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Primary Prevention of Acute Coronary Events With Lovastatin in Men and Women With Average Cholesterol Levels Results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS

Context.— Although cholesterol-reducing treatment has been shown to reduce fatal and nonfatal coronary disease in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), it is unknown whether benefit from the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)...

Unequal treatment : confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care

Racial and ethnic disparities in health care are known to reflect access to care and other issues that arise from differing socioeconomic conditions. There is, however, increasing evidence that even after such differences are accounted for, race and ethnicity...

Global Burden of Diabetes, 1995–2025: Prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections

OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people with diabetes who are ≥20 years of age in all countries of the world for three points in time, i.e., the years 1995, 2000, and 2025, and to calculate additional parameters, such...

Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008.

Sponsoring organizations: American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Thoracic Society, Asia Pacific Association of Critical Care Medicine, Australian and New Zealand...

The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS : definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a process of nonhydrostatic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia associated with a variety of etiologies, carries a high morbidity, mortality (10 to 90%), and financial cost. The reported annual incidence in the...

Classification of Surgical Complications: A New Proposal With Evaluation in a Cohort of 6336 Patients and Results of a Survey

Objective:Although quality assessment is gaining increasing attention, there is still no consensus on how to define and grade postoperative complications. This shortcoming hampers comparison of outcome data among different centers and therapies and over...

Amiodarone or an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator for Congestive Heart Failure

background Sudden death from cardiac causes remains a leading cause of death among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Treatment with amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter–defibrillator (ICD) has been proposed to improve the prognosis...

Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol

Blood pressure reduction achieved with β-blockers and diuretics is the best recorded intervention to date for prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and death in patients with hypertension. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a strong independent indicator...

Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, and Coronary Artery Disease

ecent research has shown that inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD) and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Immune cells dominate early atherosclerotic lesions, their effector molecules accelerate progression of the lesions,...

The Metabolic Syndrome

This constellation of metabolic disturbances, all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, was first described in the 1920s by Kylin, a Swedish physician, as the clustering of hypertension, hyperglycaemia, and gout. 2 Later, in 1947, Vague drew attention...

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Complications Both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are associated with a wide variety of complications, encompassing secondary effects of the inflammatory process in the gastrointestinal tract and associated extraintestinal manifestations.113 114...

Transection of the oesophagus for bleeding oesophageal varices.

Patient AccessPatients and/or caregivers may access this content for use in relation to their own personal healthcare or that of a family member only. Terms and conditions will apply.

Reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion without craniectomy in rats.

Longa Ez, Philip R. Weinstein, S. J. Carlson, Cummins R

Tamoxifen for Prevention of Breast Cancer: Report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study

Background: The finding of a decrease in contralateral breast cancer incidence following tamoxifen administration for adjuvant therapy led to the concept that the drug might play a role in breast cancer prevention. To test this hypothesis, the National...

Trastuzumab plus Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Operable HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Background We present the combined results of two trials that compared adjuvant chemotherapy with or without concurrent trastuzumab in women with surgically removed HER2-positive breast cancer. Methods The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project...

Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials

Background: Quinquennial overviews (1985–2000) of the randomised trials in early breast cancer have assessed the5-year and 10-year effects of various systemic adjuvant therapies on breast cancer recurrence and survival. Here, wereport the 10-year and...

A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study.

Objective. —To develop and validate a new Simplified Acute Physiology Score, the SAPS II, from a large sample of surgical and medical patients, and to provide a method to convert the score to a probability of hospital mortality.Design and Setting. —The...

Recommendations for Quantitation of the Left Ventricle by Two-Dimensional Echocardiography

SummaryWe have presented recommendations for the optimum acquisition of quantitative two-dimensional data in the current echocardiographic environment. It is likely that advances in imaging may enhance or supplement these approaches. For example, three-dimensional...

Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors

Objective: To assess the hazards associated with long term use of tobacco.Design: Prospective study of mortality in relation to smoking habits assessed in 1951 and again from20time to time thereafter, with causes sought of deaths20over 40 years (to 1991)....

CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials

The CONSORT statement is used worldwide to improve the reporting of randomised controlled trials. Kenneth Schulz and colleagues describe the latest version, CONSORT 2010, which updates the reporting guideline based on new methodological evidence and accumulating...

Cancer Statistics, 2006†

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the...

Inflammation, aspirin, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men.

Background Inflammation may be important in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. We studied whether inflammation increases the risk of a first thrombotic event and whether treatment with aspirin decreases the risk. Methods We measured plasma C-reactive...

Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative Project on Early Detection of Persons with Harmful Alcohol Consumption‐II

The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been developed from a six-country WHO collaborative project as a screening instrument for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. It is a 10-item questionnaire which covers the domains of alcohol...

Dabigatran versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

Background Warfarin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but increases the risk of hemorrhage and is difficult to use. Dabigatran is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor. Methods In this noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned...

Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis.

Background: Drotrecogin alfa (activated), or recombinant human activated protein C, has antithrombotic, antiinflammatory, and profibrinolytic properties. In a previous study, drotrecogin alfa activated produced dose-dependent reductions in the levels...

Nelson textbook of pediatrics

Waldo E. Nelson, Victor C. Vaughan, R. James McKay, Richard E. Behrman

Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism

William H. Geerts, John A. Heit, G. Patrick Clagett, Graham F. Pineo, Clifford W. Colwell, Frederick A. Anderson, H. Brownell Wheeler

2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)

2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension : The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

Sorafenib in Advanced Clear-Cell Renal-Cell Carcinoma

Background We conducted a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor of tumor-cell proliferation and angiogenesis, in patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma. Methods From November...

Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction : results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial

Marc A. Pfeffer, Eugene Braunwald, Lemuel A. Moyé, Lofty L. Basta, Edward J. Brown, Cuddy Te, Barry R. Davis, Edward M. Geltman, Steven Goldman, Greg C. Flaker, Marc Klein, Gervasio A. Lamas, Milton Packer, Jacques Rouleau, Jean L. Rouleau, John D. Rutherford, John H. Wertheimer, C. Morton Hawkins

Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators.

Frank J. Palella, Kathleen M. Delaney, Anne C. Moorman, Mark O. Loveless, Jack Fuhrer, Glen A. Satten, Diane J. Aschman, Scott D. Holmberg

RENOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE ANGIOTENSIN-RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST IRBESARTAN IN PATIENTS WITH NEPHROPATHY DUE TO TYPE 2 DIABETES

Background It is unknown whether either the angiotensin-II–receptor blocker irbesartan or the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine slows the progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of its capacity to lower the systemic...

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults: Findings From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Context The Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (ATP III) highlights the importance of treating patients with the metabolic syndrome to prevent...

Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data

Our aim was to calculate the global burden of disease and risk factors for 2001, to examine regional trends from 1990 to 2001, and to provide a starting point for the analysis of the Disease Control Priorities Project (DCPP).

International physical activity questionnaire : 12-country reliability and validity

This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work...

Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions

The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the official document that describes in detail the process of preparing and maintaining Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions.

The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee

Claire Bombardier, Roger F Shere-Wolfe, Aryeh M Abeles, Smythe Ha, Jesse S. Campbell, P. J. Clark, Malcolm J. Bennett, Peter Tugwell, Fernando D. Goldenberg

Prognostic Implications of Echocardiographically Determined Left Ventricular Mass in the Framingham Heart Study

A pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy evident on the electrocardiogram is a harbinger of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Echocardiography permits the noninvasive determination of left ventricular mass and the examination of its...

Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States

To better quantify the impact of foodborne diseases on health in the United States, we compiled and analyzed information from multiple surveillance systems and other sources. We estimate that foodborne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses,...

C-Reactive Protein and Other Markers of Inflammation in the Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Women

Background Since inflammation is believed to have a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events, measurement of markers of inflammation has been proposed as a method to improve the prediction of the risk of these events. Methods We conducted a prospective,...

Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long- term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Since the 1990 NIH-sponsored conference on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),it has become appreciated that the syndrome encompasses a broader spectrum of signs and symptoms of ovarian dysfunction than those defined by the original diagnostic criteria....

SENSE : sensitivity encoding for fast MRI

New theoretical and practical concepts are presented for considerably enhancing the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by means of arrays of multiple receiver coils. Sensitivity encoding (SENSE) is based on the fact that receiver sensitivity...

Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community

To study risk factors for falling, we conducted a one-year prospective investigation, using a sample of 336 persons at least 75 years of age who were living in the community. All subjects underwent detailed clinical evaluation, including standardized...

Docetaxel plus Prednisone or Mitoxantrone plus Prednisone for Advanced Prostate Cancer

Background Mitoxantrone plus prednisone reduces pain and improves the quality of life in men with advanced, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, but it does not improve survival. We compared such treatment with docetaxel plus prednisone in men with this...

Intensive Insulin Therapy in Critically Ill Patients

Background Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are common in critically ill patients, even if they have not previously had diabetes. Whether the normalization of blood glucose levels with insulin therapy improves the prognosis for such patients is not...

COMPARISON OF FOUR CHEMOTHERAPY REGIMENS FOR ADVANCED NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER

Background We conducted a randomized study to determine whether any of three chemotherapy regimens was superior to cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods A total of 1207 patients with advanced non–small-cell...

Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work...

Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: Guidelines from the international panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

The International Panel on MS Diagnosis presents revised diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS). The focus remains on the objective demonstration of dissemination of lesions in both time and space. Magnetic resonance imaging is integrated with...

The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Disorder: Results From the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)

Context Uncertainties exist about prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD).Objective To present nationally representative data on prevalence and correlates of MDD by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition...

American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Guideline Recommendations for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Testing in Breast Cancer

PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in invasive breast cancer and its utility as a predictive marker. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of...

Computed Tomography — An Increasing Source of Radiation Exposure

The number of computed tomographic (CT) studies performed is increasing rapidly. Because CT scans involve much higher doses of radiation than plain films, we are seeing a marked increase in radiation exposure in the general population. Epidemiologic studies...

Improvements in survival and clinical benefit with gemcitabine as first-line therapy for patients with advanced pancreas cancer: a randomized trial.

H. A. Burris, Malcolm J. Moore, Green Mr, Manuel R. Modiano, Cripps Mc, Russell K. Portenoy, Storniolo Am, P Tarassoff, R. E. Nelson, F A Dorr, D. D. Von Hoff

World report on violence and health

Etienne G. Krug, James A. Mercy, Linda L. Dahlberg, Anthony B. Zwi

Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.

Background Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Interruption of the renin–angiotensin system slows the progression of renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are not available for patients with...

The Sickness Impact Profile: development and final revision of a health status measure.

The final development of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), a behaviorally based measure of health status, is presented. A large field trial on a random sample of prepaid group practice enrollees and smaller trials on samples of patients with hyperthyroidism,...

Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000

Context Modifiable behavioral risk factors are leading causes of mortality in the United States. Quantifying these will provide insight into the effects of recent trends and the implications of missed prevention opportunities.Objectives To identify and...

Cardiac Resynchronization in Chronic Heart Failure

Background Previous studies have suggested that cardiac resynchronization achieved through atrial-synchronized biventricular pacing produces clinical benefits in patients with heart failure who have an intraventricular conduction delay. We conducted a...

CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has developed a new set of definitions for surveillance of nosocomial infections. The new definitions combine specific clinical findings with results of laboratory and other tests that include recent advances in diagnostic...

A New Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate

Andrew S. Levey, Lesley A. Stevens, Christopher H. Schmid, Yaping Zhang, Alejandro F. Castro, Harold I. Feldman, John W. Kusek, Paul W. Eggers, Frederick Van Lente, Tom Greene, Josef Coresh

Efficacy and Safety of a Specific Inhibitor of the BCR-ABL Tyrosine Kinase in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Background BCR-ABL is a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase that causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Since tyrosine kinase activity is essential to the transforming function of BCR-ABL, an inhibitor of the kinase could be an effective treatment...

UNIDENTIFIED CURVED BACILLI IN THE STOMACH OF PATIENTS WITH GASTRITIS AND PEPTIC ULCERATION

Biopsy specimens were taken from intact areas of antral mucosa in 100 consecutive consenting patients presenting for gastroscopy. Spiral or curved bacilli were demonstrated in specimens from 58 patients. Bacilli cultured from 11 of these biopsies were...

Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030.

Global and regional projections of mortality and burden of disease by cause for the years 2000 2010 and 2030 were published by Murray and Lopez in 1996 as part of the Global Burden of Disease project. These projections which are based on 1990 data continue...

Non-invasive detection of endothelial dysfunction in children and adults at risk of atherosclerosis

Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in experimental studies of atherogenesis, preceding formation of plaques. We have devised a non-invasive method for testing endothelial function, to find out whether abnormalities are present in symptom-free children...

Prospective Study of the Association between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension

CREENING studies in the United States, Europe, and Australia have shown that a substantial proportion of the adult population has mild-to-moderate sleep-disordered breathing, a condition characterized by repeated episodes of apnea and hypopnea during...

Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality from Cancer in a Prospectively Studied Cohort of U.S. Adults

background The influence of excess body weight on the risk of death from cancer has not been fully characterized. methods In a prospectively studied population of more than 900,000 U.S. adults (404,576 men and 495,477 women) who were free of cancer at...

Sirolimus-Eluting Stents versus Standard Stents in Patients with Stenosis in a Native Coronary Artery

background Preliminary reports of studies involving simple coronary lesions indicate that a sirolimus-eluting stent significantly reduces the risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary revascularization. methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind...

Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II)

Lars Norgren, William R. Hiatt, J.A. Dormandy, Mark R. Nehler, Kenneth A. Harris

Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus

The genesis of new cells, including neurons, in the adult human brain has not yet been demonstrated. This study was undertaken to investigate whether neurogenesis occurs in the adult human brain, in regions previously identified as neurogenic in adult...

Erlotinib in Previously Treated Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Patients with stage IIIB or IV non–small-cell lung cancer, with performance status from 0 to 3, were eligible if they had received one or two prior chemotherapy regimens. The patients were stratified according to center, performance...

Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution

Context Associations have been found between day-to-day particulate air pollution and increased risk of various adverse health outcomes, including cardiopulmonary mortality. However, studies of health effects of long-term particulate air pollution have...

The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

The acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common, devastating clinical syndrome of acute lung injury that affects both medical and surgical patients. Since the last review of this syndrome appeared in the Journal, 1 more uniform definitions have been...

Liver Transplantation for the Treatment of Small Hepatocellular Carcinomas in Patients with Cirrhosis

Background The role of orthotopic liver transplantation in the treatment of patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is controversial, and determining which patients are likely to have a good outcome after liver transplantation is difficult....

The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000.

background Sepsis represents a substantial health care burden, and there is limited epidemiologic information about the demography of sepsis or about the temporal changes in its incidence and outcome. We investigated the epidemiology of sepsis in the...

Paclitaxel–Carboplatin Alone or with Bevacizumab for Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

bevacizumab, as compared with 10.3 months in the chemotherapy-alone group (hazard ratio for death, 0.79; P = 0.003). The median progression-free survival in the two groups was 6.2 and 4.5 months, respectively (hazard...

Markers of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Application to Clinical and Public Health Practice: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association

Thomas A. Pearson, George A. Mensah, R. Wayne Alexander, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Michael H. Criqui, Yazid Y. Fadl, Stephen P. Fortmann, Yuling Hong, Gary L. Myers, Sidney C. Smith, Kathryn A. Taubert, Russell P. Tracy, Frank Vinicor

Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction

Kristian Thygesen, Joseph S. Alpert, Harvey D. White

The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs

Cross-sectional data from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) were analyzed to test the validity of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scales as measures of physical and mental health constructs. Results from traditional psychometric and clinical...

A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions

Naranjo Ca, U. Busto, Sellers Em, Sándor P, Eve A. Roberts, Janecek E, Domecq C, Greenblatt Dj

On death and dying

Dr. J. Russell Little, Chief, Division of Infectious Disease, the Jewish Hospital of St. Louis and Associate Professor of Medicine and Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine: Our guest this morning is Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, MD. Dr. Ross...

Bone histomorphometry : Standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units

A. Michael Parfitt, Marc K. Drezner, John A. Kanis, Hartmut H. Malluche

Advances in functional and structural MR image analysis and implementation as FSL.

Stephen M. Smith, Mark Jenkinson, Christian F. Beckmann, Timothy E.J. Behrens, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Peter R. Bannister, Marilena De Luca, Ivana Drobnjak, David E. Flitney, Rami K. Niazy, James Saunders, John Vickers, Yongyue Zhang, Nicola De Stefano, Michael Brady, Paul M. Matthews

Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage : A practical scale

Persisting disability after brain damage usually comprises both mental and physical handicap. The mental component is often the more important in contributing to overall social disability. Lack of an objective scale leads to vague and over-optimistic...

Case report 3

Murray K. Dalinka, R. E. Brennan, Arthur S. Patchefsky

The Quality of Health Care Delivered to Adults in the United States

background We have little systematic information about the extent to which standard processes involved in health care — a key element of quality — are delivered in the United States. methods We telephoned a random sample of adults living in 12 metropolitan...

Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging

Avinash C. Kak, Malcolm Slaney, I Medicine

The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?

Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (994K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. 295296297298299300

Insulin resistance : a multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Diabetes mellitus is commonly associated with systolic/diastolic hypertension, and a wealth of epidemiological data suggest that this association is independent of age and obesity. Much evidence indicates that the link between diabetes and essential hypertension...

Pathological prognostic factors in breast cancer. I. The value of histological grade in breast cancer: experience from a large study with long-term follow-up

Morphological assessment of the degree of differentiation has been shown in numerous studies to provide useful prognostic information in breast cancer, but until recently histological grading has not been accepted as a routine procedure, mainly because...

A Randomized Comparison of a Sirolimus-Eluting Stent with a Standard Stent for Coronary Revascularization

Background The need for repeated treatment of restenosis of a treated vessel remains the main limitation of percutaneous coronary revascularization. Because sirolimus (rapamycin) inhibits the proliferation of lymphocytes and smooth-muscle cells, we compared...

Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients. Results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study I.

Brennan Ta, Lucian L. Leape, N. M. Lairds, Liesi E. Hebert, R. Logalio, A. G. Lanwthers, Joseph P. Newhouse, Paul C. Weiler, Howard H. Hiatt

Plasma Norepinephrine as a Guide to Prognosis in Patients with Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

Hemodynamics, plasma norepinephrine, and plasma renin activity were measured at supine rest in 106 patients (83 men and 23 women) with moderate to severe congestive heart failure. During follow-up lasting 1 to 62 months, 60 patients died (57 per cent);...

A randomised, blinded, trial of Clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE)

Background Many clinical trials have evaluated the benefit of long-term use of antiplatelet drugs in reducing the risk of clinical thrombotic events. Aspirin and ticlopidine have been shown to be effective, but both have potentially serious adverse effects....

Rosuvastatin to Prevent Vascular Events in Men and Women with Elevated C-Reactive Protein

Increased levels of the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein predict cardiovascular events. Since statins lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as well as cholesterol, we hypothesized that people with elevated high-sensitivity...

Clinical End Points in Coronary Stent Trials A Case for Standardized Definitions

Donald E. Cutlip, Stephan Windecker, Roxana Mehran, Ashley Boam, David J. Cohen, Gerrit-Anne van Es, Marie-Angèle Morel, Laura Mauri, Pascal Vranckx, Eugene P. McFadden, Alexandra Lansky, Martial Hamon, Mitchell W. Krucoff, Patrick W. Serruys

Multidrug resistance in cancer: role of ATP-dependent transporters.

Michael M. Gottesman, Tito Fojo, Susan E. Bates

The Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis — An Update

CARDIOVASCULAR disease remains the chief cause of death in the United States and Western Europe, and atherosclerosis, the principal cause of myocardial and cerebral infarction, accounts for the majority of these deaths.1 This review, like its predecessor,2...

Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction.

background Aldosterone blockade reduces mortality and morbidity among patients with severe heart failure. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effect of eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, on morbidity and mortality...

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among US Children, Adolescents, and Adults, 1999-2002

Context The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased markedly in the last 2 decades in the United States.Objective To update the US prevalence estimates of overweight in children and obesity in adults, using the most recent national data of...

RANIBIZUMAB FOR NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

Background Ranibizumab — a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody Fab that neutralizes all active forms of vascular endothelial growth factor A — has been evaluated for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods In...

Unconventional Medicine in the United States -- Prevalence, Costs, and Patterns of Use

Letters ABSTRACT Background Many people use unconventional therapies for health problems, but the extent of this use and the costs are not known. We conducted a national survey to determine the prevalence, costs, and patterns of use of unconventional...

Principles and practice of infectious diseases

G. L. Mandell, R. Gordon Douglas

Intensive Insulin Therapy in the Medical ICU

Background Intensive insulin therapy reduces morbidity and mortality in patients in surgical intensive care units (ICUs), but its role in patients in medical ICUs is unknown. Methods In a prospective, randomized, controlled study of adult patients admitted...

Cutaneous wound healing.

The primary function of the skin is to serve as a protective barrier against the environment. Loss of the integrity of large portions of the skin as a result of injury or illness may lead to major disability or even death. Every year in the United States...

Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data

Results Overall, 26·4% (95% CI 26·0‐26·8%) of the adult population in 2000 had hypertension (26·6% of men [26·0–27·2%] and 26·1% of women [25·5–26·6%]), and 29·2% (28·8–29·7%) were projected to have...

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