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Materials Science

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Theory of plates and shells

Sergius Woinowsky-Krieger

Theory of elastic stability

Stephen P. Timoshenko

Introduction to Magnetic Materials

Introduction to Magnetic Materials, 2nd Edition covers the basics of magnetic quantities, magnetic devices, and materials used in practice. While retaining much of the original, this revision now covers SQUID and alternating gradient magnetometers, magnetic...

Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or...

Stabilization of metallic supercooled liquid and bulk amorphous alloys

Bulk metallic materials have ordinarily been produced by melting and solidification processes for the last several thousand years. However, metallic liquid is unstable at temperatures below the melting temperature and solidifies immediately into crystalline...

Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials

This review aims at reporting on very recent developments in syntheses, properties and (future) applications of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This new type of materials, based on smectite clays usually rendered hydrophobic through ionic exchange...

A review on polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites

Electrospinning has been recognized as an efficient technique for the fabrication of polymer nanofibers. Various polymers have been successfully electrospun into ultrafine fibers in recent years mostly in solvent solution and some in melt form. Potential...

High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends

Converting solar energy into electricity provides a much-needed solution to the energy crisis the world is facing today. Polymer solar cells have shown potential to harness solar energy in a cost-effective way. Significant efforts are underway to improve...

Ferromagnetic materials

In this chapter, we will restrict our attention to the ferrites and a few other closely related materials. The great interest in ferrites stems from their unique combination of a spontaneous magnetization and a high electrical resistivity. The observed...

Layer Area, Few-Layer Graphene Films on Arbitrary Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition

In this work we present a low cost and scalable technique, via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on polycrystalline Ni films, to fabricate large area (∼cm2) films of single- to few-layer graphene and to transfer the films to nonspecific...

The iron oxides : structure, properties, reactions, occurrences, and uses

Presents a coherent, up to date account of the properties, reactions and mechanisms of formation of iron oxides. Also provides chapters dealing with iron oxides in soils, as biominerals and as corrosion products together with methods of synthesis and...

Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review

Since their first observation nearly a decade ago by Iijima (Iijima S. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon Nature. 1991; 354:56–8), carbon nanotubes have been the focus of considerable research. Numerous investigators have since reported remarkable...

Complex thermoelectric materials.

Thermoelectric materials, which can generate electricity from waste heat or be used as solid-state Peltier coolers, could play an important role in a global sustainable energy solution. Such a development is contingent on identifying materials with higher...

High throughput screen

The present invention relates to a structure comprising a biological membrane and a porous or perforated substrate, a biological membrane, a substrate, a high throughput screen, methods for production of the structure membrane and substrate, and a method...

Anomalous low-temperature thermal properties of glasses and spin glasses

We show that a linear specific heat at low temperatures for glass follows naturally from general considerations on the glassy state. From the same considerations we obtain the experimentally observed anomalous low-temperature thermal conductivity, and...

Nanometre diameter fibres of polymer, produced by electrospinning

Electrospinning uses electrical forces to produce polymer fibres with nanometre-scale diameters. Electrospinning occurs when the electrical forces at the surface of a polymer solution or melt overcome the surface tension and cause an electrically charged...

Design Rules for Donors in Bulk‐Heterojunction Solar Cells—Towards 10 % Energy‐Conversion Efficiency

There has been an intensive search for cost-effective photovoltaics since the development of the first solar cells in the 1950s. [1–3] Among all alternative technologies to silicon-based pn-junction solar cells, organic solar cells could lead the most...

Photonic crystals

The term photonic crystals appears because of the analogy between electron waves in crystals and the light waves in artificial periodic dielectric structures. During the recent years the investigation of one-, two-and three-dimensional periodic structures...

Friction stir welding and processing

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. In particular, it can be used to join high-strength aerospace aluminum alloys and other metallic...

Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles

Low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in the development of energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required in many industrial applications. In this paper we propose that an innovative new class of heat transfer fluids can be engineered...

Ferroelectric Ceramics: History and Technology

Ferroelectric ceramics were born in the early 1940s with the discovery of the phenomenon of ferroelectricity as the source of the unusually high dielectric constant in ceramic barium titanate capacitors. Since that time, they have been the heart and soul...

Transparent conductors—A status review

Non-stoichiometric and doped films of oxides of tin, indium, cadmium, zinc and their various alloys, deposited by numerous techniques, exhibit high transmittance in the visible spectral region, high reflectance in the IR region and nearly metallic conductivity....

Determining the size and shape dependence of gold nanoparticle uptake into mammalian cells.

We investigated the intracellular uptake of different sized and shaped colloidal gold nanoparticles. We showed that kinetics and saturation concentrations are highly dependent upon the physical dimensions of the nanoparticles (e.g., uptake half-life of...

Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols

Jin Young Kim, Nadya Coates, Won-seok Ma, D. Moses, Alan J. Heeger, Guillermo C. Bazan

Principles of equal-channel angular pressing as a processing tool for grain refinement

During the last decade, equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) has emerged as a widely-known procedure for the fabrication of ultrafine-grained metals and alloys. This review examines recent developments related to the use of ECAP for grain refinement...

Synthesis of nylon 6-clay hybrid

Arimitsu Usuki, Yoshitsugu Kojima, Masaya Kawasumi, Akane Okada, Yoshiaki Fukushima, Toshio Kurauchi, Osami Kamigaito

Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals

The development of nanocrystals has been intensively pursued, not only for their fundamental scientific interest, but also for many technological applications1, 2, 3. The synthesis of monodisperse nanocrystals (size variation <5%) is of key importance,...

Crack band theory for fracture of concrete

A fracture theory for a heterogenous aggregate material which exhibits a gradual strain-softening due to microcracking and contains aggregate pieces that are not necessarily small compared to structural dimensions is developed. Only Mode I is considered....

Insertion Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

The performance and safety of rechargeable batteries depend strongly on the materials used. Lithium insertion materials suitable for negative and positive insertion electrodes are reviewed. Future trends, such as alternative materials for achieving higher...

Giant room-temperature magnetoresistance in single-crystal Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions

Shinji Yuasa, Taro Nagahama, Akio Fukushima, Yoshishige Suzuki, Koji Ando

Giant tunnelling magnetoresistance at room temperature with MgO (100) tunnel barriers

Magnetically engineered magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) show promise as non-volatile storage cells in high-performance solid-state magnetic random access memories (MRAM)1. The performance of these devices is currently limited by the modest (<70%) room-temperature...

Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials

The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials are reviewed, with emphasis on their constitutive response and on the fundamental physical mechanisms. In a brief introduction, the most important synthesis methods are presented. A number of aspects...

Monodispersed Colloidal Spheres: Old Materials with New Applications

Younan Xia, Byron D. Gates, Yan Sh. Yin, Ya-Fen Lu

Donor impurity band exchange in dilute ferromagnetic oxides

J. M. D. Coey, M. Venkatesan, C. B. Fitzgerald

Analysis of the cup-cone fracture in a round tensile bar

Necking and failure in a round tensile test specimen is analysed numerically, based on a set of elastic-plastic constitutive relations that account for the nucleation and growth of micro-voids. Final material failure by coalescence of voids, at a value...

Use of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays in dye-sensitized solar cells

We describe the use of highly ordered transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Highly ordered nanotube arrays of 46-nm pore diameter, 17-nm wall thickness, and 360-nm length were grown perpendicular to a fluorine-doped tin...

CONDITIONS FOR THE LOCALIZATION OF DEFORMATION IN PRESSURE-SENSITIVE DILATANT MATERIALS

SUMMARY Tms PAPER investigates the hypothesis that localization of deformation into a shear band may be considered a result of an instability in the constitutive description of homogeneous deformation. General conditions for a bifurcation, corresponding...

Selected values of the thermodynamic properties of binary alloys

Ralph Hultgren, Pramod D Desai, Donald T. Hawkins, Molly Gleiser, Kenneth K Kelley

HYDRODYNAMIC AND HEAT TRANSFER STUDY OF DISPERSED FLUIDS WITH SUBMICRON METALLIC OXIDE PARTICLES

Turbulent friction and heat transfer behaviors of dispersed fluids (i.e., uttrafine metallic oxide particles suspended in water) in a circular pipe were investigated experimentally. Viscosity measurements were also conducted using a Brookfield rotating...

A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells

Low-cost photovoltaic energy conversion using conjugated molecular materials has become increasingly feasible through the development of organic 'bulk heterojunction (BHJ)' structures1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, where efficient light-induced charge separation...

Polylactic Acid Technology

Ray Drumright, Patrick R. Gruber, David E. Henton

Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides

Achieving control of light-material interactions for photonic device applications at nanoscale dimensions will require structures that guide electromagnetic energy with a lateral mode confinement below the diffraction limit of light. This cannot be achieved...

Fabrication of thin film dye sensitized solar cells with solar to electric power conversion efficiency over 10

Techniques of TiO 2 film fabrication for dye-sensitized solar cells having a conversion efficiency of global air mass 1.5 (AM 1.5, 1000 W/m 2 ) solar light to electric power over 10% are reported. Newly implemented fabrication technologies consist of...

Bulk metallic glasses

Amorphous alloys were first developed over 40 years ago and found applications as magnetic core or reinforcement added to other materials. The scope of applications is limited due to the small thickness in the region of only tens of microns. The research...

Roark's formulas for stress and strain

Raymond J. Roark, Warren Young, Ali M. Sadegh

A NEW APPROACH TO THE APPLICATION OF MORI-TANAKA'S THEORY IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

This paper is a reconsideration and reformulation of the Mori-Tanaka's theory in its application to the computation of the effective properties of composites. Previous applications of the theory in this context continued to be linked with eigenstrain,...

Nanocrystalline Titanium Oxide Electrodes for Photovoltaic Applications

Christophe Barbe, Francine Arendse, Pascal Comte, Marie Jirousek, Frank Lenzmann, Valery Shklover, Michael Grätzel

Slightly curved or kinked cracks

A solution is presented for the elastic stress intensity factors at the tip of a slightly curved or kinked two-dimensional crack. The solution is accurate to first order in the deviation of the crack surface from a straight line and is carried out by...

Evaluation of Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Films as Transparent Conductors

Processable, single-layered graphene oxide (GO) is an intriguing nanomaterial with tremendous potential for electronic applications. We spin-coated GO thin-films on quartz and characterized their sheet resistance and optical transparency using different...

Solutions for effective shear properties in three phase sphere and cylinder models

Solutions are presented for the effective shear modulus of two types of composite material models. The first type is that of a macroscopically isotropic composite medium containing spherical inclusions. The corresponding model employed is that involving...

Towards wafer-size graphene layers by atmospheric pressure graphitization of silicon carbide

K. V. Emtsev, Aaron Bostwick, K. Horn, Johannes Jobst, G.L. Kellogg, L. Ley, Jessica L. McChesney, T. Ohta, Sergey A. Reshanov, Jonas Röhrl, Eli Rotenberg, Andreas K. Schmid, Daniel Waldmann, Heiko B. Weber, Thomas Seyller

Optical properties of thin films

In this paper we discuss the connection between the microstructure of a heterogeneous thin film and its macroscopic dielectric response e. Effective medium theory is developed from a solution of the Clausius-Mossotti problem from basic principles. The...

Ion implantation in semiconductors

Ion implantation is being applied extensively to silicon device technology. Two principle features are utilized- 1) charge control in MOS structures for threshold shift, autoregistration, and complementary wells and 2) distribution control in microwave...

Zirconia as a ceramic biomaterial

Zirconia ceramics have several advantages over other ceramic materials, due to the transformation toughening mechanisms operating in their microstructure that can give to components made out of them, very interesting mechanical properties. The research...

Principle of equal-channel angular pressing for the processing of ultra-fine grained materials

Yoshinori Iwahashi, Jingtao Wang, Zenji Horita, Minoru Nemoto, Terence G. Langdon

Physical metallurgy of Ti–Ni-based shape memory alloys

Ti–Ni-based alloys are quite attractive functional materials not only as practical shape memory alloys with high strength and ductility but also as those exhibiting unique physical properties such as pre-transformation behaviors, which are enriched...

Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering

A paradigm shift is taking place in medicine from using synthetic implants and tissue grafts to a tissue engineering approach that uses degradable porous material scaffolds integrated with biological cells or molecules to regenerate tissues. This new...

Microscopic structure of the SiO/sub 2//Si interface

F. J. Himpsel, F. R. McFeely, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, J.A. Yarmoff, G. Hollinger

Enhanced Charge-Collection Efficiencies and Light Scattering in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes Arrays

We report on the microstructure and dynamics of electron transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) incorporating oriented TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays. The morphology of the NT arrays, which were prepared from electrochemically anodized...

Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes

Graphene, a two-dimensional monolayer of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, has been attracting great interest due to its unique transport properties. One of the promising applications of graphene is as a transparent conductive electrode owing to its high optical...

Elastic/Plastic Indentation Damage in Ceramics: The Median/Radial Crack System

A theory for describing the evolution of the median/radial crack system in the far field of sharp-indenter contacts is developed. Analysis is based on a model in which the complex elastic/plastic field beneath the indenter is resolved into elastic and...

Substrate-induced band gap opening in epitaxial graphene

: Graphene has shown great application potentials as the host material for next generation electronic devices. However, despite its intriguing properties, one of the biggest hurdles for graphene to be useful as an electronic material is its lacking of...

A three-dimensional constitutive model for the large stretch behavior of rubber elastic materials

Aconstitutive model is proposed for the deformation of rubber materials which is shown to represent successfully the response of these materials in uniaxial extension, biaxial extension, uniaxial compression, plane strain compression and pure shear. The...

Surface modification of titanium, titanium alloys, and related materials for biomedical applications

Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good...

Graphene oxide--MnO2 nanocomposites for supercapacitors.

A composite of graphene oxide supported by needle-like MnO2 nanocrystals (GO−MnO2 nanocomposites) has been fabricated through a simple soft chemical route in a water−isopropyl alcohol system. The formation mechanism of these intriguing nanocomposites...

Implantable applications of chitin and chitosan.

Chitin, extracted primarily from shellfish sources, is a unique biopolymer based on the N -acetyl-glucosamine monomer. More than 40 years have lapsed since this biopolymer had aroused the interest of the scientific community around the world for its...

Numerical simulations of fast crack growth in brittle solids

Dynamic crack growth is analysed numerically for a plane strain block with an initial central crack subject to tensile loading. The continuum is characterized by a material constitutive law that relates stress and strain, and by a relation between the...

New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer†

reported under AM1.5 (AM: air mass) illumination, this efficiency is not sufficient to meet realistic specifications for commercialization. The need to improve the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency requires the implementation of new materials...

Large-Scale Hexagonal-Patterned Growth of Aligned ZnO Nanorods for Nano-optoelectronics and Nanosensor Arrays.

An effective approach is demonstrated for growing large-area, hexagonally patterned, aligned ZnO nanorods. The synthesis uses a catalyst template produced by a self-assembled monolayer of submicron spheres and guided vapor−liquid−solid (VLS) growth...

Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells.

Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction are used to study the changes in morphology of composite films ofpoly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a methanofullerene derivative (PCBM) in bulk heterojunction solar cells. Thermal annealing produces...

HIGH WEIGHT FRACTION SURFACTANT SOLUBILIZATION OF SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES IN WATER

We report a simple process to solubilize high weight fraction single-wall carbon nanotubes in water by the nonspecific physical adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate. The diameter distribution of nanotubes in the dispersion, measured by atomic...

The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials

Since its discovery, the asymmetric Fano resonance has been a characteristic feature of interacting quantum systems. The shape of this resonance is distinctively different from that of conventional symmetric resonance curves. Recently, the Fano resonance...

Ferromagnetism above room temperature in bulk and transparent thin films of Mn-doped ZnO

The search for ferromagnetism above room temperature in dilute magnetic semiconductors has been intense in recent years. We report the first observations of ferromagnetism above room temperature fo ...

Chemical Sensors

This paper takes into consideration some basic devices which are utilised for the realization of chemical sensors. In particular metel-oxide capacitors (MOS), Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET), pyroelectric systems, surface acoustic wave devices (SAW),...

Spatially Resolved Raman Spectroscopy of Single- and Few-Layer Graphene

We present Raman spectroscopy measurements on single- and few-layer graphene flakes. By using a scanning confocal approach, we collect spectral data with spatial resolution, which allows us to directly compare Raman images with scanning force micrographs....

Mechanisms controlling the durability of thermal barrier coatings

The durability of thermal barrier coatings is governed by a sequence of crack nucleation, propagation and coalescence events that accumulate prior to final failure by large scale buckling and spalling. Because of differing manufacturing approaches and...

Mechanical behavior of amorphous alloys

The mechanical properties of amorphous alloys have proven both scientifically unique and of potential practical interest, although the underlying deformation physics of these materials remain less firmly established as compared with crystalline alloys....

Review of progress in quantitative nondestructive evaluation

Donald O. Thompson, Air Force, United States. Air Force

Nano scale iron particles for environmental remediation: an overview

Nanoscale iron particles represent a new generation of environmental remediation technologies that could provide cost-effective solutions to some of the most challenging environmental cleanup problems. Nanoscale iron particles have large surface areas...

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