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Addition of Clopidogrel to Aspirin and Fibrinolytic Therapy for Myocardial Infarction with ST-Segment Elevation

Background A substantial proportion of patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy for myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation have inadequate reperfusion or reocclusion of the infarct-related artery, leading to an increased risk of complications...

Case–Control Study of Human Papillomavirus and Oropharyngeal Cancer

Background Substantial molecular evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma, but epidemiologic data have been inconsistent. Methods We performed a hospital-based, case–control...

The Effectiveness of Right Heart Catheterization in the Initial Care of Critically III Patients

Objective. —To examine the association between the use of right heart catheterization (RHC) during the first 24 hours of care in the intensive care unit (ICU) and subsequent survival, length of stay, intensity of care, and cost of care.Design. —Prospective...

Intravascular Stents to Prevent Occlusion and Re-Stenosis after Transluminal Angioplasty

Occlusion and re-Stenosis are the most common reasons that transluminal balloon angioplasty may fail to provide long-term benefit. An intravascular mechanical support was therefore developed with the aim of preventing re-Stenosis and sudden closure of...

Assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials

This is the first in a series of four articles The quality of controlled trials is of obvious relevance to systematic reviews. If the “raw material” is flawed then the conclusions of systematic reviews cannot be trusted. Many reviewers formally assess...

Cytokine pathways and joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a common chronic inflammatory and destructive arthropathy that cannot be cured and that has substantial personal, social, and economic costs. The long-term prognosis is poor: 80 percent of affected patients are disabled after 20...

WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review

The reduction of maternal deaths is a key international development goal. Evidence-based health policies and programmes aiming to reduce maternal deaths need reliable and valid information. We undertook a systematic review to determine the distribution...

A Randomized Comparison of Sentinel-Node Biopsy with Routine Axillary Dissection in Breast Cancer

Background Although numerous studies have shown that the status of the sentinel node is an accurate predictor of the status of the axillary nodes in breast cancer, the efficacy and safety of sentinel-node biopsy require validation. Methods From March...

Annual Review of Public Health.

Lester Breslow, Jonathan E. Fielding

ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for exercise testing: summary article: A report of the American college of cardiology/American heart association task force on practice guidelines (committee to update the 1997 exercise testing guidelines) 12345

Raymond J. Gibbons, Gary J. Balady, Bricker Jt, Bernard R. Chaitman, Gerald F. Fletcher, Daniel B. Mark, Ben D. McCallister, Aryan N. Mooss, O'Reilly Mg, William L. Winters, Antman Em, Joseph S. Alpert, Faxon Dp, Fuster, Gabriel Gregoratos, Loren F. Hiratzka, Alice K. Jacobs, Richard O. Russell, Sidney C. Smith

Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities, 1987–1994

Background Air pollution in cities has been linked to increased rates of mortality and morbidity in developed and developing countries. Although these findings have helped lead to a tightening of air-quality standards, their validity with respect to public...

Lamivudine For Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B And Advanced Liver Disease.

This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work...

Sildenafil Citrate Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

background Sildenafil inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5, an enzyme that metabolizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby enhancing the cyclic guanosine monophosphate– mediated relaxation and growth inhibition of vascular smooth-muscle cells, including...

Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention.

Background In patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary angiography is the standard method for guiding the placement of the stent. It is unclear whether routine measurement...

Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes

Summary Background Axillary lymph-node dissection is an important staging procedure in the surgical treatment of breast cancer. However, early diagnosis has led to increasing numbers of dissections in which axillary nodes are free of disease. This raises...

A Randomized Study of the Prevention of Sudden Death in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Background Empirical antiarrhythmic therapy has not reduced mortality among patients with coronary artery disease and asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmias. Previous studies have suggested that antiarrhythmic therapy guided by electrophysiologic testing...

An Official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Statement: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Evidence-based Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management

This document is an international evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and is a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society,...

How many child deaths can we prevent this year

This is the second of five papers in the child survival series. The first focused on continuing high rates of child mortality (over 10 million each year) from preventable causes: diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles, malaria, HIV/AIDS, the underlying cause of...

The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure.

Objective. —To study the relative and population-attributable risks of hypertension for the development of congestive heart failure (CHF), to assess the time course of progression from hypertension to CHF, and to identify risk factors that contribute...

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS AN INDEX OF HEART ATTACK RISK IN COLLEGE ALUMNI

Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Alvin L. Wing, Robert T. Hyde

Computed Tomographic Virtual Colonoscopy to Screen for Colorectal Neoplasia in Asymptomatic Adults

background We evaluated the performance characteristics of computed tomographic (CT) virtual colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in an average-risk screening population. methods A total of 1233 asymptomatic adults (mean age, 57.8 years)...

The Effects of Normal as Compared with Low Hematocrit Values in Patients with Cardiac Disease Who Are Receiving Hemodialysis and Epoetin

Background In patients with end-stage renal disease, anemia develops as a result of erythropoietin deficiency, and recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) is prescribed to correct the anemia partially. We examined the risks and benefits of normalizing...

Molecular determinants of resistance to antiandrogen therapy.

Charlie D. Chen, Derek Welsbie, Sung Hee Baek, Randy Chen, Robert L. Vessella, Michael G. Rosenfeld, Charles L. Sawyers

Smoking and Mental Illness: A Population-Based Prevalence Study

Context Studies of selected groups of persons with mental illness, such as those who are institutionalized or seen in mental health clinics, have reported rates of smoking to be higher than in persons without mental illness. However, recent population-based,...

Reliability and validity studies of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): A critical review

This paper reviews reliability and validity studies of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The CIDI is a comprehensive and fully standardized diagnostic interview designed for assessing mental disorders according to the definitions...

Intracoronary Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cells in Acute Myocardial Infarction

Background Pilot trials suggest that the intracoronary administration of autologous progenitor cells may improve left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Methods In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 204 patients with acute...

Systematic Review: Impact of Health Information Technology on Quality, Efficiency, and Costs of Medical Care

Basit Chaudhry, Jerome Wang, Shinyi Wu, Margaret Maglione, Walter Mojica, Elizabeth Roth, Sally C. Morton, Paul G. Shekelle

Etiology and management of fecal incontinence

Marcio J. N. Jorge, Steven D. Wexner

Epidemiologic features of chronic atrial fibrillation: the Framingham study.

William B. Kannel, Robert D. Abbott, Daniel D. Savage, Patricia M. McNamara

Relationship of MRI Delayed Contrast Enhancement to Irreversible Injury, Infarct Age, and Contractile Function

Background—Contrast MRI enhancement patterns in several pathophysiologies resulting from ischemic myocardial injury are controversial or have not been investigated. We compared contrast enhancement in acute infarction (AI), after severe but reversible...

Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma.

The study estimates the relative importance of specific types of traumas experienced in the community in terms of their prevalence and risk of leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A representative sample of 2181 persons in the Detroit area...

Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity

Objectives. Obesity has become a global epidemic but our understanding of the problem in children is limited due to lack of comparable representative data from different countries, and varying criteria for defining obesity. This paper summarises the available...

Meta-analysis: High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality

Edgar R. Miller, Roberto Pastor-Barriuso, Darshan Dalal, Rudolph A. Riemersma, Lawrence J. Appel, Eliseo Guallar

Fifteen year mortality in coronary drug project patients : Long-term benefit with niacin

Paul L. Canner, Kenneth G. Berge, Nanette K. Wenger, Jeremiah Stamler, Lawrence M. Friedman, Ronald J. Prineas, William T. Friedewald

A Comparison of Multimodal Therapy and Surgery for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Background Uncontrolled studies suggest that a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy improves the survival of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. We conducted a prospective, randomized trial comparing surgery alone with combined chemotherapy,...

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review

Context Throughout the past 40 years, a vast and sometimes contradictory literature has accumulated regarding hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a genetic cardiac disease caused by a variety of mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins and characterized...

Abnormal Endothelium-Dependent Vascular Relaxation in Patients with Essential Hypertension

Background. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by influencing the contractile activity of vascular smooth muscle. This regulatory effect of the endothelium on blood vessels has been shown to be impaired in atherosclerotic arteries in humans and animals...

The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hand

Roy D. Altman, Graciela S. Alarcón, Daniel A. Bloch, David G. Borenstein, Cooke Td, William W. Daniel, D.W. Feldman, Greenwald Ra, David S. Howell, Ike Rw, P. Kapila, Kaplan D, William J. Koopman, C. Marino, D. J. McShane, T. Medsger, B. Michel, W. A. Murphy, T. Osial, Ramsey-Goldman R, B. Rothschild, Frederick Wolfe

A DATA-BASED APPROACH TO DIET QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN AND TESTING

Gladys Block, Anne M. Hartman, Connie M. Dresser, Margaret D. Carroll, Janet H. Gannon, Lilly B. Gardner

Randomized controlled trial of transarterial lipiodol chemoembolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

This randomized, controlled trial assessed the efficacy of transarterial Lipiodol (Lipiodol Ultrafluide, Laboratoire Guerbet, Aulnay-Sous-Bois, France) chemoembolization in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. From March 1996 to October...

Clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension

In 1998, during the Second World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) held in Evian, France, a clinical classification of PH was proposed. The aim of the Evian classification was to individualize different categories sharing similarities in pathophysiological...

Brain Corticosteroid Receptor Balance in Health and Disease1

I. Introduction II. Corticosteroid Receptor Properties A. Corticosteroid receptor diversity in brain and pituitary B. Access of corticosteroids to brain receptors C. Expression of MR, GR, and receptor variants D. Regulation of transcriptional activity...

Intraperitoneal Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Ovarian Cancer

background Standard chemotherapy for newly diagnosed ovarian cancer is a platinum–taxane combination. The Gynecologic Oncology Group conducted a randomized, phase 3 trial that compared intravenous paclitaxel plus cisplatin with intravenous paclitaxel...

Safety and Efficacy of Sirolimus- and Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stents

Background The safety of drug-eluting stents has been called into question by recent reports of increased stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and death. Such studies have been inconclusive because of their insufficient size, the use of historical...

Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial

The worldwide increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming a major health concern. We aimed to assess the effect of acarbose in preventing or delaying conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes.

Blood flow measurements with radionuclide-labeled particles

SummaryWhen appropriately and correctly applied, the 0155 microsphere technique is relatively simple and allows for definition of arteriovenous anastomoses as well as the measurement of organ blood flows and distribution of blood flow within those 3 organs....

High Serum IgG4 Concentrations in Patients with Sclerosing Pancreatitis

Background Sclerosing pancreatitis is a unique form of pancreatitis that is characterized by irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the pancreas, and hypergammaglobulinemia and that responds to glucocorticoid...

Physical Activity and Public Health: Updated Recommendation for Adults From the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association

William L. Haskell, I-Min Lee, Russell R. Pate, Kenneth E. Powell, Steven N. Blair, Barry A. Franklin, Caroline A. Macera, Gregory W. Heath, Paul D. Thompson, Adrian Bauman

Diagnostic Accuracy of Noninvasive Coronary Angiography Using 64-Slice Spiral Computed Tomography

values for the presence of significant stenoses were: by segment (n 935), 86%, 95%, 66%, and 98%, respectively; by artery (n 279), 91%, 92%, 80%, and 97%, respectively; by patient (n 70), 95%, 90%, 93%, and 93%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate...

A CONTROLLED TRIAL OF ANTEPARTUM GLUCOCORTICOID TREATMENT FOR PREVENTION OF THE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME IN PREMATURE INFANTS

A controlled trial of betamethasone therapy was carried out in 282 mothers in whom premature delivery threatened or was planned be- fore 37 weeks' gestation, in the hope of reducing the incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syn- drome by accelerating...

Aspirin Use and Reduced Risk of Fatal Colon Cancer

Background and Methods. Experiments in animals and two epidemiologic studies in humans suggest that aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be protective against colon cancer. We tested this hypothesis in a prospective mortality...

Comparison of a Standard Regimen (CHOP) with Three Intensive Chemotherapy Regimens for Advanced Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Background CHOP is a first-generation, combination-chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone that has cured approximately 30 percent of patients with advanced stages of intermediate-grade or high-grade...

WHAT IS SUBJECTIVE GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS

Allan S. Detsky, McLaughlin, Jeffrey P. Baker, Nancy Johnston, Rena Mendelson, Khursheed N. Jeejeebhoy

International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

This new classification strategy is based on a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma that incorporates clinical, molecular, radiologic, and surgical issues, but it is primarily based on histology. This classification is intended...

The Sentinel Node in Breast Cancer — A Multicenter Validation Study

Background Pilot studies indicate that probe-guided resection of radioactive sentinel nodes (the first nodes that receive drainage from tumors) can identify regional metastases in patients with breast cancer. To confirm this finding, we conducted a multicenter...

Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary

Asthma is a serious health problem throughout the world. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and ability to manage and control it effectively. However, recommendations for asthma care need to...

Cancer of the ovary.

Patients with ovarian cancer usually present with advanced disease, and the disease is generally managed with surgical resection followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. Recent chemotherapeutic advances have led to improved survival, and a better understanding...

ACC/AHA/SCAI 2005 Guideline Update for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention—Summary Article A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/SCAI Writing Committee to Update the 2001

Sidney C. Smith, John W. Hirshfeld, Alice K. Jacobs, Morton J. Kern, Spencer B. King, Douglass A. Morrison, William W. O’Neill, Hartzell V. Schaff, Patrick L. Whitlow, David O. Williams, Elliott M. Antman, Cynthia D. Adams, Jeffrey L. Anderson, David P. Faxon, Valentin Fuster, Jonathan L. Halperin, Loren F. Hiratzka, Sharon A. Hunt, Rick A. Nishimura, Joseph P. Ornato, Richard L. Page, Barbara Riegel

Acute pulmonary embolism: clinical outcomes in the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry (ICOPER)

Summary Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) remains poorly understood. Rates of clinical outcomes such as death and recurrence vary widely among trials. We therefore established the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry (ICOPER), with the...

Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain

SummaryAlthough the literature is filled with information about the prevalence and incidence of back pain in general, there is less information about chronic back pain, partly because of a lack of agreement about definition. Chronic back pain is sometimes...

Population-Based Norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by Age and Educational Level

Objective. —To report the distribution of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores by age and educational level.Design. —National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program surveys conducted between 1980 and 1984.Setting. —Community...

Hematologic and Cytogenetic Responses to Imatinib Mesylate in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Background Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is caused by the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, the product of the Philadelphia chromosome. Imatinib mesylate, formerly STI571, is a selective inhibitor of this kinase. Methods A total of 532 patients with late–chronic-phase...

Prospective Study of C-Reactive Protein and the Risk of Future Cardiovascular Events Among Apparently Healthy Women

Background —C-reactive protein (CRP) predicts risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke among apparently healthy men, but in women, virtually no data are available.Methods and Results —CRP was measured in baseline blood samples from 122 apparently...

Mortality in sickle cell disease. Life expectancy and risk factors for early death.

Background Information on life expectancy and risk factors for early death among patients with sickle cell disease (sickle cell anemia, sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease, and the sickle cell-β-thalassemias) is needed to counsel patients, target therapy,...

Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Cardiovascular Outcomes

Background Endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow are believed to support the integrity of the vascular endothelium. The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells correlate inversely with cardiovascular risk factors, but the prognostic...

Users' Guides to the Medical Literature III. How to Use an Article About a Diagnostic Test B. What Are the Results and Will They Help Me in Caring for My Patients?

CLINICAL SCENARIO You are back where we put you in the previous article1 on diagnostic tests in this series on how to use the medical literature: in the library studying an article that will guide you in interpreting ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) lung scans....

Oral Sildenafil in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction

Background Sildenafil is a potent inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in the corpus cavernosum and therefore increases the penile response to sexual stimulation. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of sildenafil, administered as needed in two...

RECURRENCE AND SURVIVAL AFTER TOTAL MESORECTAL EXCISION FOR RECTAL CANCER

A 7 1/2-year consecutive series is presented from a district hospital with a policy of referring all rectal carcinomas to one surgical firm. The performance of lower anterior resections has limited the rate of abdominoperineal excision with permanent...

Derivation and Prospective Validation of a Simple Index for Prediction of Cardiac Risk of Major Noncardiac Surgery

Background—Cardiac complications are important causes of morbidity after noncardiac surgery. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to develop and validate an index for risk of cardiac complications. Methods and Results—We studied 4315 patients...

Cardiovascular disease risk profiles

This article presents prediction equations for several cardiovascular disease endpoints, which are based on measurements of several known risk factors. Subjects (n = 5573) were original and offspring subjects in the Framingham Heart Study, aged 30 to...

Prevalence, Correlates, Disability, and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in the United States: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

Context Epidemiologic information is important to inform etiological research and service delivery planning. However, current information on the epidemiology of alcohol use disorders in the United States is lacking.Objectives To present nationally representative...

RARE imaging: A fast imaging method for clinical MR

Jiirgen Hennig, Arno Nauerth, Helmu Friedburg

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back Pain

Background The relation between abnormalities in the lumbar spine and low back pain is controversial. We examined the prevalence of abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. Methods We...

Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease.

Background Prospective studies suggest that hyperinsulinemia may be an important risk factor for ischemic heart disease. However, it has not been determined whether plasma insulin levels are independently related to ischemic heart disease after adjustment...

Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis

Over a hundred years ago, Charcot set down what he considered to be some of the clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS). His triad was not specific but it was the first attempt to separate this disease from the many others affecting the nervous...

Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids

Background In laboratory animals, the consumption of soy protein, rather than animal protein, decreases serum cholesterol concentrations, but studies in humans have been inconclusive. In this meta-analysis of 38 controlled clinical trials, we examined...

Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene

Summary Background Hand hygiene prevents cross infection in hospitals, but compliance with recommended instructions is commonly poor. We attempted to promote hand hygiene by implementing a hospital-wide programme, with special emphasis on bedside, alcohol-based...

Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-related Infections

These guidelines have been developed for practitioners who insert catheters and for persons responsible for surveillance and control of infections in hospital, outpatient, and home health-care settings. This report was prepared by a working group comprising...

Measurement of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Serum as a Screening Test for Prostate Cancer

Background. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is secreted exclusively by prostatic epithelial cells, and its serum concentration is increased in men with prostatic disease, including cancer. We evaluated its usefulness in the detection and staging of prostate...

Nerves and nerve injuries

Sunderland, Sydney, Sir

Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis.

The prevalence of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. The objective of this review and meta-analysis is to determine the impact of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes in association with the procedure performed and the weight...

Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter : Best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women

The amount of abdominal visceral adipose tissue measured by computed tomography is a critical correlate of the potentially “atherogenic” metabolic disturbances associated with abdominal obesity. In this study conducted in samples of 81 men and 70...

Sampling variability of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

Fibrosis is a common endpoint of clinical trials in chronic hepatitis C, and liver biopsy remains the gold standard for fibrosis evaluation. However, variability in the distribution of fibrosis within the liver is a potential limitation. Our aim was to...

Framework for design and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health

Randomised controlled trials are widely accepted as the most reliable method of determining effectiveness, but most trials have evaluated the effects of a single intervention such as a drug. Recognition is increasing that other, non-pharmacological interventions...

Treating tobacco use and dependence: clinical practice guideline

Michael C. Fiore, William C. Bailey, Stuart J. Cohen, Sally Faith Dorfman, Michael G. Goldstein, Ellen R. Gritz, Richard B. Heyman, Carlos Roberto Jaén, Thomas E. Kottke, Harry A. Lando, Robert E. Mecklenburg, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Louise M. Nett, Lawrence Robinson, Maxine L. Stitzer, Anthony Tommasello, Louise Villejo, Mary Ellen Wewers

Efficacy and safety of sunitinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour after failure of imatinib: a randomised controlled trial

No effective therapeutic options for patients with unresectable imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumour are available. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, international trial to assess tolerability and anticancer...

ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for the management of patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction--summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice gu

Eugene Braunwald, Elliott M. Antman, John W. Beasley, Robert M. Califf, Melvin D. Cheitlin, Judith S. Hochman, Robert H. Jones, Dean J. Kereiakes, Joel Kupersmith, Thomas N. Levin, Carl J. Pepine, John W. Schaeffer, Earl E Smith, David E. Steward, Pierre Theroux, Raymond J. Gibbons, Joseph S. Alpert, David P. Faxon, Valentin Fuster, Gabriel Gregoratos, Loren F. Hiratzka, Alice K. Jacobs, Sidney C. Smith

Combined Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy Compared with Radiotherapy Alone in Patients with Cancer of the Esophagus

Background. The efficacy of conventional treatment with surgery and radiation for cancer of the esophagus is limited. The median survival is less than 10 months, and less than 10 percent of patients survive for 5 years. Recent studies have suggested that...

Reappraisal of European guidelines on hypertension management: a European Society of Hypertension Task Force document.

Giuseppe Mancia, Stéphane Laurent, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Ambrosioni E, Michel Burnier, Mark Caulfield, Renata Cifkova, Denis Clement, Anna F. Dominiczak, Serap Erdine, Robert Fagard, Csaba Farsang, Guido Grassi, Hermann Haller, Anthony M. Heagerty, Sverre E. Kjeldsen, Wolfgang Kiowski, Jean Michel Mallion, Athanasios J. Manolis, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Peter Nilsson, Michael H. Olsen, Rahn Kh, Josep Redon, Rodicio Jl, Luis M. Ruilope, Roland E. Schmieder, Harry Struijker-Boudier, Pieter van Zwieten, Margus Viigimaa, Alberto Zanchetti

Comparison of Early Invasive and Conservative Strategies in Patients with Unstable Coronary Syndromes Treated with the Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitor Tirofiban

Background There is continued debate as to whether a routine, early invasive strategy is superior to a conservative strategy for the management of unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation. Methods We enrolled 2220 patients...

Brain Infarction and the Clinical Expression of Alzheimer Disease: The Nun Study

Objective. —To determine the relationship of brain infarction to the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease (AD).Design. —Cognitive function and the prevalence of dementia were determined for participants in the Nun Study who later died. At autopsy,...

Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome

A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised...

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

For the 23,316 participants with blinded data, we calculated adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with an increase in the fasting plasma glucose level of 1 SD (6.9 mg per deciliter [0.4 mmol per liter]), an increase...

Bevacizumab in Combination With Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin (FOLFOX4) for Previously Treated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Results From the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study E3200

Purpose Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. Antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy improves survival in previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. This study was conducted...

The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials

Flaws in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of randomised trials can cause the effect of an intervention to be underestimated or overestimated. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias aims to make the process clearer and...

Role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis

Angiogenesis is required for invasive tumor growth and metastasis and constitutes an important point in the control of cancer progression. Its inhibition may be a valuable new approach to cancer therapy. Avascular tumors are severely restricted in their...

Mayo Clinic Proceedings

Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education

Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease

The pathophysiological process of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is thought to begin many years before the diagnosis of AD dementia. This long “preclinical” phase of AD would provide a critical opportunity for therapeutic intervention; however, we need...

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillance: Clinical Guidelines and Rationale—Update Based on New Evidence

We have updated guidelines for screening for colorectal cancer. The original guidelines were prepared by a panel convened by the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research and published in 1997 under the sponsorship of a consortium of gastroenterology...

Effects of different blood-pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events: results of prospectively-designed overviews of randomised trials

This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work...

Correlation of cholinergic abnormalities with senile plaques and mental test scores in senile dementia

Elaine K. Perry, Bernard E. Tomlinson, Garry Blessed, K Bergmann, Peter H. Gibson, Robert Perry

Reconstitution of Cellular Immunity against Cytomegalovirus in Recipients of Allogeneic Bone Marrow by Transfer of T-Cell Clones from the Donor

Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) dis- ease in immunocompromised patients correlates with a deficiency of CD8 � cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for CMV. We evaluated the safety and immunologic effects of immunotherapy with clones of these lymphocytes...

Cardiac-Resynchronization Therapy for the Prevention of Heart-Failure Events

During a 4.5-year period, we enrolled and followed 1820 patients with ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy, an ejection fraction of 30% or less, a QRS duration of 130 msec or more, and New York Heart Association class I or II symptoms. Patients were...

Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals

Hertzel C. Gerstein, Johannes F.E. Mann, Qilong Yi, Bernard Zinman, Sean F. Dinneen, Byron J. Hoogwerf, Jean Pierre Hallé, James B. Young, Andrew Rashkow, Carol Joyce, Shah Nawaz, Salim Yusuf

Translation, validation, and norming of the Dutch language version of the SF-36 Health Survey in community and chronic disease populations

The primary objectives of this research were to translate, validate, and generate normative data on the SF-36 Health Survey for use among Dutch-speaking residents of the Netherlands. Translation of the SF-36 into Dutch followed the stepwise, iterative...

Effect of Computerized Physician Order Entry and a Team Intervention on Prevention of Serious Medication Errors

Context.— Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant and costly cause of injury during hospitalization.Objectives.— To evaluate the efficacy of 2 interventions for preventing nonintercepted serious medication errors, defined as those that either...

The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease : a global evidence-based consensus

RESULTS: The level of agreement strengthened throughout the process with two-thirds of the participants agreeing with 86%, 88%, 94%, and 100% of statements at each vote, respectively. At the final vote, 94% of the final 51 statements were approved by...

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