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Inflammation and insulin resistance

Steven E. Shoelson, Jongsoon Lee, Allison B. Goldfine

Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate...

Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Development of Gastric Cancer

Background Although many studies have found an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastric cancer, many aspects of this relation remain uncertain. Methods We prospectively studied 1526 Japanese patients who had duodenal...

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention versus Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting for Severe Coronary Artery Disease

We randomly assigned 1800 patients with three-vessel or left main coronary artery disease to undergo CABG or PCI (in a 1:1 ratio). For all these patients, the local cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist determined that equivalent anatomical...

DIABETES AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. THE FRAMINGHAM STUDY

Based on 20 years of surveillance of the Framingham cohort relating subsequent cardiovascular events to prior evidence of diabetes, a twofold to threefold increased risk of clinical atherosclerotic disease was reported. The relative impact was greatest...

Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, Short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context.

Rory Collins, Richard Peto, Stephen MacMahon, Patricia R. Hebert, Nicholas H. Fiebach, K. A. Eberlein, Jon Godwin, Nawab Qizilbash, J.O Taylor, Hennekens Ch

Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events): a randomised controlled trial

Summary Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. There is indirect evidence that agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor � (PPAR � ) could reduce macrovascular...

Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Background Oncogenic fusion genes consisting of EML4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are present in a subgroup of non–small-cell lung cancers, representing 2 to 7% of such tumors. We explored the therapeutic efficacy of inhibiting ALK in such tumors...

Temsirolimus, Interferon Alfa, or Both for Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma

Background Interferon alfa is widely used for metastatic renal-cell carcinoma but has limited efficacy and tolerability. Temsirolimus, a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase, may benefit patients with this disease. Methods In...

Classification and grading of Gastritis

Michael F. Dixon, Robert M. Genta, John H. Yardley, Pelayo Correa, Kenneth P. Batts, M. Isabel Filipe, Rodger C. Haggitt, P. K. Hui, Juan Lechago, Lewin Kj, Johan Offerhaus, Sixto Recavarren, Robert H. Riddell, Enrico Solcia, Manfred Stolte, Hidenobu Watanabe

Definition of Metabolic Syndrome

The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATP III)1 identified the metabolic syndrome as a multiplex risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is deserving of more clinical attention. The cardiovascular community...

Effects of Diet and Exercise in Preventing NIDDM in People With Impaired Glucose Tolerance: The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study

OBJECTIVE Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have a high risk of developing NIDDM. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diet and exercise interventions in those with IGT may delay the development of NIDDM, i.e., reduce the...

Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

Methods In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 14,264 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were at increased risk for stroke to receive either rivaroxaban (at a daily dose of 20 mg) or dose-adjusted warfarin. The per-protocol, as-treated...

C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin 6, and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Results Baseline levels of IL-6 (P,.001) and CRP (P,.001) were significantly higher among cases than among controls. The relative risks of future DM for women in the highest vs lowest quartile of these inflammatory markers were 7.5 for IL-6 (95% confidence...

American society of clinical oncology/college of american pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer

Antonio C. Wolff, M. Elizabeth, Hammond Hk, Jared N. Schwartz, Karen L. Hagerty, D. Craig Allred, Richard J. Cote, Mitchell Dowsett, Patrick L. Fitzgibbons, Wedad Hanna, Amy S. Langer, Lisa M. McShane, Soonmyung Paik, Mark Pegram, Edith A. Ferez, Anthony Rhodes, Catharine M. Sturgeon, Sheila E. Taube, Raymond R. Tubbs, Gail H. Vance, Marc van de Vijver, Thomas M. Wheeler, Daniel F. Hayes

FOODBORNE ILLNESS ACQUIRED IN THE UNITED STATES-MAJOR PATHOGENS

Estimates of foodborne illness can be used to direct food safety policy and interventions. We used data from active and passive surveillance and other sources to estimate that each year 31 major pathogens acquired in the United States caused 9.4 million...

Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures.

Objective : To determine the ability of measurements of bone density in women to predict later fractures.Design : Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies published between 1985 and end of 1994 with a baseline measurement of bone density in women and...

Effects on Blood Pressure of Reduced Dietary Sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet

Background The effect of dietary composition on blood pressure is a subject of public health importance. We studied the effect of different levels of dietary sodium, in conjunction with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is...

Recommendations for Evaluation of the Severity of Native Valvular Regurgitation with Two-dimensional and Doppler Echocardiography

William A. Zoghbi, Elyse Foster, Paul A. Grayburn, Carol D. Kraft, Robert A. Levine, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Miguel A. Quinones, Harry Rakowski, William J. Stewart, Alan D. Waggoner, Neil J. Weissman

Neovascularization of ischemic myocardium by human bone-marrow|[ndash]|derived angioblasts prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduces remodeling and improves cardiac function

Kocher Aa, Michael D. Schuster, Matthias Szabolcs, Shin Takuma, Daniel Burkhoff, Jack Wang, Shunichi Homma, Niloo M. Edwards, Silviu Itescu

Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on the Risk of Death The Framingham Heart Study

Background—Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes substantial morbidity. It is uncertain whether AF is associated with excess mortality independent of associated cardiac conditions and risk factors. Methods and Results—We examined the mortality of subjects...

Bone Marrow Origin of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Responsible for Postnatal Vasculogenesis in Physiological and Pathological Neovascularization

Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been isolated in peripheral blood of adult species. To determine the origin and role of EPCs contributing to postnatal vasculogenesis, transgenic mice constitutively expressing b-galactosidase under...

Adherence to Protease Inhibitor Therapy and Outcomes in Patients with HIV Infection

Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy with protease inhibitors has transformed HIV infection from a terminal condition into one that is manageable. However, the complexity of regimens makes adherence to therapy difficult. Objective: To assess...

Biochemical Outcome After Radical Prostatectomy, External Beam Radiation Therapy, or Interstitial Radiation Therapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

terval [CI], 0.5-2.7), 0.5 (95% CI, 0.1-1.9), and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.3-3.6), respectively, compared with those patients treated with RP. The RRs of PSA failure in the intermediate-risk patients...

Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 170 million persons worldwide and thus represents a viral pandemic, one that is five times as widespread as infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The institution of blood-screening...

Effect of Parathyroid Hormone (1-34) on Fractures and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

Background Once-daily injections of parathyroid hormone or its amino-terminal fragments increase bone formation and bone mass without causing hypercalcemia, but their effects on fractures are unknown. Methods We randomly assigned 1637 postmenopausal women...

Asthma and Wheezing in the First Six Years of Life

Background Many young children wheeze during viral respiratory infections, but the pathogenesis of these episodes and their relation to the development of asthma later in life are not well understood. Methods In a prospective study, we investigated the...

Thrombolysis with Alteplase 3 to 4.5 Hours after Acute Ischemic Stroke

Background: Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase is the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but its efficacy and safety when administered more than 3 hours after the onset of symptoms have not been established. We tested the efficacy...

2009 Focused Update: ACCF/AHA Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: Developed in Collaboration Wi

Mariell Jessup, William T. Abraham, Donald E. Casey, Arthur M. Feldman, Gary S. Francis, Theodore G. Ganiats, Marvin A. Konstam, Donna Mancini, Peter S. Rahko, Marc A. Silver, Clyde W. Yancy

The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer

Francesc Bosch, At Lorincz, Nubia Muñoz, Chris J. L. M. Meijer, Shah Kv

Chronic hepatitis B

PREAMBLE These guidelines have been written to assist physicians and other health care providers in the recognition, diagnosis, and management of patients chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). They are intended to suggest preferable approaches...

Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

Lionel A. Mandell, Richard G. Wunderink, Antonio Anzueto, John G. Bartlett, G. Douglas Campbell, Nathan C. Dean, Scott F. Dowell, Thomas M. File, Daniel M. Musher, Michael S. Niederman, Antonio Torres, Cynthia G. Whitney

Feasibility of Drug Screening with Panels of Human Tumor Cell Lines Using a Microculture Tetrazolium Assay

For the past 30 years strategies for the prcclinical discovery and development of potential anticancer agents have been based largely upon the testing of agents in mice bearing transplantable leukemias and solid tumors derived from a limited number of...

Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes

background Lipid-lowering therapy with statins reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, but the optimal level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is unclear. methods We enrolled 4162 patients who had been hospitalized for an acute coronary...

Cardiovascular survey methods.

Gerry Rose, Henry Blackburn

Criteria for diagnosis of Behçet's disease

B. Weichsler, Fereydoun Davatchi, Y. Mizushima, M. Hamza, N. Dilsen, Emin Kansu, Hasan Yazici, C. Barnes, M.A. Chamberlain, David G. James, T. Lehner, O'Duffy Jd, A. S. Rigby, J. Gregory, A. J. Silman

2007 guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension

G. Mancia, Gui De Backer, Af Dominiczak, R. Cifkova, Fagard R, Giuseppe Germano, G. Grassi, Heagerty Am, Kjeldsen Se, S. Laurent, Narkiewicz K, Luis M. Ruilope, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Schmieder Re, H A Boudier, Zanchetti A

Changing Physician Performance: A Systematic Review of the Effect of Continuing Medical Education Strategies

Objective: To review the literature relating to the effectiveness of education strategies designed to change physician performance and health care outcomes. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE ERIC NTIS the Research and Development Resource Base in Continuing...

Nonrigid registration using free-form deformations: application to breast MR images

In this paper the authors present a new approach for the nonrigid registration of contrast-enhanced breast MRI. A hierarchical transformation model of the motion of the breast has been developed. The global motion of the breast is modeled by an affine...

Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 Revisions to the McDonald criteria

New evidence and consensus has led to further revision of the McDonald Criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The use of imaging for demonstration of dissemination of central nervous system lesions in space and time has been simplified, and in...

Hegemonic Masculinity Rethinking the Concept

Raewyn Connell, James W. Messerschmidt

Cardiac-resynchronization therapy with or without an implantable defibrillator in advanced chronic heart failure.

background We tested the hypothesis that prophylactic cardiac-resynchronization therapy in the form of biventricular stimulation with a pacemaker with or without a defibrillator would reduce the risk of death and hospitalization among patients with advanced...

Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes.

William C. Duckworth, Carlos Abraira, Thomas E. Moritz, Domenic J. Reda, Nicholas V. Emanuele, Peter D. Reaven, Franklin Zieve, Jennifer B. Marks, Stephen N. Davis, Hayward Ra, Warren, Steven Goldman, Madeline McCarren, Mary Ellen Vitek, William G. Henderson, Grant D. Huang, Vadt Investigators

Assessment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity

Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has...

Improving the Quality of Reporting of Randomized Controlled Trials: The CONSORT Statement

THE RANDOMIZED controlled trial (RCT), more than any other methodology, can have a powerful and immediate impact on patient care. Ideally, the report of such an evaluation needs to convey to the reader relevant information concerning the design, conduct,...

Gemfibrozil for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

Hanna Bloomfield Rubins, Sander J. Robins, Dorothea Collins, Carol L. Fye, James K Anderson, Marshall B. Elam, Fred H. Faas, Linares E, Ernst J. Schaefer, Gordon Schectman, Wilt Tj, Janet Wittes

Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

background The prevalence and magnitude of childhood obesity are increasing dramatically. We examined the effect of varying degrees of obesity on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to insulin resistance and to C-reactive protein...

Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma

Background. Infection with Helicobacter pylori has been linked with chronic atrophic gastritis, an inflammatory precursor of gastric adenocarcinoma. In a nested case–control study, we explored whether H. pylori infection increases the risk of gastric...

Analog Integrated Circuit Design

Tony Chan Carusone, D.A. Johns, Kenneth W. (Kenneth William) Martin

GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations

Guidelines are inconsistent in how they rate the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations. This article explores the advantages of the GRADE system, which is increasingly being adopted by organisations worldwide #HASH##HASH##HASH##HASH#...

A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes.

Objective. —To determine the risk of elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels for arteriosclerotic vascular disease, estimate the reduction of tHcy by folic acid, and calculate the potential reduction of coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality by increasing...

Atrial Fibrillation Begets Atrial Fibrillation A Study in Awake Chronically Instrumented Goats

Maurits C.E.F. Wijffels, C Kirchhof, Rick Dorland, Maurits A. Allessie

Tumor vascular permeability and the EPR effect in macromolecular therapeutics: a review

Most solid tumors possess unique pathophysiological characteristics that are not observed in normal tissues or organs, such as extensive angiogenesis and hence hypervasculature, defective vascular architecture, impaired lymphatic drainage/recovery system,...

Plasma Concentrations of a Novel, Adipose-Specific Protein, Adiponectin, in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Kikuko Hotta, Tohru Funahashi, Yukio Arita, Masahiko Takahashi, Morihiro Matsuda, Yoshihisa Okamoto, Hiromi Iwahashi, Hiroshi Kuriyama, Noriyuki Ouchi, Kazuhisa Maeda, Makoto Nishida, Shinji Kihara, Naohiko Sakai, Tadahisa Nakajima, Kyoichi Hasegawa, Masahiro Muraguchi, Yasukazu Ohmoto, Tadashi Nakamura, Shizuya Yamashita, Toshiaki Hanafusa, Yuji Matsuzawa

Report of three cases

SummaryPulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), in addition to acute generalized histoplasmosis, was found at autopsy of three adult males, 23, 51, and 52 years of age. All three patients became ill in the same region of Venezuela, south of Lake Maracaibo,...

Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy men and women

We studied physical fitness and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 10 224 men and 3120 women who were given a preventive medical examination. Physical fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Average follow-up was slightly...

Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial

Summary Background Although statins reduce coronary and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged individuals, their efficacy and safety in elderly people is not fully established. Our aim was to test the benefits of pravastatin treatment...

Effects of multisite biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay

Background One third of patients with chronic heart failure have electrocardiographic evidence of a major intraventricular conduction delay, which may worsen left ventricular systolic dysfunction through asynchronous ventricular contraction. Uncontrolled...

A survey of medical image registration

The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of recent (published in 1993 or later) publications concerning medical image registration techniques. These publications will be classified according to a model based on nine salient criteria, the main...

DIABETES AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

This statement examines the cardiovascular complications of diabetes mellitus and considers opportunities for their prevention. These complications include coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and...

American thoracic society/European respiratory society international multidisciplinary consensus classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

William D. Travis, Eric D. Bateman, Frédrique Capron, Thomas V. Colby, Cordier Jf, Roland Dubois, Jeffrey Galvin, Gary W. Hunninghake, Nestor L. Müller, Jeffrey L. Myers, Andrew Nicholson, Ganesh Raghu, Christian Brambilla, Kevin K. Brown, Cherniaev Al, Gerald S. Davis, Maurits G. Demedts, William W. Douglas, Anders Eklund, Leonarda M. Fabbri, Richard B. Hubbard, Y. Inoue, H. M. Jansen, Ian Johnston, Dong Soon Kim, Nasreen Khalil, Fiona Lake, Giuseppe Lungarella, Joseph P. Lynch, Richard A. Matthay, Lee S. Newman, Luis A. Ortiz, Venerino Poletti, William N. Rom, Jay H. Ryu, Paulo H.N. Saldiva, Raúl Sansores, Marvin L. Schwarz, Moisés Selman, Cecelia M. Smith, Tong Z, Dominique Valeyre, Robert A. Wise, Antonio Xaubet, E. Fernandez, Elisabeth Brambilla, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Cherniaev Al, Dalquen P, Gerhard Dekan

The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel group randomized trials

To comprehend the results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), readers must understand its design, conduct, analysis, andinterpretation.Thatgoalcanbeachievedonlythroughcomplete transparency from authors. Despite several decades of educational efforts,...

The nature of adverse events in hospitalized patients. Results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study II.

Harry L. Hebert, A Lawthers, Andrew Brennan, Ann G. Lawthers, Brian B. Barnes, Nan M. Laird, Philip G. Weiler, Alana T Brennan, Ian J. Newhouse, Lucian L. Leape, Howard H. Hiatt, Localio Ar

Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events

This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work...

Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project

Aims The SCORE project was initiated to develop a risk scoring system for use in the clinical management of cardiovascular risk in European clinical practice. Methods and results The project assembled a pool of datasets from 12 European cohort studies,...

A Short Physical Performance Battery Assessing Lower Extremity Function: Association With Self-Reported Disability and Prediction of Mortality and Nursing Home Admission

Jack M. Guralnik, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Luigi Ferrucci, Robert J. Glynn, Lisa F. Berkman, Paul A. Scherr, Robert B. Wallace

REPRODUCIBILITY AND VALIDITY OF A SEMIQUANTITATIVE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE

Walter C. Willett, Laura Sampson, Meir J. Stampfer, Bernard Rosner, Chris Bain, Jelia Witschi, Charles H. Hennekens, Frank E. Speizer

Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) Report of the consortium on DLB international workshop

I.G. McKeith, Douglas Galasko, K. Kosaka, Elaine K. Perry, Dennis W. Dickson, Lawrence A. Hansen, D.P. Salmon, James Lowe, Suzanne S. Mirra, E.J. Byrne, G. Lennox, N. P. Quinn, J.A. Edwardson, Paul G. Ince, C. Bergeron, A. Burns, Bruce L. Miller, Simon Lovestone, Daniel Collerton, E.N.H. Jansen, C. Ballard, R. De Vos, Gordon K. Wilcock, K. A. Jellinger, R.H. Perry

Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions.

Classification systems are necessary in order to provide a framework in which to scientifically study the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of diseases in an orderly fashion. In addition, such systems give clinicians a way to organize the health care...

Optimal two-stage designs for phase II clinical trials.

The primary objective of a phase II clinical trial of a new drug or regimen is to determine whether it has sufficient biological activity against the disease under study to warrant more extensive development. Such trials are often conducted in a multi-...

Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Background We conducted a multinational, randomized study to compare radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor, in the treatment of locoregionally advanced squamous-cell carcinoma...

Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in men with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea with or without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure: an observational study.

The effect of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea as a cardiovascular risk factor and the potential protective effect of its treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is unclear. We did an observational study to compare incidence of fatal...

Uncertainty and the welfare economics of medical care

This chapter focuses on the way in which the operation of the medical-care industry and the efficacy with which it satisfies the needs of society differ from a norm. The term norm that the economist usually uses for the purposes of such comparisons is...

Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study

Summary Background Despite the use of aspirin, there is still a risk of ischaemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to find out whether, in addition to aspirin, pretreatment with clopidogrel followed by long-term therapy...

Analysing qualitative data

This is the second in a series of three articles Contrary to popular perception, qualitative research can produce vast amounts of data. These may include verbatim notes or transcribed recordings of interviews or focus groups, jotted notes and more detailed...

Kidney Disease as a Risk Factor for Development of Cardiovascular Disease A Statement From the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention

Mark J. Sarnak, Andrew S. Levey, Anton C. Schoolwerth, Josef Coresh, Bruce Culleton, L. Lee Hamm, Ellie Kelepouris, Michael J. Klag, Patrick S. Parfrey, Marc A. Pfeffer, David J. Spinosa, Peter W. Wilson

Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema: ISAAC

Systematic international comparisons of the prevalences of asthma and other allergic disorders in children are needed for better understanding of their global epidemiology, to generate new hypotheses, and to assess existing hypotheses of possible causes....

Intensive versus Conventional Glucose Control in Critically Ill Patients

This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work...

Perioperative Chemotherapy versus Surgery Alone for Resectable Gastroesophageal Cancer

From the Departments of Medicine (D.C., Y.J.C.) and Surgery (W.H.A., J.N.T.), Royal Marsden Hospital, Surrey and London; the Background A regimen of epirubicin, cisplatin, and infused fluorouracil (ECF) improves sur- vival among patients with incurable...

Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines

Clinicians and researchers without a suitable health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure in their own language have two choices: (1) to develop a new measure, or (2) to modify a measure previously validated in another language, known as a cross-cultural...

Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe “Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999” presents the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs), formerly called surgical wound...

Five-Year Follow-up of Patients Receiving Imatinib for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Background The cause of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a constitutively active BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. Imatinib inhibits this kinase, and in a short-term study was superior to interferon alfa plus cytarabine for newly diagnosed CML in the chronic...

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: AGENTS OF SUBTLE CHANGE

During the last three decades, the impact of chemical pollution has focused almost exclusively on the conventional "priority" pollutants, especially those acutely toxic/carcinogenic pesticides and industrial intermediates displaying persistence in the...

A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors...

Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C

Summary Background Our aim was to assess the natural history of liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C and the factors associated with this progression. Methods We recruited 2235 patients from the Observatoire de l’Hepatite C (OBSVIRC) population,...

Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease

Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been in the context of individual risk factors, Often in a limited number of...

Repair of Infarcted Myocardium by Autologous Intracoronary Mononuclear Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in Humans

Bodo E. Strauer, Michael A. Brehm, Tobias Zeus, Matthias Köstering, Hernandez A, Rüdiger V. Sorg, Gesine Kögler, Peter Wernet

Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study.

The relationship between the degree of obesity and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was reexamined in the 5209 men and women of the original Framingham cohort. Recent observations of disease occurrence over 26 years indicate that obesity,...

Symptomatic Gastroesophageal Reflux as a Risk Factor for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Background The causes of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia are poorly understood. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation of the possible association between gastroesophageal reflux and these tumors. Methods We performed a nationwide,...

Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.

The median duration of follow-up was 1.8 years. The rate of the primary outcome was 1.27% per year in the apixaban group, as compared with 1.60% per year in the war farin group (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.79; 95% confidence interval...

Hepatitis B virus infection.

The hepatitis B virus (HBV), discovered in 1966, infects more than 350 million people worldwide.1 Hepatitis B is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, accounting for 1 million deaths annually. Knowledge of the...

Gene-expression profiles to predict distant metastasis of lymph-node-negative primary breast cancer

Methods We analysed, with Affymetrix Human U133a GeneChips, the expression of 22 000 transcripts from total RNA of frozen tumour samples from 286 lymph-node-negative patients who had not received adjuvant systemic treatment. Findings In a training set...

Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006

Background: Monitoring the evolution of the cancer burden in Europe is of great value. Estimates of the cancer burden in Europe have been published for 2004 and estimates are now being presented for cancer incidence and mortality in Europe for 2006. Methods:...

Paradoxical Vasoconstriction Induced by Acetylcholine in Atherosclerotic Coronary Arteries

Acetylcholine is believed to dilate normal blood vessels by promoting the release of a vasorelaxant substance from the endothelium (endothelium-derived relaxing factor). By contrast, if the endothelium is removed experimentally, acetylcholine constricts...

Ethical authorship and publishing.

Principles of Ethical Publishing in the International Journal of Cardiology: 1. That the corresponding author has the approval of all other listed authors for the submission and publication of all versions of the manuscript.

Traumatic Arthritis of the Hip after Dislocation and Acetabular Fractures: Treatment by Mold Arthroplasty

An end-result analysis is presented of thirty-nine mold arthroplasties performed at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1945 and 1965 in thirty-eight consecutive private patients for arthritis of the hip following fractures of the acetabulum or...

Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States, 2011-2012

The objective of this research was to provide the most recent national estimates of childhood obesity, analyze trends in childhood obesity between 2003 and 2012, and provide detailed obesity trend analyses among adults.

EFFECTS OF A COMBINATION OF BETA CAROTENE AND VITAMIN A ON LUNG CANCER AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

Background. Lung cancer and cardiovas- cular disease are major causes of death in the United States. It has been proposed that carotenoids and reti- noids are agents that may prevent these disorders. Methods. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind,...

Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force.

Endothelial function is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, hypertension and heart failure. In the 1990s, high-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery to assess endothelium-dependent flow-mediated...

Voriconazole versus Amphotericin B for Primary Therapy of Invasive Aspergillosis

Background Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole that is active against aspergillus species. We conducted a randomized trial to compare voriconazole with amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. Methods In this randomized, unblinded...

International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms : a randomised trial

Summary Background Endovascular detachable coil treatment is being increasingly used as an alternative to craniotomy and clipping for some ruptured intracranial aneurysms, although the relative benefits of these two approaches have yet to be established....

Prognostic Impact of Coronary Vasodilator Dysfunction on Adverse Long-Term Outcome of Coronary Heart Disease

Background —Endothelial vasodilator dysfunction is a characteristic feature of patients at risk for coronary atherosclerosis. Therefore, we prospectively investigated whether coronary endothelial dysfunction predicts disease progression and cardiovascular...

Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence

Darren E. R. Warburton, Crystal Whitney Nicol, Shannon S.D. Bredin

Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock

Objective: In 2003, critical care and infectious disease experts representing 11 international organizations developed management guidelines for severe sepsis and septic shock that would be of practical use for the bedside clinician, under the auspices...

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