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Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease Report of the NINCDS‐ADRDA Work Group* under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder characterized by a progressive dementia that occurs in middle or late life. The pathologic characteristics are degeneration of specific nerve cells, presence of neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Alterations...

The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) I. Conceptual framework and item selection

The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) I. Conceptual framework and item selection

A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation.

The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness...

The Pharmacological basis of therapeutics

Louis S. Goodman, Alfred Gilman

Meta-Analysis in Clinical Trials*

This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials. Each review pools the results from the relevant trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition. These reviews...

Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin

Background Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors — elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle — are...

Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches

1.The extracellular patch clamp method, which first allowed the detection of single channel currents in biological membranes, has been further refined to enable higher current resolution, direct membrane patch potential control, and physical isolation...

Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics

The term apoptosis is proposed for a hitherto little recognized mechanism of controlled cell deletion, which appears to play a complementary but opposite role to mitosis in the regulation of animal cell populations. Its morphological features suggest...

Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial

Jacques E. Rossouw, Ross L. Prentice, Charles Kooperberg, Marcia L. Stefanick, Rebecca D. Jackson, Shirley A. A. Beresford, Barbara V. Howard, Karen C. Johnson, Jane Morley Kotchen, Judith K. Ockene

Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.

David Moher, Alessandro Liberati, Jennifer Tetzlaff, Douglas G. Altman

A More Accurate Method To Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate from Serum Creatinine: A New Prediction Equation

Andrew S. Levey, Juan P. Bosch, Julia B. Lewis, Tom Greene, Nancy Rogers, David Roth

Early Goal-Directed Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

Background Goal-directed therapy has been used for severe sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care unit. This approach involves adjustments of cardiac preload, afterload, and contractility to balance oxygen delivery with oxygen demand. The purpose...

Cancer Statistics, 2010

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data regarding cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data...

Harrison's Principles of internal medicine

Harrison, Tinsley Randolph, Fauci, Anthony S.

Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33)

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group* Summary Background Improved blood-glucose control decreases the progression of diabetic microvascular disease, but the effect on macrovascular complications is unknown. There is concern that sulphonylureas...

Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey

This study aimed to develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity specifying the measurement reference population and age and sex specific cut off points. Data on body mass index (weight/height) were obtained from 6...

Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: Is blinding necessary?

It has been suggested that the quality of clinical trials should be assessed by blinded raters to limit the risk of introducing bias into meta-analyses and systematic reviews, and into the peer-review process. There is very little evidence in the literature...

Recommendations for Chamber Quantification: A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, Developed in Conjunction with the European Association of Echocardio

S. Michelle Bierig, Richard B. Devereux, Frank A. Flachskampf, Elyse Foster, Patricia A. Pellikka, Michael H. Picard, Mary J. Roman, Jack S. Shanewise, Scott D. Solomon, Kirk T. Spencer, Martin St. John Sutton, William J. Stewart

Role of Insulin Resistance in Human Disease

Resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is present in the majority of patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and in ∼25% of nonobese individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance. In...

Cancer statistics, 2015

Each year the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected...

Bevacizumab plus Irinotecan, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

background Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has shown promising preclinical and clinical activity against metastatic colorectal cancer, particularly in combination with chemotherapy. methods Of 813 patients...

Definitions for Sepsis and Organ Failure and Guidelines for the Use of Innovative Therapies in Sepsis

Roger C. Bone, R.A. Balk, Frank B. Cerra, R. Phillip Dellinger, Alan M. Fein, William A. Knaus, Roland M. H. Schein, Sibbald Wj

Activating Mutations in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Underlying Responsiveness of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer to Gefitinib

background Most patients with non–small-cell lung cancer have no response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, about 10 percent of patients have a rapid and often dramatic clinical...

Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008

Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20...

Cancer Statistics, 2009†‡

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the...

Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't.

It's about integrating individual clinical expertise and the best external evidenceEvidence based medicine, whose philosophical origins extend back to mid-19th century Paris and earlier, remains a hot topic for clinicians, public health practitioners,...

Parkinsonism onset, progression, and mortality

Margaret M. Hoehn, Melvin D. Yahr

Cancer statistics, 2012†‡

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the...

Principles of biomedical ethics

Tom L. Beauchamp, James F. Childress

A Global Measure of Perceived Stress

Sheldon Cohen, Tom Kamarck, Robin J. Mermelstein

The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarise evidence relating to efficacy and safety of healthcare interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, are not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic...

Educating the Reflective Practitioner

Building on the concepts of professional competence that he introduced in his classic The Reflective Practitioner, Schon offers an approach for educating professional in all areas that will prepare them to handle the complex and unpredictable problems...

Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Using Risk Factor Categories

Background—The objective of this study was to examine the association of Joint National Committee (JNC-V) blood pressure and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) cholesterol categories with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, to incorporate...

The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)

The SF-36® Health Survey is a 36-item instrument. The SF-36® Health Survey measures the following eight health concepts, which are relevant across age, disease, and treatment groups: Physical functioning; role limitations due to physical health problems;...

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004.

Context The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents and obesity in adults in the United States has increased over several decades.Objective To provide current estimates of the prevalence and trends of overweight in children and adolescents...

Tumor angiogenesis : Therapeutic implications

THE growth of solid neoplasms is always accompanied by neovascularization. This new capillary growth is even more vigorous and continuous than a similar outgrowth of capillary sprouts observed in fresh wounds or in inflammation.1 Many workers have described...

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Changes in Lifestyle among Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasingly common, primarily because of increases in the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Whether type 2 diabetes can be prevented by interventions that affect the lifestyles of subjects at high...

The Effect of Cardiac Resynchronization on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure

background Cardiac resynchronization reduces symptoms and improves left ventricular function in many patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction and cardiac dyssynchrony. We evaluated its effects on morbidity and mortality....

Prevalence and Trends in Obesity Among US Adults, 1999-2008

Results In 2007-2008, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 33.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31.6%-36.0%) overall, 32.2% (95% CI, 29.5%-35.0%) among men, and 35.5% (95% CI, 33.2%-37.7%) among women. The corresponding...

Preconditioning with ischemia: a delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium.

We have previously shown that a brief episode of ischemia slows the rate of ATP depletion during subsequent ischemic episodes. Additionally, intermittent reperfusion may be beneficial to the myocardium by washing out catabolites that have accumulated...

Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases.

Few detailed clinico-pathological correlations of Parkinson's disease have been published. The pathological findings in 100 patients diagnosed prospectively by a group of consultant neurologists as having idiopathic Parkinson's disease are reported. Seventy...

Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

nosis of diabetes were warranted. The Committee met on multiple occasions and widely circulated a draft report of their findings and preliminary recommendations to the international diabetes community. Based on the numerous comments and suggestions received,...

Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue

Stuart P. Weisberg, Manisha Desai, Michael Rosenbaum, W Anthony Ferrante

Diagnosis and Management of the Metabolic Syndrome

The metabolic syndrome has received increased attention in the past few years. This statement from the American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is intended to provide up-to-date guidance for professionals...

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey

Background: Data were obtained on the general population epidemiology of DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including information on estimated lifetime prevalence, the kinds of traumas most often associated with PTSD, sociodemographic correlates,...

Radiological Assessment of Osteo-Arthrosis

J. H. Kellgren, J. S. Lawrence

Cancer statistics, 2013†

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the...

Spontaneous Initiation of Atrial Fibrillation by Ectopic Beats Originating in the Pulmonary Veins

Background Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and a major cause of stroke, results from simultaneous reentrant wavelets. Its spontaneous initiation has not been studied. Methods We studied 45 patients with frequent episodes...

The Effect of Pravastatin on Coronary Events after Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Average Cholesterol Levels

Background In patients with high cholesterol levels, lowering the cholesterol level reduces the risk of coronary events, but the effect of lowering cholesterol levels in the majority of patients with coronary disease, who have average levels, is less...

Diagnosis and Management of the Metabolic Syndrome An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement

Scott M. Grundy, James I. Cleeman, Stephen R. Daniels, Karen A. Donato, Robert H. Eckel, Barry A. Franklin, David Gordon, Ronald M. Krauss, Peter J. Savage, Sidney C. Smith, John A. Spertus, Fernando Costa

Reporting results of cancer treatment

On the initiative of the World Health Organization, two meetings on the Standardization of Reporting Results of Cancer Treatment have been held with representatives and members of several organizations. Recommendations have been developed for standardized...

Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study

Summary Background Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of...

AFNI: software for analysis and visualization of functional magnetic resonance neuroimages

A package of computer programs for analysis and visualization of three-dimensional human brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) results is described. The software can color overlay neural activation maps onto higher resolution anatomical scans....

Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2009 Update A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee

Robert J. Adams, Mercedes R. Carnethon, Giovanni de Simone, T. Bruce Ferguson, Katherine M. Flegal, Earl S. Ford, Karen L. Furie, Alan S. Go, Kurt J. Greenlund, Nancy Haase, Susan M. Hailpern, Michael Ho, Virginia J. Howard, Steven J. Kittner, Daniel T. Lackland, Lynda D. Lisabeth, Ariane J. Marelli, Mary McDermott, James B. Meigs, Dariush Mozaffarian, Graham Nichol, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Véronique L. Roger, Wayne D. Rosamond, Ralph L. Sacco, Paul D. Sorlie, Randall S. Stafford, Julia Steinberger, Thomas Thom, Sylvia Wasserthiel-Smoller, Yuling Hong, Stroke Statistics Subcommittee

CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AND THE RISKS OF DEATH, CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS, AND HOSPITALIZATION

Background End-stage renal disease substantially increases the risks of death, cardiovascular disease, and use of specialized health care, but the effects of less severe kidney dysfunction on these outcomes are less well defined. Methods We estimated...

Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine.

Objective. —To encourage increased participation in physical activity among Americans of all ages by issuing a public health recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed for health promotion and disease prevention.Participants....

Indian medicinal plants

Kanhoba Ranchoddas Kirtikar, Baman Das Basu

The PHQ-9

Kurt Kroenke, Robert L. Spitzer, Janet B.W. Williams

Cancer Statistics, 2008

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the...

Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse : results from the epidemiologic catchment area (ECA) study

The prevalence of comorbid alcohol, other drug, and mental disorders in the US total community and institutional population was determined from 20 291 persons interviewed in the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program....

Declining Morbidity and Mortality among Patients with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Recent trends in AIDS-related mortality in the United States are analyzed using data on 1255 patients attending one of nine clinics in various cities between 1994 and 1997. "Mortality among the patients declined from 29.4 per 100 person-years in 1995...

Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions.

Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. 1112131415161718192021Images in this articleImage on...

The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30: A Quality-of-Life Instrument for Use in International Clinical Trials in Oncology

Neil K. Aaronson, Sam Ahmedzai, Bengt Bergman, Monika Bullinger, Ann Cull, N. Duez, Antonio Filiberti, Henning Flechtner, Stewart Fleishman, Johanna C. J. M. de Haes, Stein Kaasa, Marianne Carol Klee, David Osoba, Darius Razavi, Peter Rofe, Schraub S, K.C.A. Sneeuw, Marianne Sullivan, Fumikazu Takeda

Trends in Alternative Medicine Use in the United States, 1990-1997 Results of a Follow-up National Survey

Context.— A prior national survey documented the high prevalence and costs of alternative medicine use in the United States in 1990.Objective.— To document trends in alternative medicine use in the United States between 1990 and 1997.Design.— Nationally...

Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity.

Daniel Steinberg, Sampath Parthasarathy, T E Carew, J C Khoo, J L Witztum

Cancer incidence in five continents

Freddie Bray, J. Ferlay, M. Laversanne, Dorothy Brewster, C. Gombe Mbalawa, B. Kohler, M. Piñeros, E. Steliarova-Foucher, R. Swaminathan, S. Antoni, I. Soerjomataram, Forman Dt

Randomized Trial of Estrogen Plus Progestin for Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Postmenopausal Women

Context.— Observational studies have found lower rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in postmenopausal women who take estrogen than in women who do not, but this potential benefit has not been confirmed in clinical trials.Objective.— To determine...

Global Prevalence of Diabetes

OBJECTIVE —The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of...

Myocardial infarction redefined—a consensus document of The Joint European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology committee for the redefinition of myocardial infarction

Elliott M. Antman, Jean-Pierre Bassand, Klein W, Magnus Ohman, José Luis López Sendón, Lars Rydén, Maarten L. Simoons, Michal Tendera

Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation

Background: Despite current treatments, patients who have acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation have high rates of major vascular events. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel when given with aspirin...

Epidemiologic Classification of Human Papillomavirus Types Associated with Cervical Cancer

Background Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the risk associated with the various HPV types has not been adequately assessed. Methods We pooled data from 11 case–control studies from nine countries...

Adherence to Medication

The full benefit of many effective medications will be achieved only if patients adhere to prescribed treatment regimens. Unfortunately, applying terms such as “noncompliant” and “nonadherent” to patients who do not consume every pill at the desired...

New Colorimetric Cytotoxicity Assay for Anticancer-Drug Screening

Philip Skehan, Ritsa Storeng, Dominic A. Scudiero, Anne Monks, James B. McMahon, David T. Vistica, Jonathan R. Warren, Heidi R. Bokesch, Susan Kenney, Michael R. Boyd

Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes

This highly successful textbook is now available in its third edition. Over the years it has become the standard textbook in the field world-wide. It mirrors the huge expansion of the field of economic evaluation in health care, since the last edition...

The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic...

Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the general population prevalence or severity of DSM-IV mental disorders. OBJECTIVE: To estimate 12-month prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse control, and substance disorders in the...

The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic...

Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology

Camm Aj, M. Malik, Bigger Jt, Günter Breithardt, Sergio Cerutti, Richard J. Cohen, Coumel P, Ernest L. Fallen, Robert E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, Alberto Malliani, Arthur J. Moss, Jeffrey N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, Peter J. Schwartz, Donald H. Singer

Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins.

This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work...

Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study

Summary Background Plausible projections of future mortality and disability are a useful aid in decisions on priorities for health research, capital investment, and training. Rates and patterns of ill health are determined by factors such as socioeconomic...

Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

Background No effective systemic therapy exists for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. A preliminary study suggested that sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, the platelet-derived growth...

A Comparison of Balloon-Expandable-Stent Implantation with Balloon Angioplasty in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Background Balloon-expandable coronary-artery stents were developed to prevent coronary restenosis after coronary angioplasty. These devices hold coronary vessels open at sites that have been dilated. However, it is unknown whether stenting improves long-term...

Impact of Event Scale: a measure of subjective stress.

Mardi J. Horowitz, Nancy Wilner, William F. Alvarez

Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities.

AINSWORTH, B. E,., W. L. HASKELL, M. C. WHITT, M. L. IRWIN, A. M. SWARTZ, S .J. STRATH, W. L. O’BRIEN, D. R. BASSETT, JR., K. H. SCHMITZ, P. O EMPLAINCOURT, D. R. JACOBS, JR., and A. S. LEON. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity...

Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness.

Qualitative content analysis in nursing research : Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness.

The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration

Alessandro Liberati, Douglas G Altman, Jennifer Tetzlaff, Cynthia Mulrow, Peter C Gøtzsche, John P. A. Ioannidis, Mike Clarke, P.J. Devereaux, Jos Kleijnen, David Moher

Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Associated With the Metabolic Syndrome

OBJECTIVE —To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —A total of 4,483 subjects aged 35–70...

THE METABOLIC SYNDROME AND TOTAL AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MORTALITY IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN

Hanna-Maaria Lakka, David E. Laaksonen, Timo A. Lakka, Leo Niskanen, Esko Kumpusalo, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Jukka T. Salonen

Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial infarction is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Coronary atherosclerosis is a chronic disease with stable and unstable periods. During unstable periods with activated inflammation in the vascular wall, patients may develop a...

Prevalence of Obesity, Diabetes, and Obesity-Related Health Risk Factors, 2001

Context Obesity and diabetes are increasing in the United States.Objective To estimate the prevalence of obesity and diabetes among US adults in 2001.Design, Setting, and Participants Random-digit telephone survey of 195 005 adults aged 18 years or older...

QUANTIFICATION OF CORONARY ARTERY CALCIUM USING ULTRAFAST COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

Ultrafast computed tomography was used to detect and quantify coronary artery calcium levels in 584 subjects (mean age 48 ± 10 years) with (n = 109) and without (n = 475) clinical coronary artery disease. Fifty patients who underwent fluoroscopy and...

MORTALITY FROM CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN SUBJECTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES AND IN NONDIABETIC SUBJECTS WITH AND WITHOUT PRIOR MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

Background Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes is associated with a marked increase in the risk of coronary heart disease. It has been debated whether patients with diabetes who have not had myocardial infarctions should be treated as aggressively...

Prophylactic Implantation of a Defibrillator in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Reduced Ejection Fraction

Background Patients with reduced left ventricular function after myocardial infarction are at risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This randomized trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an implantable defibrillator on survival in such...

Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide.

A recent report that 93% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide contain human papillomavirus (HPV) may be an underestimate due to sample inadequacy or integration of events affecting the HPV L1 gene which is the target of the polymerase chain reaction...

An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities

The effects of air pollution on mortality are analyzed taking into account individual risk factors such as cigarette smoking. "Survival analysis including Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling was conducted with data from a 14-to-16-year mortality...

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