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Context-Aware Computing Applications

This paper describes systems that examine and react to an individual's changing context. Such systems can promote and mediate people's interactions with devices, computers, and other people, and they can help navigate unfamiliar places. We believe that...

Wireless sensor network survey

A wireless sensor network (WSN) has important applications such as remote environmental monitoring and target tracking. This has been enabled by the availability, particularly in recent years, of sensors that are smaller, cheaper, and intelligent. These...

GPS-less low-cost outdoor localization for very small devices

Instrumenting the physical world through large networks of wireless sensor nodes, particularly for applications like environmental monitoring of water and soil, requires that these nodes be very small, lightweight, untethered, and unobtrusive. The problem...

A fast learning algorithm for deep belief nets

We show how to use "complementary priors" to eliminate the explaining-away effects that make inference difficult in densely connected belief nets that have many hidden layers. Using complementary priors, we derive a fast, greedy algorithm that can learn...

Theory and practice of recursive identification

Methods of recursive identification deal with the problem of building mathematical models of signals and systems on-line, at the same time as data is being collected. Such methods, which are also k ...

Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments

Jerome Sacks, William J. Welch, Toby Mitchell, Henry P. Wynn

A bridging model for parallel computation

The success of the von Neumann model of sequential computation is attributable to the fact that it is an efficient bridge between software and hardware: high-level languages can be efficiently compiled on to this model; yet it can be effeciently implemented...

Object Detection with Discriminatively Trained Part-Based Models

We describe an object detection system based on mixtures of multiscale deformable part models. Our system is able to represent highly variable object classes and achieves state-of-the-art results in the PASCAL object detection challenges. While deformable...

An introduction to hidden Markov models

The basic theory of Markov chains has been known to mathematicians and engineers for close to 80 years, but it is only in the past decade that it has been applied explicitly to problems in speech processing. One of the major reasons why speech models,...

Introduction to Discrete Event Systems

Introduction to Discrete Event Systems is a comprehensive introduction to the field of discrete event systems, offering a breadth of coverage that makes the material accessible to readers of varied backgrounds. The book emphasizes a unified modeling framework...

Laplacian Eigenmaps for dimensionality reduction and data representation

One of the central problems in machine learning and pattern recognition is to develop appropriate representations for complex data. We consider the problem of constructing a representation for data lying on a low-dimensional manifold embedded in a high-dimensional...

Linked Data - The Story So Far

The term “Linked Data” refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. These best practices have been adopted by an increasing number of data providers over the last three years, leading to the creation...

Ultra-wide bandwidth time-hopping spread-spectrum impulse radio for wireless multiple-access communications

Attractive features of time-hopping spread-spectrum multiple-access systems employing impulse signal technology are outlined, and emerging design issues are described. Performance of such communications systems in terms of achievable transmission rate...

"GrabCut": interactive foreground extraction using iterated graph cuts

The problem of efficient, interactive foreground/background segmentation in still images is of great practical importance in image editing. Classical image segmentation tools use either texture (colour) information, e.g. Magic Wand, or edge (contrast)...

Random oracles are practical: a paradigm for designing efficient protocols

We argue that the random oracle model—where all parties have access to a public random oracle—provides a bridge between cryptographic theory and cryptographic practice. In the paradigm we suggest, a practical protocol P is produced by first devising...

Dynamic programming algorithm optimization for spoken word recognition

This paper reports on an optimum dynamic progxamming (DP) based time-normalization algorithm for spoken word recognition. First, a general principle of time-normalization is given using time-warping function. Then, two time-normalized distance definitions,...

Singularity detection and processing with wavelets

The mathematical characterization of singularities with Lipschitz exponents is reviewed. Theorems that estimate local Lipschitz exponents of functions from the evolution across scales of their wavelet transform are reviewed. It is then proven that the...

Active appearance models

We describe a new method of matching statistical models of appearance to images. A set of model parameters control modes of shape and gray-level variation learned from a training set. We construct an efficient iterative matching algorithm by learning...

Tangible bits: towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms

This paper presents our vision of Human Computer Interaction (HCI): “Tangible Bits.” Tangible Bits allows users to “grasp & manipulate” bits in the center of users’ attention by coupling the bits with everyday physical objects and architectural...

Location systems for ubiquitous computing

This survey and taxonomy of location systems for mobile-computing applications describes a spectrum of current products and explores the latest in the field. To make sense of this domain, we have developed a taxonomy to help developers of location-aware...

On the approximate realization of continuous mappings by neural networks

In this paper, we prove that any continuous mapping can be approximately realized by Rumelhart-Hinton-Williams' multilayer neural networks with at least one hidden layer whose output functions are sigmoid functions. The starting point of the proof for...

Introduction to Discrete Event Systems

Introduction to Discrete Event Systems is a comprehensive introduction to the field of discrete event systems, offering a breadth of coverage that makes the material accessible to readers of varied backgrounds. The book emphasizes a unified modeling framework...

Learning patterns of activity using real-time tracking

Our goal is to develop a visual monitoring system that passively observes moving objects in a site and learns patterns of activity from those observations. For extended sites, the system will require multiple cameras. Thus, key elements of the system...

Texture features for browsing and retrieval of image data

Image content based retrieval is emerging as an important research area with application to digital libraries and multimedia databases. The focus of this paper is on the image processing aspects and in particular using texture information for browsing...

PLS-REGRESSION: A BASIC TOOL OF CHEMOMETRICS

PLS-regression (PLSR) is the PLS approach in its simplest, and in chemistry and technology, most used form (two-block predictive PLS). PLSR is a method for relating two data matrices, X and Y, by a linear multivariate model, but goes beyond traditional...

A Cluster Separation Measure

A measure is presented which indicates the similarity of clusters which are assumed to have a data density which is a decreasing function of distance from a vector characteristic of the cluster. The measure can be used to infer the appropriateness of...

Visual Categorization with Bags of Keypoints

Gabriella Csurka, Christopher R. Dance, Lixin Fan, Jutta Willamowski, Cedric Bray

A survey of approaches to automatic schema matching

Schema matching is a basic problem in many database application domains, such as data integration, E-business, data warehousing, and semantic query processing. In current implementations, schema matching is typically performed manually, which has significant...

Analysis and simulation of a fair queueing algorithm

We discuss gateway queueing algorithms and their role in controlling congestion in datagram networks. A fair queueing algorithm, based on an earlier suggestion by Nagle, is proposed. Analysis and simulations are used to compare this algorithm to other...

On the security of public key protocols

Recently the use of public key encryption to provide secure network communication has received considerable attention. Such public key systems are usually effective against passive eavesdroppers, who merely tap the lines and try to decipher the message....

WinBUGS – A Bayesian modelling framework: Concepts, structure, and extensibility

WinBUGS is a fully extensible modular framework for constructing and analysing Bayesian full probability models. Models may be specified either textually via the BUGS language or pictorially using a graphical interface called DoodleBUGS. WinBUGS processes...

Thumbs up or thumbs down?: semantic orientation applied to unsupervised classification of reviews

This paper presents a simple unsupervised learning algorithm for classifying reviews as recommended (thumbs up) or not recommended (thumbs down). The classification of a review is predicted by the average semantic orientation of the phrases in the review...

Speaker Verification Using Adapted Gaussian Mixture Models

Reynolds, Douglas A., Quatieri, Thomas F., and Dunn, Robert B., Speaker Verification Using Adapted Gaussian Mixture Models, Digital Signal Processing10(2000), 19?41.In this paper we describe the major elements of MIT Lincoln Laboratory's Gaussian mixture...

Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks

Deborah Estrin, Ramesh Govindan, John Heidemann

Writing on dirty paper (Corresp.)

A channel with output Y = X + S + Z is examined, The state S \sim N(0, QI) and the noise Z \sim N(0, NI) are multivariate Gaussian random variables ( I is the identity matrix.). The input X \in R^{n} satisfies the power...

Shape modeling with front propagation: a level set approach

Shape modeling is an important constituent of computer vision as well as computer graphics research. Shape models aid the tasks of object representation and recognition. This paper presents a new approach to shape modeling which retains some of the attractive...

Comparison of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms: Empirical Results

In this paper, we provide a systematic comparison of various evolutionary approaches to multiobjective optimization using six carefully chosen test functions. Each test function involves a particular feature that is known to cause difficulty in the evolutionary...

YALMIP : a toolbox for modeling and optimization in MATLAB

The MATLAB toolbox YALMIP is introduced. It is described how YALMIP can be used to model and solve optimization problems typically occurring in systems and control theory. In this paper, free MATLAB toolbox YALMIP, developed initially to model SDPs and...

SUSAN—A New Approach to Low Level Image Processing

This paper describes a new approach to low level image processing; in particular, edge and corner detection and structure preserving noise reduction.Non-linear filtering is used to define which parts of the image are closely related to each individual...

Networks on chips: a new SoC paradigm

On-chip micronetworks, designed with a layered methodology, will meet the distinctive challenges of providing functionally correct, reliable operation of interacting system-on-chip components. A system on chip (SoC) can provide an integrated solution...

Linear System Theory and Design

From the Publisher:An extensive revision of the author's highly successful text, this third edition of Linear System Theory and Design has been made more accessible to students from all related backgrounds. After introducing the fundamental properties...

Robot Dynamics and Control

From the Publisher:This self-contained introduction to practical robot kinematics and dynamics includes a comprehensive treatment of robot control. Provides background material on terminology and linear transformations, followed by coverage of kinematics...

Generative communication in Linda

Generative communication is the basis of a new distributed programming langauge that is intended for systems programming in distributed settings generally and on integrated network computers in particular. It differs from previous interprocess communication...

Modeling the Shape of the Scene: A Holistic Representation of the Spatial Envelope

In this paper, we propose a computational model of the recognition of real world scenes that bypasses the segmentation and the processing of individual objects or regions. The procedure is based on a very low dimensional representation of the scene, that...

Accuracy and Stability of Numerical Algorithms

From the Publisher:What is the most accurate way to sum floating point numbers? What are the advantages of IEEE arithmetic? How accurate is Gaussian elimination and what were the key breakthroughs in the development of error analysis for the method? The...

The SimpleScalar tool set, version 2.0

This document describes release 2.0 of the SimpleScalar tool set, a suite of free, publicly available simulation tools that offer both detailed and high-performance simulation of modern microprocessors. The new release offers more tools...

Entropy-based algorithms for best basis selection

Adapted waveform analysis uses a library of orthonormal bases and an efficiency functional to match a basis to a given signal or family of signals. It permits efficient compression of a variety of signals, such as sound and images. The predefined libraries...

Fundamentals of Queueing Theory

Praise for the Third Edition: "This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented."IIE...

A direct adaptive method for faster backpropagation learning: the RPROP algorithm

A learning algorithm for multilayer feedforward networks, RPROP (resilient propagation), is proposed. To overcome the inherent disadvantages of pure gradient-descent, RPROP performs a local adaptation of the weight-updates according to the behavior of...

Principal Component Analysis

Svante Wold, Kim Esbensen, Paul Geladi

The interdisciplinary study of coordination

This survey characterizes an emerging research area, sometimes called coordination theory , that focuses on the interdisciplinary study of coordination. Research in this area uses and extends ideas about coordination from disciplines such as computer...

The Strength of Weak Learnability

This paper addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of an hypothesis output by a learning algorithm in the distribution-free (PAC) learning model. A concept class is learnable (or strongly learnable) if, given access to a source of examples of...

Future paths for integer programming and links to artificial intelligence

Scope and Purpose-A summary is provided of some of the recent (and a few not-so-recent) developments that otTer promise for enhancing our ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. These developments may be usefully viewed as a synthesis of...

A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks

Recent advances in wireless sensor networks have led to many new protocols specifically designed for sensor networks where energy awareness is an essential consideration. Most of the attention, however, has been given to the routing protocols since they...

LIBLINEAR: A Library for Large Linear Classification

LIBLINEAR is an open source library for large-scale linear classification. It supports logistic regression and linear support vector machines. We provide easy-to-use command-line tools and library calls for users and developers. Comprehensive documents...

An Overview of AspectJ

AspectJ? is a simple and practical aspect-oriented extension to Java?. With just a few new constructs, AspectJ provides support for modular implementation of a range of crosscutting concerns. In AspectJ's dynamic join point model, join points are well-defined...

A tutorial on spectral clustering

In recent years, spectral clustering has become one of the most popular modern clustering algorithms. It is simple to implement, can be solved efficiently by standard linear algebra software, and very often outperforms traditional clustering algorithms...

Alignment by Maximization of Mutual Information

A new information-theoretic approach is presented for finding the pose of an object in an image. The technique does not require information about the surface properties of the object, besides its shape, and is robust with respect to variations of illumination....

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems

From the Publisher:This introductory book provides an in-depth, comprehensive treatment of a collection of classical and state-space approaches to control system design—and ties the methods together so that a designer is able to pick the method that...

TREE-PUZZLE: maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis using quartets and parallel computing

Summary: TREE-PUZZLE is a program package for quartet-based maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis (formerly PUZZLE, Strimmer and von Haeseler, Mol. Biol. Evol., 13, 964–969, 1996) that provides methods for reconstruction, comparison, and testing...

Communicating and mobile systems: the p-calculus

Communicating and mobile systems: the p-calculus

Usability inspection methods

Usability inspection is the generic name for a set of costeffective ways of evaluating user interfaces to find usability problems. They are fairly informal methods and easy to use.

Principles of distributed database systems

This third edition of a classic textbook can be used to teach at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels. The material concentrates on fundamental theories as well as techniques and algorithms. The advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web, and,...

An experimental comparison of min-cut/max- flow algorithms for energy minimization in vision

Minimum cut/maximum flow algorithms on graphs have emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exactor approximate energy minimization in low-level vision. The combinatorial optimization literature provides many min-cut/max-flow algorithms with different...

A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing

This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds high-throughput paths on multi-hop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver...

Routing of multipoint connections

The author addresses the problem of routing connections in a large-scale packet-switched network supporting multipoint communications. He gives a formal definition of several versions of the multipoint problem, including both static and dynamic versions....

A case for redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID)

Increasing performance of CPUs and memories will be squandered if not matched by a similar performance increase in I/O. While the capacity of Single Large Expensive Disks (SLED) has grown rapidly, the performance improvement of SLED has been modest. Redundant...

Cortical surface-based analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction.

Several properties of the cerebral cortex, including its columnar and laminar organization, as well as the topographic organization of cortical areas, can only be properly understood in the context of the intrinsic two-dimensional structure of the cortical...

Using collaborative filtering to weave an information tapestry

David Goldberg, David Nichols, Brian M. Oki

A Fast and High Quality Multilevel Scheme for Partitioning Irregular Graphs

Recently, a number of researchers have investigated a class of graph partitioning algorithms that reduce the size of the graph by collapsing vertices and edges, partition the smaller graph, and then uncoarsen it to construct a partition for the original...

Fast Effective Rule Induction

Many existing rule learning systems are computationally expensive on large noisy datasets. In this paper we evaluate the recently-proposed rule learning algorithm IREP on a large and diverse collection of benchmark problems. We show that while IREP is...

A review on image segmentation techniques

Many image segmentation techniques are available in the literature. Some of these techniques use only the gray level histogram, some use spatial details while others use fuzzy set theoretic approaches. Most of these techniques are not suitable for noisy...

HEED: a hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad hoc sensor networks

Topology control in a sensor network balances load on sensor nodes and increases network scalability and lifetime. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective topology control approach. We propose a novel distributed clustering approach for long-lived ad...

Real-time tracking of non-rigid objects using mean shift

A new method for real time tracking of non-rigid objects seen from a moving camera is proposed. The central computational module is based on the mean shift iterations and finds the most probable target position in the current frame. The dissimilarity...

Rules of the mind

John R. Anderson, Francis S. Bellezza

SRILM – An Extensible Language Modeling Toolkit

SRILM – An Extensible Language Modeling Toolkit

Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions

The wide-baseline stereo problem, i.e. the problem of establishing correspondences between a pair of images taken from different viewpoints is studied. A new set of image elements that are put into correspondence, the so called extremal regions, is introduced....

Empirical study of particle swarm optimization

We empirically study the performance of the particle swarm optimizer (PSO). Four different benchmark functions with asymmetric initial range settings are selected as testing functions. The experimental results illustrate the advantages and disadvantages...

Fitting a mixture model by expectation maximization to discover motifs in biopolymers.

The algorithm described in this paper discovers one or more motifs in a collection of DNA or protein sequences by using the technique of expect~tiou ma.,dmization to fit a two-component finite mixture model to the set of sequences. Multiple motifs are...

Principles of Mobile Communication

Principles of Mobile Communication, Third Edition, is an authoritative treatment of the fundamentals of mobile communications. This book stresses the "fundamentals" of physical-layer wireless and mobile communications engineering that are important for...

Time-frequency distributions-a review

A review and tutorial of the fundamental ideas and methods of joint time-frequency distributions is presented. The objective of the field is to describe how the spectral content of a signal changes in time and to develop the physical and mathematical...

Location-aided routing (LAR) in mobile ad hoc networks

A mobile ad hoc network consists of wireless hosts that may move often. Movement of hosts results in a change in routes, requiring some mechanism for determining new routes. Several routing protocols have already been proposed for ad hoc networks. This...

Laboratory life : the construction of scientific facts

Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar, Jonas Salk

A Fuzzy Relative of the ISODATA Process and Its Use in Detecting Compact Well-Separated Clusters

Two fuzzy versions of the k-means optimal, least squared error partitioning problem are formulated for finite subsets X of a general inner product space. In both cases, the extremizing solutions are shown to be fixed points of a certain operator T on...

The contourlet transform: an efficient directional multiresolution image representation

The limitations of commonly used separable extensions of one-dimensional transforms, such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms, in capturing the geometry of image edges are well known. In this paper, we pursue a "true" two-dimensional transform that...

Networks for approximation and learning

The problem of the approximation of nonlinear mapping, (especially continuous mappings) is considered. Regularization theory and a theoretical framework for approximation (based on regularization techniques) that leads to a class of three-layer networks...

Survey of clustering algorithms

Data analysis plays an indispensable role for understanding various phenomena. Cluster analysis, primitive exploration with little or no prior knowledge, consists of research developed across a wide variety of communities. The diversity, on one hand,...

Bayesian Network Classifiers

Recent work in supervised learning has shown that a surprisingly simple Bayesian classifier with strong assumptions of independence among features, called naive Bayes, is competitive with state-of-the-art classifiers such as C4.5. This fact raises the...

Building the Data Warehouse

Written by the father of the data warehouse concept, this edition provides a comprehensive introduction to building data marts, operational data stores, Corporate Information Factory, exploration warehouses, and Web-enabled warehouses.

Learning Bayesian Networks: The Combination of Knowledge and Statistical Data

We describe a Bayesian approach for learning Bayesian networks from a combination of prior knowledge and statistical data. First and foremost, we develop a methodology for assessing informative priors needed for learning. Our approach is derived from...

Rules of the mind

John R. (John Robert) Anderson

TAG: a Tiny AGgregation service for Ad-Hoc sensor networks

We present the Tiny AGgregation (TAG) service for aggregation in low-power, distributed, wireless environments. TAG allows users to express simple, declarative queries and have them distributed and executed efficiently in networks of low-power, wireless...

Amazon.com recommendations: item-to-item collaborative filtering

Recommendation algorithms are best known for their use on e-commerce Web sites, where they use input about a customer's interests to generate a list of recommended items. Many applications use only the items that customers purchase and explicitly rate...

Near optimum error correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes

This paper presents a new family of convolutional codes, nicknamed turbo-codes, built from a particular concatenation of two recursive systematic codes, linked together by nonuniform interleaving. Decoding calls on iterative processing in which each component...

Maximizing the spread of influence through a social network

Models for the processes by which ideas and influence propagate through a social network have been studied in a number of domains, including the diffusion of medical and technological innovations, the sudden and widespread adoption of various strategies...

Principal Component Analysis

Jian Guo Liu, Philippa J. Mason

Database system concepts

From the Publisher:This popular text in database systems is used in departments of computer science,computer engineering,and electrical engineering. The revision includes more material on SQL,relational models,logical databases,"QB" and "Datalog. "

The eyes have it: a task by data type taxonomy for information visualizations

A useful starting point for designing advanced graphical user interfaces is the visual information seeking Mantra: overview first, zoom and filter, then details on demand. But this is only a starting point in trying to understand the rich and varied set...

Federated database systems for managing distributed, heterogeneous, and autonomous databases

A federated database system (FDBS) is a collection of cooperating database systems that are autonomous and possibly heterogeneous. In this paper, we define a reference architecture for distributed database management systems from system and schema viewpoints...

Symbolic model checking: 1020 States and beyond

Jerry R. Burch, Edmund M. Clarke, Kenneth L. McMillan, David L. Dill, Lain-Chyr Hwang

Scale-space filtering

The extrema in a signal and its first few derivatives provide a useful general-purpose qualitative description for many kinds of signals. A fundamental problem in computing such descriptions is scale: a derivative must be taken over some neighborhood,...

A simple Cooperative diversity method based on network path selection

Cooperative diversity has been recently proposed as a way to form virtual antenna arrays that provide dramatic gains in slow fading wireless environments. However, most of the proposed solutions require distributed space-time coding algorithms, the careful...

An overview of statistical learning theory

Statistical learning theory was introduced in the late 1960's. Until the 1990's it was a purely theoretical analysis of the problem of function estimation from a given collection of data. In the middle of the 1990's new types of learning algorithms (called...

Digital game-based learning

Research published by University of Rochester neuroscientists C. Shawn Green and Daphne Bavelier has grabbed national attention for suggesting that playing "action" video and computer games has the positive effect of enhancing student's visual selective...

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