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1999 update: ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Management of Acute Myocardial

Thomas J. Ryan, Elliott M. Antman, Neil H. Brooks, Robert M. Califf, L. David Hillis, Loren F. Hiratzka, Elliot Rapaport, Barbara Riegel, Richard O. Russell, Earl E Smith, W. Douglas Weaver, Raymond J. Gibbons, Joseph S. Alpert, Kim A. Eagle, Timothy J. Gardner, Arthur Garson, Gabriel Gregoratos, Sidney C. Smith

Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration

Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalizability of its results. Taking into account...

Untangling the Concepts of Disability, Frailty, and Comorbidity: Implications for Improved Targeting and Care

Three terms are commonly used interchangeably to identify vulnerable older adults: comorbidity, or multiple chronicconditions,frailty, anddisability. However, in geriatricmedicine,there isagrowingconsensusthatthese are distinct clinical entities that...

Reduction of postoperative mortality and morbidity with epidural or spinal anaesthesia: results from overview of randomised trials

Objectives: To obtain reliable estimates of the effects of neuraxial blockade with epidural or spinal anaesthesia on postoperative morbidity and mortality.Design: Systematic review of all trials with randomisation to intraoperative neuraxial blockade...

Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients.

Yusuf S, G. Dagenais, Janice Pogue, Jackie Bosch, Sleight P

Myocardial infarction and coronary deaths in the World Health Organization MONICA Project. Registration procedures, event rates, and case-fatality rates in 38 populations from 21 countries in four continents.

BACKGROUND The WHO MONICA Project is a 10-year study that monitors deaths due to coronary heart disease (CHD), acute myocardial infarction, coronary care, and risk factors in men and women aged 35 to 64 years in defined communities. This analysis of methods...

Infliximab Maintenance Therapy for Fistulizing Crohn's Disease

background Infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor, is an effective maintenance therapy for patients with Crohn’s disease without fistulas. It is not known whether infliximab is an effective maintenance therapy for patients with...

C-Reactive Protein in Healthy Subjects: Associations With Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Endothelial Dysfunction A Potential Role for Cytokines Originating From Adipose Tissue?

C-reactive protein, a hepatic acute phase protein largely regulated by circulating levels of interleukin-6, predicts coronary heart disease incidence in healthy subjects. We have shown that subcutaneous adipose tissue secretes interleukin-6 in vivo. In...

Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood pressure lowering regimen among 6,105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack

This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work...

Impact of Formal Continuing Medical Education: Do Conferences, Workshops, Rounds, and Other Traditional Continuing Education Activities Change Physician Behavior or Health Care Outcomes?

Context Although physicians report spending a considerable amount of time in continuing medical education (CME) activities, studies have shown a sizable difference between real and ideal performance, suggesting a lack of effect of formal CME.Objective...

Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes

Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D intakes above current recommendations may be associated with better health outcomes. However, optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have not been defined. This review summarizes evidence...

Adverse Drug Events in Hospitalized Patients: Excess Length of Stay, Extra Costs, and Attributable Mortality

Objective. —To determine the excess length of stay, extra costs, and mortality attributable to adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized patients.Design. —Matched case-control study.Setting. —The LDS Hospital, a tertiary care health care institution.Patients....

National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2·7 million participants

Summary Background Data for trends in glycaemia and diabetes prevalence are needed to understand the effects of diet and lifestyle within populations, assess the performance of interventions, and plan health services. No consistent and comparable global...

Combined Cardiac Resynchronization and Implantable Cardioversion Defibrillation in Advanced Chronic Heart Failure: The MIRACLE ICD Trial

Context Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) through biventricular pacing is an effective treatment for heart failure (HF) with a wide QRS; however, the outcomes of patients requiring CRT and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy are...

Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Background There is no evidence from randomized trials to support a strategy of lowering systolic blood pressure below 135 to 140 mm Hg in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether therapy targeting normal systolic pressure (i.e.,...

THE INVERSE CARE LAW

care tends to vary inversely with the need for it in the population served. This inverse care law operates more completely where medical care is most exposed to market forces, and less so where such exposure is reduced. The market distribution of medical...

A Randomized Trial of Low-Dose Aspirin in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women

results During follow-up, 477 major cardiovascular events were confirmed in the aspirin group, as compared with 522 in the placebo group, for a nonsignificant reduction in risk with aspirin of 9 percent (relative risk, 0.91; 95 percent...

Morbidity and mortality in the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension (STOP-Hypertension)

Although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment in "young" elderly (under 70 years) hypertensive patients are well established, the value of treatment in older patients (70-84 years) is less clear. The Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension...

Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

Background In patients with melanoma, ipilimumab (an antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4]) prolongs overall survival, and nivolumab (an antibody against the programmed death 1 [PD-1] receptor) produced durable tumor...

American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Guideline Recommendations for Immunohistochemical Testing of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Breast Cancer

M. E. H. Hammond, Daniel F. Hayes, M Dowsett, Allred Dc, Karen L. Hagerty, Sunil Badve, Patrick L. Fitzgibbons, Glenn Francis, Neal Goldstein, Malcolm Hayes, David G. Hicks, Susan C. Lester, Richard R. Love, Pamela B. Mangu, Lisa M. McShane, Keith Miller, C. K. Osborne, Soon Paik, Jane Perlmutter, Anthony Rhodes, Sasano H, Jared N. Schwartz, F.C.G.J. Sweep, Sheila E. Taube, Emina Torlakovic, Paul N. Valenstein, Giuseppe Viale, Daniel W. Visscher, Thomas M. Wheeler, Williams Rb, James L. Wittliff, Antonio C. Wolff

Prospective Comparison of Transient Elastography, Fibrotest, APRI, and Liver Biopsy for the Assessment of Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C

Background & Aims: Transient elastography (FibroScan; Echosens, Paris, France) is a novel, noninvasive, and rapid bedside method to assess liver fibrosis by measuring liver stiffness. We prospectively assessed the performance of FibroScan in patients...

Prospective Trial of Supranormal Values of Survivors as Therapeutic Goals in High- Risk Surgical Patients*

William C. Shoemaker, Paul L. Appel, Kram Hb, Kenneth Waxman, Tai-Shion Lee

Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastric Lymphoma

Background Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. We examined whether this infection is also a risk factor for primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods This nested case-control study involved two large cohorts...

A Case–Control Study of Screening Sigmoidoscopy and Mortality from Colorectal Cancer

Background The efficacy of sigmoidoscopic screening in reducing mortality from colorectal cancer remains uncertain. A randomized trial would be ideal for clarifying this issue but is very difficult to conduct. Case–control studies provide an alternative...

Assessment of mitral annulus velocity by Doppler tissue imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function

Objectives. This study assessed the clinical utility of mitral annulus velocity in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function.

Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis

one metastases are a frequent complication of cancer, occurring in up to 70 percent of patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer 1 and in approximately 15 to 30 percent of patients with carcinoma of the lung, colon, stomach, bladder, uterus, rectum,...

No magic bullets: a systematic review of 102 trials of interventions to improve professional practice

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of different types of interventions in improving health professional performance and health outcomes. Data sources: MEDLINE SCISEARCH CINAHL and the Research and Development Resource Base in CME were searched...

Current Concepts of the Pathogenesis of the Acute Coronary Syndromes

The last decade has witnessed a major reassessment of our perceptions about the acute coronary syndromes. Today, we recognize that thrombosis underlies most acute complications of atherosclerosis, notably unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction....

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Working Case Definition

The chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome is a poorly defined symptom complex characterized primarily by chronic or recurrent debilitating fatigue and various combinations of other symptoms, including sore throat, lymph node pain and tenderness, headache,...

ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation The Task Force on the management of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)

ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation : the Task Force on the management of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)

Effects of torcetrapib in patients at high risk for coronary events.

Philip J. Barter, Mark Caulfield, Mats Eriksson, Scott M. Grundy, John J.P. Kastelein, Michel Komajda, Jose Lopez-Sendon, Lori Mosca, Jean-Claude Tardif, David D. Waters, Charles L. Shear, James H. Revkin, Kevin A. Buhr, Marian R. Fisher, Alan R. Tall, Bryan Brewer

AHA Dietary Guidelines

This document presents guidelines for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease by dietary and other lifestyle practices. Since the previous publication of these guidelines by the American Heart Association,1 the overall approach has been modified to...

Advanced Heart Failure Treated with Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

Background Patients with advanced heart failure have improved survival rates and quality of life when treated with implanted pulsatile-flow left ventricular assist devices as compared with medical therapy. New continuous-flow devices are smaller and may...

Weight Gain as a Risk Factor for Clinical Diabetes Mellitus in Women

Graham A. Colditz, Walter C. Willett, Andrea Rotnitzky, JoAnn E. Manson

A Serious Adverse Event after Successful Gene Therapy for X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

To the Editor: We recently reported (April 18 issue)1 the sustained correction of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease by ex vivo, retrovirally mediated transfer of the γc gene into CD34+ cells in four of five patients with the disease....

Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes During 6.8 Years of Hormone Therapy Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study Follow-up (HERS II)

Context The Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) was a randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin therapy after menopause.Objective To examine the effect of long-term postmenopausal hormone therapy on common noncardiovascular disease...

The Prevalence of Nosocomial Infection in Intensive Care Units in Europe: Results of the European Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) Study

Objective. —To determine the prevalence of intensive care unit (ICU)—acquired infections and the risk factors for these infections, identify the predominant infecting organisms, and evaluate the relationship between ICU-acquired infection and mortality.Design....

The AUDIT Alcohol Consumption Questions (AUDIT-C) An Effective Brief Screening Test for Problem Drinking

cording to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition, criteria; and (3) either. Results: Of 393 eligible patients, 243 (62%) completed AUDIT-C and interviews. For detecting heavy drinking, AUDIT-C had a higher AUROC...

Experiential Avoidance and Behavioral Disorders: A Functional Dimensional Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment

Syndromal classification is a well-developed diagnostic system but has failed to deliver on its promise of the identification of functional pathological processes. Functional analysis is tightly connected to treatment but has failed to develop testable....

Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease

In a prospective, randomised single-blinded secondary prevention trial we compared the effect of a Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet to the usual post-infarct prudent diet. After a first myocardial infarction, patients were randomly assigned...

A Novel Method in the Induction of Reliable Experimental Acute and Chronic Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Acute and chronic experimental ulcerative colitis models were produced in mice by providing them with drinking water containing synthetic dextran sulfate sodium. Mice that developed acute colitis showed signs of diarrhea, gross rectal bleeding, and weight...

Amyloid-beta protein dimers isolated directly from Alzheimer's brains impair synaptic plasticity and memory.

Ganesh M. Shankar, Shaomin Li, Tapan H. Mehta, Amaya Garcia Munoz, Nina E. Shepardson, Imelda M. Smith, Francesca M Brett, Michael J. Rowan, Cynthia A. Lemere, Ciaran M. Regan, Dominic M. Walsh, Bernardo L. Sabatini, Dennis J. Selkoe

Alternatives for logistic regression in cross-sectional studies: an empirical comparison of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio

Cross-sectional studies with binary outcomes analyzed by logistic regression are frequent in the epidemiological literature. However, the odds ratio can importantly overestimate the prevalence ratio, the measure of choice in these studies. Also, controlling...

Culture, Illness, and Care: Clinical Lessons from Anthropologic and Cross-Cultural Research

Major health care problems such as patient dissatisfaction, inequity of access to care, and spiraling costs no longer seem amenable to traditional biomedical solutions. Concepts derived from anthropologic and cross-cultural research may provide an alternative...

European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 4. Adult advanced life support

Charles D. Deakin, Jerry P. Nolan, Jasmeet Soar, Kjetil Sunde, Rudolph W. Koster, G.B. Smith, Gavin D. Perkins

A clinical sign to predict difficult tracheal intubation; a prospective study

S. Rao Mallampati, Stephen P. Gatt, Laveme D. Gugino, Sukumar P. Desai, Barbara Waraksa, Dubravka Freiberger, Philip Liu

Huntington's disease

but George Huntington’s vivid description led to the eponymous designation of the disorder as Huntington’s disease. 5 Over the next few decades, the worldwide distribution of the disorder and its juvenile form were recorded. The discovery of the causal...

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among American Youth: Incidence and Prevalence Estimates, 2000

Context: In the United States young people aged 15-24 represent 25% of the sexually experienced population. However the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among this age-group are unknown. Methods: Data from a variety of...

Pathogenesis of upper airway occlusion during sleep

.. sleep. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 44ftik 931-938, 1978. -Ten patients with daytime somnolence and obesity were found to have periodic airway occlusion (AO) during nocturnal sleep. The cyclical ventilatory pattern consisted...

Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study

Valvular heart diseases are not usually regarded as a major public-health problem. Our aim was to assess their prevalence and effect on overall survival in the general population.

Tumor Angiogenesis: A New Significant and Independent Prognostic Indicator in Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma

Noel Weidner, Judah Folkman, Pozza F, Pierantonio Bevilacqua, Elizabeth N. Allred, Dan H. Moore, Meli S, Giampietro Gasparini

Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine

Background Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis and death worldwide. Methods We studied healthy infants approximately 6 to 12 weeks old who were randomly assigned to receive three oral doses of live pentavalent human–bovine (WC3...

Postoperative Irradiation with or without Concomitant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

background We compared concomitant cisplatin and irradiation with radiotherapy alone as adjuvant treatment for stage III or IV head and neck cancer. methods After undergoing surgery with curative intent, 167 patients were randomly assigned to receive...

A prospective study of plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians.

Objective. —To assess prospectively the risk of coronary heart disease associated with elevated plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine.Design. —Nested case-control study using prospectively collected blood samples.Setting. —Participants in the Physicians'...

Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure asthma control

International guidelines on asthma management indicate that the primary goal of treatment should be optimum asthma control. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). The authors generated a list of all symptoms...

Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases

This two-part article provides an overview of the global burden of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Part I initially discusses the epidemiological transition which has resulted in a decrease in deaths in childhood due to infections, with a concomitant...

Role of fatty acids in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and NIDDM.

Evidence is reviewed that free fatty acids (FFAs) are one important link between obesity and insulin resistance and NIDDM. First, plasma FFA levels are elevated in most obese subjects. Second, physiological elevations in plasma FFA concentrations inhibit...

Effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery on survival: overview of 10-year results from randomised trials by the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Trialists Collaboration.

SummaryWe carried out a systematic overview using individual patient data from the seven randomised trials that have compared a strategy of initial coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with one of initial medical therapy to assess the effects on...

Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions

Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010....

American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer

Robert A. Smith, Curtis Mettlin, Kourtney Johnston Davis, Harmon J. Eyre

Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancers among patients with a familial risk of this disorder account for approximately one of five cases of this disease. Many cases can be prevented by the identification of those at risk and the use of appropriate colonoscopic screening....

Incidence and Economic Burden of Osteoporosis-Related Fractures in the United States, 2005–2025†

This study predicts the burden of incident osteoporosis-related fractures and costs in the United States, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and fracture type, from 2005 to 2025. Total fractures were >2 million, costing nearly $17 billion in 2005. Men...

Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator on the rate of decline of FEV1. The Lung Health Study.

Objective. —To determine whether a program incorporating smoking intervention and use of an inhaled bronchodilator can slow the rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in smokers aged 35 to 60 years who have mild obstructive pulmonary...

Postoperative Radiotherapy in High-Risk Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer Who Receive Adjuvant Chemotherapy

Background Irradiation after mastectomy can reduce locoregional recurrences in women with breast cancer, but whether it prolongs survival remains controversial. We conducted a randomized trial of radiotherapy after mastectomy in high-risk premenopausal...

Cardiac-Specific Troponin I Levels to Predict the Risk of Mortality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

Background In patients with acute coronary syndromes, it is desirable to identify a sensitive serum marker that is closely related to the degree of myocardial damage, provides prognostic information, and can be measured rapidly. We studied the prognostic...

The Contribution of Low Birth Weight to Infant Mortality and Childhood Morbidity

The contribution of low birthweight to infant mortality and morbidity is investigated and areas for further research are identified. Not only are low-birthweight infants at increased relative risk of neonatal mortality but the proportion of all neonatal...

Late thrombosis in drug-eluting coronary stents after discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy

SummaryAlthough the safety profiles of coronary stents eluting sirolimus or paclitaxel do not seem to differ from those of bare metal stents in the short-to-medium term, concern has arisen about the potential for late stent thromboses related to delayed...

Growth in utero, blood pressure in childhood and adult life, and mortality from cardiovascular disease.

David J. P. Barker, Clive Osmond, Jean Golding, Diana Kuh, Michael Wadsworth

Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. The European Concerted Action Project.

Context. —Elevated plasma homocysteine is a known risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease, but the strength of the relationship and the interaction of plasma homocysteine with other risk factors are unclear.Objective. —To establish the magnitude...

Treatment of Colonic and Rectal Adenomas with Sulindac in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

Background Familial adenomatous polyposis is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the formation of hundreds of colorectal adenomas and eventual colorectal cancer. Administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug sulindac has been followed...

2009 Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults

Sharon A. Hunt, William T. Abraham, Marshall H. Chin, Arthur M. Feldman, Gary S. Francis, Theodore G. Ganiats, Mariell Jessup, Marvin A. Konstam, Donna Mancini, Keith Michl, John A. Oates, Peter S. Rahko, Marc A. Silver, Lynne Warner Stevenson, Clyde W. Yancy

How to diagnose diastolic heart failure: a consensus statement on the diagnosis of heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction by the Heart Failure and Echocardiography Associations of the European Society of Cardiology

The authors appreciated Dr Kindermann's interest in our consensus document on ‘How to diagnose diastolic heart failure ?’1 and understand his concern on the use of averaged tissue Doppler (TD) lateral and septal mitral annular lengthening velocities...

Anti-TNF antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of serious infections and malignancies: systematic review and meta-analysis of rare harmful effects in randomized controlled trials.

Context Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in host defense and tumor growth control. Therefore, anti-TNF antibody therapies may increase the risk of serious infections and malignancies.Objective To assess the extent to which anti-TNF...

Preventing Foot Ulcers in Patients With Diabetes

Nalini Singh, David G. Armstrong, Benjamin A. Lipsky

The natural history of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A prospective study

Objective. —Define the epidemiology of the four recently classified syndromes describing the biologic response to infection: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock.Design. —Prospective cohort study...

Evaluation of Outcomes With Citalopram for Depression Using Measurement-Based Care in STAR*D: Implications for Clinical Practice

Objective: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used to treat depression, but the rates, timing, and baseline predictors of remission in “real world” patients are not established. The authors’ primary objectives in this study...

Inheritance of Alcohol Abuse: Cross-Fostering Analysis of Adopted Men

C. Robert Cloninger, Michael Bohman, Sören Sigvardsson

The natural history of insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus

The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes involves abnormalities in insulin action, insulin secretion, and endogenous glucose output (EGO). However, the sequence with which these abnormalities develop and their relative contributions to the deterioration in...

Results of the Predictors of Response to CRT (PROSPECT) Trial

Background-Data from single-center studies suggest that echocardiographic parameters of mechanical dyssynchrony may improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In a prospective, multicenter setting, the Predictors of Response...

USE OF COLONOSCOPY TO SCREEN ASYMPTOMATIC ADULTS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER

Background and Methods The role of colonoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer is uncertain. At 13 Veterans Affairs medical centers, we performed colonoscopy to determine the prevalence and location of advanced colonic neoplasms and the risk of advanced...

Obesity/insulin resistance is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Implications for the syndrome of insulin resistance.

Helmut O. Steinberg, H Chaker, R Leaming, A Johnson, Ginger Brechtel, Alain D. Baron

Assessing the Probability That a Positive Report is False: An Approach for Molecular Epidemiology Studies

Sholom Wacholder, Stephen J. Chanock, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Laure El ghormli, Nathaniel Rothman

Bivalirudin during Primary PCI in Acute Myocardial Infarction

Background Treatment with the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin, as compared with heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, results in similar suppression of ischemia while reducing hemorrhagic complications in patients with stable angina and...

Comparison of Mortality Associated with Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: A Meta-analysis

A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the impact of methicillin-resistance on mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A search of the MEDLINE database for studies published during the period of 1 January 1980 through 31 December 2000 and a...

C-Reactive Protein, a Sensitive Marker of Inflammation, Predicts Future Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Initially Healthy Middle-Aged Men Results From the MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Augsburg Cohort Study,

Background—Inflammatory reactions in coronary plaques play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute atherothrombotic events; inflammation elsewhere is also associated with both atherogenesis generally and its thrombotic complications. Recent studies...

Prevalence, incidence, prognosis, and predisposing conditions for atrial fibrillation: population-based estimates 1

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common of the serious cardiac rhythm disturbances and is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in the general population. Its prevalence doubles with each advancing decade of age, from 0.5%...

Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers.

Case histories are presented of 8 unrelated children born to mothers who were chronic alcoholics. These children showed a similar pattern of craniofacial limb and cardiovascular defects associated with prenatal-onset growth deficiency and developmental...

Pathologic and Clinical Findings to Predict Tumor Extent of Nonpalpable (Stage T1 c) Prostate Cancer

Objectives. —We examined preoperative clinical and pathologic parameters in men with clinical stage T1c disease who underwent radical prostatectomy and correlated these findings with the pathologic extent of disease in the surgical specimen in an attempt...

Mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

Concern about world wide local recurrence rates for rectal cancer of 20-45%, together with anxiety at the recent proliferation of adjuvant therapies, led us to review the efficacy of total mesorectal excision (TME) with which no adjuvant therapy had been...

An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures

Objective The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of osteoporotic fracture worldwide. Methods The incidence of hip fractures was identified by systematic review and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was imputed from the incidence...

Characterization of the Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line (Caco-2) as a Model System for Intestinal Epithelial Permeability

Caco-2 cells develop morphologic characteristics of normal enterocytes when grown on plastic dishes or nitrocellulose filters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Caco-2 cells undergo similar differentiation when grown on Transwell polycarbonate...

Is relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease continuous and graded? Findings in 356,222 primary screenees of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT)

The 356 222 men aged 35 to 57 years, who were free of a history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction, screened by the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) in its recruitment effort, constitute the largest cohort with standardized serum...

The Effect of Raloxifene on Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women Results From the MORE Randomized Trial

Main Outcome Measures New cases of breast cancer, confirmed by histopathology. Transvaginal ultrasonography was used to assess the endometrial effects of raloxifene in 1781 women. Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism were determined by chart review....

A multicenter study

Objective: To understand the diagnostic and short-term prognostic significance of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) for patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms suggesting acute cardiac ischemia, defined...

Risk Factors for Recurrent Nonsyncopal Falls: A Prospective Study

Falls are a major threat to the health of older persons. We evaluated potential risk factors for falls in 325 community-dwelling persons aged 60 years or older who had fallen during the previous year, then followed up weekly for 1 year to ascertain nonsyncopal...

Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes...

Effect of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor STI571 in a Patient with a Metastatic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are a group of mesenchymal neoplasms that arise from precursors of the connective-tissue cells of the gastrointestinal tract.1 They occur predominantly in middle-aged and older persons, and approximately 70 percent of the...

Exercise-based rehabilitation for patients with coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

To review the effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart disease.

Effects of candesartan on mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic heart failure: the CHARM-Overall programme

Summary Background Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are at high risk of cardiovascular death and recurrent hospital admissions. We aimed to find out whether the use of an angiotensin-receptor blocker could reduce mortality and morbidity. Methods...

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