequences of Obesity in Youth: Childhood Predictors of Adult Disease

Obesity now affects one in five children in the United States. Discrimination against overweight children begins early in childhood and becomes progressively institutionalized. Because obese children tend to be taller than their nonoverweight peers, they...

Reducing Mortality from Colorectal Cancer by Screening for Fecal Occult Blood

Background Although tests for occult blood in the feces are widely used to screen for colorectal cancers, there is no conclusive evidence that they reduce mortality from this cause. We evaluated a fecal occult-blood test in a randomized trial and documented...

What's the relative risk? A method of correcting the odds ratio in cohort studies of common outcomes.

Logistic regression is used frequently in cohort studies and clinical trials. When the incidence of an outcome of interest is common in the study population (>10%), the adjusted odds ratio derived from the logistic regression can no longer approximate...

Prevalence of Total Coronary Occlusion during the Early Hours of Transmural Myocardial Infarction

To define the prevalence of total coronary occlusion in the hours after transmural myocardial infarction, we used coronary arteriography to study the degree of coronary obstruction in 322 patients admitted within 24 hours of infarction. Total coronary...

Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States

Reva C. Lawrence, Charles G. Helmick, Frank C. Arnett, Richard A. Deyo, David T. Felson, Edward H. Giannini, Stephen P. Heyse, Rosemarie Hirsch, Marc C. Hochberg, Gene G. Hunder, Virginia D. Steen, Frederick Wolfe

Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study

The Whitehall study of British civil servants begun in 1967, showed a steep inverse association between social class, as assessed by grade of employment, and mortality from a wide range of diseases. Between 1985 and 1988 we investigated the degree and...

Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke A Guideline From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Ath

Harold P. Adams, Gregory J. del Zoppo, Mark J. Alberts, Deepak L. Bhatt, Lawrence M. Brass, Anthony J. Furlan, Robert L. Grubb, Randall T. Higashida, Edward C. Jauch, Chelsea S. Kidwell, Patrick D. Lyden, Lewis B. Morgenstern, Adnan I. Qureshi, Robert H. Rosenwasser, Phillip Scott

EGFR mutation and resistance of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib.

Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene have been identified in specimens from patients with non–small-cell lung cancer who have a response to anilinoquinazoline EGFR inhibitors. Despite the dramatic responses to such inhibitors,...

Free to choose : a personal statement

Milton Friedman, Rose Friedman

Advanced Glycosylation End Products in Tissue and the Biochemical Basis of Diabetic Complications

IN this seminar we review recent studies suggesting that the central pathologic features of diabetic complications are caused by the hyperglycemia-accelerated formation of nonenzymatic advanced glycosylation end products in tissue. We will emphasize new...

Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States

Context Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Statistical methods used to estimate deaths in the United States attributable to influenza have not accounted for RSV circulation.Objective To develop a...

Diseases of poultry.

Describes symptoms, treatments, and prevention methods for numerous diseases and parasites afflicting poultry.

Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke

Purpose— Our goal is to provide an overview of the current evidence about components of the evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audience is physicians and other emergency healthcare providers who treat patients...

SF-36 health survey update

SF-36 health survey update

2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)

Because of new evidence on several diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of hypertension, the present guidelines differ in many respects from the previous ones. Some of the most important differences are listed below: 1. Epidemiological data on hypertension...

Effective physician-patient communication and health outcomes: a review

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the quality of physician-patient communication makes a significant difference to patient health outcomes. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE database was searched for articles published from 1983 to 1993 using "physician-patient...

ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease

Robert O. Bonow, Blase A. Carabello, David P. Faxon, Michael D. Freed, William H. Gaasch, Bruce W. Lytle, Rick A. Nishimura, Pravin M. Shah, Jack S. Shanewise

Recommendations for chamber quantification

Quantification of cardiac chamber size, ventricular mass and function ranks among the most clinically important and most frequently requested tasks of echocardiography. Over the last decades, echocardiographic methods and techniques have improved and...

Medical Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Consensus Algorithm for the Initiation and Adjustment of Therapy A consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes

We are not surprised that GlaxoSmithKline, the manufacturer of rosiglitazone (Avandia), is not happy with the recommendation of the consensus group (1) that rosiglitazone not be used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (2). Drs. Cobitz and Ambery argue...

Expert Committee Recommendations Regarding the Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Summary Report

To revise 1998 recommendations on childhood obesity, an Expert Committee, comprised of representatives from 15 professional organizations, appointed experienced scientists and clinicians to 3 writing groups to review the literature and recommend approaches...

Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry

Alfred M. Freedman, Harold I. Kaplan

The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions.

Objective—To test the feasibility of creating a valid and reliable checklist with the following features: appropriate for assessing both randomised and non-randomised studies; provision of both an overall score for study quality and a profile of scores...

Natural history of cervicovaginal papillomavirus infection in young women.

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent in sexually active young women. However precise risk factors for HPV infection and its incidence and duration are not well known. The authors followed 608 college women at 6-month intervals...

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a proposal for grading and staging the histological lesions

OJECTIVE: Steatohepatitis is a morphological pattern of liver injury that may be seen in alcoholic or nonalcoholic liver disease. This pattern may occur with obesity, diabetes, the use of certain drugs, or the cause may be idiopathic. The well-recognized...

Obesity and insulin resistance

Barbara B. Kahn, Jeffrey S. Flier

Prevention of venous thromboembolism : the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy.

Prevention of venous thromboembolism : the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy.

Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)...

Erlotinib Plus Gemcitabine Compared With Gemcitabine Alone in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Phase III Trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group

Purpose Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer have a poor prognosis and there have been no improvements in survival since the introduction of gemcitabine in 1996. Pancreatic tumors often overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (HER1/EGFR)...

The Influence of Finasteride on the Development of Prostate Cancer

background Androgens are involved in the development of prostate cancer. Finasteride, an inhibitor of 5 a -reductase, inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, the primary androgen in the prostate, and may reduce the risk of prostate...

Acute renal failure in critically ill patients: a multinational, multicenter study.

Context Although acute renal failure (ARF) is believed to be common in the setting of critical illness and is associated with a high risk of death, little is known about its epidemiology and outcome or how these vary in different regions of the world.Objectives...

Randomized, Controlled Trials, Observational Studies, and the Hierarchy of Research Designs

Background In the hierarchy of research designs, the results of randomized, controlled trials are considered to be evidence of the highest grade, whereas observational studies are viewed as having less validity because they reportedly overestimate treatment...

Recommendations for the Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function by Echocardiography

Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A spectrum of clinical and pathological severity

Background & Aims: The spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ranges from fatty liver alone to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Most previous studies have short follow-up and have not carefully delineated different histological types when determining...

A Surgical Safety Checklist to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality in a Global Population

The rate of death was 1.5% before the checklist was introduced and declined to 0.8% afterward (P = 0.003). Inpatient complications occurred in 11.0% of patients at baseline and in 7.0%...

Pathology of Drug-Eluting Stents in Humans: Delayed Healing and Late Thrombotic Risk

Michael Joner, Andrew Farb, Frank D. Kolodgie, Elena Ladich, Robert Kutys, Kristi Skorija, Herman K. Gold, Renu Virmani

Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Organ Preservation in Advanced Laryngeal Cancer

background Induction chemotherapy with cisplatin plus fluorouracil followed by radiotherapy is the standard alternative to total laryngectomy for patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer. The value of adding chemotherapy to radiotherapy and the...

The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease

The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association charged a workgroup with the task of revising the 1984 criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. The workgroup sought to ensure that the revised criteria would be flexible enough...

ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008

Guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents summarize and evaluate all currently available evidence on a particular issue with the aim of assisting physicians and other healthcare providers in selecting the best management strategies for a typical patient,...

Survey of chronic pain in Europe: Prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment

This large scale computer-assisted telephone survey was undertaken to explore the prevalence, severity, treatment and impact of chronic pain in 15 European countries and Israel. Screening interviews identified respondents aged ⩾18 years with chronic...

The importance of diagnostic cytogenetics on outcome in AML: Analysis of 1,612 patients entered into the MRC AML 10 trial

Cytogenetics is considered one of the most valuable prognostic determinants in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, many studies on which this assertion is based were limited by relatively small sample sizes or varying treatment approach, leading to...

Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance.

Hotamisligil Gs, Peter Arner, Jose F. Caro, Richard L Atkinson, B M Spiegelman

Arterial embolisation or chemoembolisation versus symptomatic treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomised controlled trial

There is no standard treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Arterial embolisation is widely used, but evidence of survival benefits is lacking.

The incidence of congenital heart disease.

This study was designed to determine the reasons for the variability of the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD), estimate its true value and provide data about the incidence of specific major forms of CHD. The incidence of CHD in different studies...

Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures

Summary Background Previous studies have shown that alendronate can increase bone mineral density (BMD) and prevent radiographically defined (morphometric) vertebral fractures. The Fracture Intervention Trial aimed to investigate the effect of alendronate...

Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin in the rat nervous system

This paper describes the distribution of structures stained with mono- and polyclonal antibodies to the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin in the nervous system of adult rats. As a general characterization it can be stated that calbindin...

Particulate Air Pollution as a Predictor of Mortality in a Prospective Study of U.S. Adults

Time-series, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies have observed associations between mortal­ ity and particulate air pollution but have been limited by ecologic design or small number of subjects or study areas. The present study evaluates...

Cyclophosphamide and Cisplatin Compared with Paclitaxel and Cisplatin in Patients with Stage III and Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

Background Chemotherapy combinations that include an alkylating agent and a platinum coordination complex have high response rates in women with advanced ovarian cancer. Such combinations provide long-term control of disease in few patients, however....

Physical Activity, All-Cause Mortality, and Longevity of College Alumni

We examined the physical activity and other life-style characteristics of 16,936 Harvard alumni, aged 35 to 74, for relations to rates of mortality from all causes and for influences on length of life. A total of 1413 alumni died during 12 to 16 years...

Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease.

Environmental influences that impair growth and development in early life may be risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. To test this hypothesis, 5654 men born during 1911-30 were traced. They were born in six districts of Hertfordshire, England, and...

NF-|[kappa]|B in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit

Michael Karin, Yixue Cao, Florian R. Greten, Zhiwei Li

Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (AS

The apparent shortfall in prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) noted in early hypertension trials has been attributed to disadvantages of the diuretics and β blockers used. For a given reduction in blood pressure, some suggested that newer agents...

Heart disease and stroke statistics-2008 Update

We thank Drs Robert Adams, Gary Friday, Philip Gorelick, and Sylvia Wasserthiel-Smoller, members of Stroke Statistics Subcommittee; Drs Joe Broderick, Brian Eigel, Kimberlee Gauveau, Jane Khoury, Jerry Potts, Jane Newburger, and Kathryn Taubert; and Sean...

Protected Carotid-Artery Stenting versus Endarterectomy in High-Risk Patients

background Carotid endarterectomy is more effective than medical management in the prevention of stroke in patients with severe symptomatic or asymptomatic atherosclerotic carotidartery stenosis. Stenting with the use of an emboli-protection device is...

Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)—a simple practical measure for routine clinical use

A simple practical questionnaire technique for routine clinical use, the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) is described. One hundred and twenty patients with different skin diseases were asked about the impact of their disease and its treatment on...

Classification and natural history of clinically identifiable subtypes of cerebral infarction

J. Bamford, P.A.G. Sandercock, Martin Dennis, Charles Warlow, John Burn

Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, flecainide, or placebo. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial.

Debra S. Echt, Philip R. Liebson, Robert W. Peters, Dulce Obias-Manno, Daniel Arensberg, Andrea Baker, Lawrence M. Friedman, Melissa Huther, David W. Richardson

The Effect of Celecoxib, a Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor, in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

Background Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis have a nearly 100 percent risk of colorectal cancer. In this disease, the chemopreventive effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be related to their inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2. Methods...

European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary

Guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents summarize and evaluate all currently available evidence on a particular issue with the aim to assist physicians in selecting the best management strategies for a typical patient, suffering from a given condition,...

Rising Incidence of Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus and nGastric Cardia

Analyses of cancer incidence data from nine areas of the United States revealed steadily rising rates from 1976 to 1987 of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. The increases among men in this period ranged from 4% to 10% per year, and...

A randomized clinical trial

Objective:To assess the relative impacts of three physician-delivered smoking interventions in combination with follow-up contact from behavioral counselors.Design:Randomized controlled trial with pre-post measures of smoking rates. This paper reports...

MR imaging of intravoxel incoherent motions: application to diffusion and perfusion in neurologic disorders.

Molecular diffusion and microcirculation in the capillary network result in a distribution of phases in a single voxel in the presence of magnetic field gradients. This distribution produces a spin-echo attenuation. The authors have developed a magnetic...

The neurology of eye movements

R. John Leigh, David S. Zee

The Growing Burden of Tuberculosis: Global Trends and Interactions With the HIV Epidemic

The increasing global burden of tuberculosis (TB) is linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We reviewed data from notifications of TB cases cohort treatment outcomes surveys of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and HIV prevalence...

Cecil textbook of medicine

Russell L. (Russell La Fayette) Cecil, J. Claude Bennett

Evidence for a causal association between human papillomavirus and a subset of head and neck cancers.

Background: High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are etiologic agents for anogenital tract cancers and have been detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). We investigated, retrospectively, an etiologic role for HPVs in a large series...

A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological surveillance of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) was reinstituted in the UK in 1990 to identify any changes in the occurrence of this disease after the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle.METHODS: Case...

ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN ADULTS

The respiratory-distress syndrome in 12 patients was manifested by acute onset of tachypnœa, hypoxaemia, and loss of compliance after a variety of stimuli; the syndrome did not respond to usual and ordinary methods of respiratory therapy. The clinical...

Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomised controlled trial.

This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work...

Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to Prevent HIV-1 Infection in Thailand

In the intention-to-treat analysis involving 16,402 subjects, there was a trend toward the prevention of HIV-1 infection among the vaccine recipients, with a vaccine efficacy of 26.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], −4.0 to 47.9; P =...

Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction

Kristian Thygesen, Joseph S. Alpert, Allan S. Jaffe, Maarten L. Simoons, Bernard R. Chaitman, Harvey D. White

Screening and Surveillance for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer and Adenomatous Polyps, 2008: A Joint Guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology* †

In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed among men and women and the second leading cause of death from cancer. CRC largely can be prevented by the detection and removal of adenomatous polyps, and survival...

The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy of oral azidothymidine (AZT) in 282 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifested by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia alone or with advanced AIDS-related complex was conducted....

Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers

Liposomes — microscopic phospholipid bubbles with a bilayered membrane structure — have received a lot of attention during the past 30 years as pharmaceutical carriers of great potential. More recently, many new developments have been seen in the...

Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock

Anand Kumar, Dan Roberts, Kenneth E. Wood, Bruce Light, Joseph E. Parrillo, Satendra Sharma, Robert Suppes, Daniel Feinstein, Sergio Zanotti, Leo Taiberg, David Gurka, Aseem Kumar, Mary Cheang

Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening

The Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP) is designed to evaluate baseline and annual repeat screening by low-radiation-dose computed tomography (low-dose CT) in people at high risk of lung cancer. We report the baseline experience.

Radical Prostatectomy versus Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer

Radical prostatectomy reduces mortality among men with localized prostate cancer; however, important questions regarding long-term benefit remain. Between 1989 and 1999, we randomly assigned 695 men with early prostate cancer to watchful waiting or radical...

Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (ToGA): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial

Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as ERBB2), was investigated in combination with chemotherapy for first-line treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction...

General Cardiovascular Risk Profile for Use in Primary Care The Framingham Heart Study

Background—Separate multivariable risk algorithms are commonly used to assess risk of specific atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, ie, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure....

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