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Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm

Algorithms that must deal with complicated global functions of many variables often exploit the manner in which the given functions factor as a product of "local" functions, each of which depends on a subset of the variables. Such a factorization can...

Integrated Services in the Internet Architecture: an Overview

This memo discusses a proposed extension to the Internet architecture and protocols to provide integrated services, i.e., to support real- time as well as the current non-real-time service of IP. This extension is necessary to meet the growing need for...

System architecture directions for networked sensors

Jason L. Hill, Robert Szewczyk, Alec Woo, Seth Hollar, David Culler, Kristofer S. J. Pister

Towards a Better Understanding of Context and Context-Awareness

Gregory D. Abowd, Anind K. Dey, Peter Brown, Nigel Davies, Mark T. Smith, Pete Steggles

On combining classifiers

We develop a common theoretical framework for combining classifiers which use distinct pattern representations and show that many existing schemes can be considered as special cases of compound classification where all the pattern representations are...

Thumbs up?: sentiment classification using machine learning techniques

We consider the problem of classifying documents not by topic, but by overall sentiment, e.g., determining whether a review is positive or negative. Using movie reviews as data, we find that standard machine learning techniques definitively outperform...

Accelerated image reconstruction using ordered subsets of projection data

The authors define ordered subset processing for standard algorithms (such as expectation maximization, EM) for image restoration from projections. Ordered subsets methods group projection data into an ordered sequence of subsets (or blocks). An iteration...

Wide area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling

Network arrivals are often modeled as Poisson processes for analytic simplicity, even though a number of traffic studies have shown that packet interarrivals are not exponentially distributed. We evaluate 24 wide area traces, investigating a number of...

Support-vector networks

Thesupport-vector network is a new learning machine for two-group classification problems. The machine conceptually implements the following idea: input vectors are non-linearly mapped to a very high-dimension feature space. In this feature space a linear...

Multidimensional binary search trees used for associative searching

This paper develops the multidimensional binary search tree (or k-d tree, where k is the dimensionality of the search space) as a data structure for storage of information to be retrieved by associative searches. The k-d tree is defined and examples are...

Adaptive noise cancelling: Principles and applications

This paper describes the concept of adaptive noise cancelling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise or interference. The method uses a "primary" input containing the corrupted signal and a "reference" input containing...

A Practical Guide to Support Vector Classication

Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular technique for classication. However, beginners who are not familiar with SVM often get unsatisfactory results since they miss some easy but signicant steps. In this guide, we propose a simple procedure, which...

No free lunch theorems for optimization

A framework is developed to explore the connection between effective optimization algorithms and the problems they are solving. A number of "no free lunch" (NFL) theorems are presented which establish that for any algorithm, any elevated performance over...

Neuro-dynamic programming: an overview

We discuss a relatively new class of dynamic programming methods for control and sequential decision making under uncertainty. These methods have the potential of dealing with problems that for a long time were thought to be intractable due to either...

Sparse bayesian learning and the relevance vector machine

This paper introduces a general Bayesian framework for obtaining sparse solutions to regression and classification tasks utilising models linear in the parameters. Although this framework is fully general, we illustrate our approach with a particular...

Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations

A fast and flexible algorithm for computing watersheds in digital gray-scale images is introduced. A review of watersheds and related motion is first presented, and the major methods to determine watersheds are discussed. The algorithm is based on an...

Understanding and Using Context

Context is a poorly used source of information in our computing environments. As a result, we have an impoverished understanding of what context is and how it can be used. In this paper, we provide an operational definition of context and discuss the...

Using MPI: portable parallel programming with the message-passing interface

This book offers a thoroughly updated guide to the MPI (Message-Passing Interface) standard library for writing programs for parallel computers. Since the publication of the previous edition of Using MPI, parallel computing has become mainstream. Today,...

The Contract Net Protocol: High-Level Communication and Control in a Distributed Problem Solver

The contract net protocol has been developed to specify problem-solving communication and control for nodes in a distributed problem solver. Task distribution is affected by a negotiation process, a discussion carried on between nodes with tasks to be...

Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring

We provide an in-depth study of applying wireless sensor networks to real-world habitat monitoring. A set of system design requirements are developed that cover the hardware design of the nodes, the design of the sensor network, and the capabilities for...

Networks: An Introduction

The scientific study of networks, including computer networks, social networks, and biological networks, has received an enormous amount of interest in the last few years. The rise of the Internet and the wide availability of inexpensive computers have...

Trust and TAM in online shopping: an integrated model

A separate and distinct interaction with both the actual e-vendor and with its IT Web site interface is at the heart of online shopping. Previous research has established, accordingly, that online purchase intentions are the product of both consumer assessments...

A survey of image registration techniques

Registration is a fundamental task in image processing used to match two or more pictures taken, for example, at different times, from different sensors, or from different viewpoints. Virtually all large systems which evaluate images require the registration...

The content analysis guidebook

Content analysis is one of the most important but complex research methodologies in the social sciences. In The Content Analysis Guidebook author Kimberly Neuendorf provides an accessible core text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students...

Embedded image coding using zerotrees of wavelet coefficients

The embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW) is a simple, yet remarkably effective, image compression algorithm, having the property that the bits in the bit stream are generated in order of importance, yielding a fully embedded code. The embedded code...

The probabilistic method

The use of randomness is now an accepted tool in Theoretical Computer Science but not everyone is aware of the underpinnings of this methodology in Combinatorics - particularly, in what is now called the probabilistic Method as developed primarily by...

A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research

In the performance evaluation of a protocol for an ad hoc network, the protocol should be tested under realistic conditions including, but not limited to, a sensible transmission range, limited buffer space for the storage of messages, representative...

Probabilistic robotics

Planning and navigation algorithms exploit statistics gleaned from uncertain, imperfect real-world environments to guide robots toward their goals and around obstacles.

Suppression of acoustic noise in speech using spectral subtraction

A stand-alone noise suppression algorithm is presented for reducing the spectral effects of acoustically added noise in speech. Effective performance of digital speech processors operating in practical environments may require suppression of noise from...

Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

Mohammed J. Zaki, Jeffrey Xu Yu, B. Ravindran, Vikram Pudi

ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

We trained a large, deep convolutional neural network to classify the 1.3 million high-resolution images in the LSVRC-2010 ImageNet training set into the 1000 different classes. On the test data, we achieved top-1 and top-5 error rates of 39.7\% and 18.9\%...

Globus: a Metacomputing Infrastructure Toolkit

The Globus system is intended to achieve a vertically integrated treatment of application, middleware, and net work. A low-level toolkit provides basic mechanisms such as communication, authentication, network information, and data access. These mechanisms...

SPINS: security protocols for sensor networks

Wireless sensor networks will be widely deployed in the near future. While much research has focused on making these networks feasible and useful, security has received little attention. We present a suite of security protocols optimized for sensor networks:...

Successful Aging

This issue's Works in Progress department presents six abstracts for projects that are developing interesting solutions to the elderly's quality of life challenges. The first two abstracts discuss projects that will help provide the elderly with freedom...

Formal Concept Analysis: Mathematical Foundations

From the Publisher:This is the first textbook on formal concept analysis. It gives a systematic presentation of the mathematical foundations and their relation to applications in computer science, especially in data analysis and knowledge processing....

Understanding molecular simulation: from algorithms to applications

Second and revised edition Understanding Molecular Simulation: From Algorithms to Applications explains the physics behind the "recipes" of molecular simulation for materials science. Computer simulators are continuously confronted with questions concerning...

Detecting faces in images: a survey

Images containing faces are essential to intelligent vision-based human-computer interaction, and research efforts in face processing include face recognition, face tracking, pose estimation and expression recognition. However, many reported methods assume...

Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos

We describe an approach to object and scene retrieval which searches for and localizes all the occurrences of a user outlined object in a video. The object is represented by a set of viewpoint invariant region descriptors so that recognition can proceed...

SPINS: security protocols for sensor networks

As sensor networks edge closer towards wide-spread deployment, security issues become a central concern. So far, much research has focused on making sensor networks feasible and useful, and has not concentrated on security. We present a suite of security...

Program Slicing

Program slicing is a method for automatically decomposing programs by analyzing their data flow and control flow. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced...

The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: A method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms

The use of the fast Fourier transform in power spectrum analysis is described. Principal advantages of this method are a reduction in the number of computations and in required core storage, and convenient application in nonstationarity tests. The method...

Wireless mesh networks: a survey

Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) consist of mesh routers and mesh clients, where mesh routers have minimal mobility and form the backbone of WMNs. They provide network access for both mesh and conventional clients. The integration of WMNs with other networks...

The Java Language Specification

From the Publisher:Written by the inventors of the technology, The Java(tm) Language Specification, Second Edition is the definitive technical reference for the Java(tm) programming language. If you want to know the precise meaning of the language's constructs,...

System architecture directions for networked sensors

Technological progress in integrated, low-power, CMOS communication devices and sensors makes a rich design space of networked sensors viable. They can be deeply embedded in the physical world and spread throughout our environment like smart dust. The...

Consensus and Cooperation in Networked Multi-Agent Systems

This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multi-agent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, time-delays,...

A Bayesian Method for the Induction of Probabilistic Networks from Data

This paper presents a Bayesian method for constructing probabilistic networks from databases. In particular, we focus on constructing Bayesian belief networks. Potential applications include computer-assisted hypothesis testing, automated scientific discovery,...

Linear prediction: A tutorial review

This paper gives an exposition of linear prediction in the analysis of discrete signals. The signal is modeled as a linear combination of its past values and present and past values of a hypothetical input to a system whose output is the given signal....

Snakes, shapes, and gradient vector flow

Snakes, or active contours, are used extensively in computer vision and image processing applications, particularly to locate object boundaries. Problems associated with initialization and poor convergence to boundary concavities, however, have limited...

The Cricket location-support system

This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of Cricket , a location-support system for in-building, mobile, location-dependent applications. It allows applications running on mobile and static nodes to learn their physical location...

Bootstrap Methods for Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Other Measures of Statistical Accuracy

This is a review of bootstrap methods, concentrating on basic ideas and applications rather than theoretical considerations. It begins with an exposition of the bootstrap estimate of standard error for one-sample situations. Several examples, some involving...

Learning How to Learn.

Joseph D. Novak, D. Bob Gowin

The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hoc network

Broadcasting is a common operation in a network to resolve many issues. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) in particular, due to host mobility, such operations are expected to be executed more frequently (such as finding a route to a particular host,...

Bigtable: A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data

Bigtable is a distributed storage system for managing structured data that is designed to scale to a very large size: petabytes of data across thousands of commodity servers. Many projects at Google store data in Bigtable, including web indexing, Google...

Evaluating collaborative filtering recommender systems

Recommender systems have been evaluated in many, often incomparable, ways. In this article, we review the key decisions in evaluating collaborative filtering recommender systems: the user tasks being evaluated, the types of analysis and datasets being...

Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis

An important part of our information-gathering behavior has always been to find out what other people think. With the growing availability and popularity of opinion-rich resources such as online review sites and personal blogs, new opportunities and challenges...

$rm K$ -SVD: An Algorithm for Designing Overcomplete Dictionaries for Sparse Representation

In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of sparse representation of signals. Using an overcomplete dictionary that contains prototype signal-atoms, signals are described by sparse linear combinations of these atoms. Applications...

New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis

Vector time series analysis has become a standard tool in macroeconometrics and in empirical finance since the early 1980s. Over the last two decades, Helmut Liitkepohl has published extensively on virtually all topics covered in this book, which puts...

The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hoc network

Broadcasting is a common operation in a network to resolve many issues. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) in particular, due to host mobility, such operations are expected to be executed more frequently (such as finding a route to a particular host,...

Empirical analysis of predictive algorithms for collaborative filtering

Collaborative filtering or recommender systems use a database about user preferences to predict additional topics or products a new user might like. In this paper we describe several algorithms designed for this task, including techniques based on correlation...

Automatic verification of finite-state concurrent systems using temporal logic specifications

We give an efficient procedure for verifying that a finite-state concurrent system meets a specification expressed in a (propositional, branching-time) temporal logic. Our algorithm has complexity linear in both the size of the specification and the size...

The SPLASH-2 programs: characterization and methodological considerations

The SPLASH-2 suite of parallel applications has recently been released to facilitate the study of centralized and distributed shared-address-space multiprocessors. In this context, this paper has two goals. One is to quantitatively characterize the SPLASH-2...

Particle swarm optimization: developments, applications and resources

This paper focuses on the engineering and computer science aspects of developments, applications, and resources related to particle swarm optimization. Developments in the particle swarm algorithm since its origin in 1995 are reviewed. Included are brief...

Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms: Vision, hype, and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility

With the significant advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) over the last half century, there is an increasingly perceived vision that computing will one day be the 5th utility (after water, electricity, gas, and telephony). This...

Research electronic data capture (REDCap)-A metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support

Research electronic data capture (REDCap) is a novel workflow methodology and software solution designed for rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture tools to support clinical and translational research. We present: (1) a brief description...

Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence

A computer program capable of acting intelligently in the world must have a general representation of the world in terms of which its inputs are interpreted. Designing such a program requires commitments about what knowledge is and how it is obtained....

Characterization of signals from multiscale edges

A multiscale Canny edge detection is equivalent to finding the local maxima of a wavelet transform. The authors study the properties of multiscale edges through the wavelet theory. For pattern recognition, one often needs to discriminate different types...

Vector quantization

A vector quantizer is a system for mapping a sequence of continuous or discrete vectors into a digital sequence suitable for communication over or storage in a digital channel. The goal of such a system is data compression: to reduce the bit rate so as...

Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR)

This document describes the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol is an optimization of the classical link state algorithm tailored to the requirements of a mobile wireless LAN. The key concept used in the...

BIRCH: an efficient data clustering method for very large databases

Finding useful patterns in large datasets has attracted considerable interest recently, and one of the most widely studied problems in this area is the identification of clusters, or densely populated regions, in a multi-dimensional dataset. Prior work...

Multi-modality image registration by maximization of mutual information

Mutual information of image intensities has been proposed as a new matching criterion for automated multi-modality image registration. In this paper the authors give experimental evidence of the power and the generality of the mutual information criterion...

Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): Results of Empirical and Theoretical Research

The results of a multi-year research program to identify the factors associated with variations in subjective workload within and between different types of tasks are reviewed. Subjective evaluations of 10 workload-related factors were obtained from 16...

Computer Vision: A Modern Approach

From the Publisher:The accessible presentation of this book gives both a general view of the entire computer vision enterprise and also offers sufficient detail to be able to build useful applications. Users learn techniques that have proven to be useful...

Introduction to Database Systems

From the Publisher:The sixth edition of this well-respected text/reference--which has been almost completely rewritten--continues to be the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of database technology currently available. Readers will gain a strong...

Reasoning about knowledge

Reasoning about knowledge—particularly the knowledge of agents who reason about the world and each other's knowledge—was once the exclusive province of philosophers and puzzle solvers. More recently, this type of reasoning has been shown to play a...

The model checker SPIN

SPIN is an efficient verification system for models of distributed software systems. It has been used to detect design errors in applications ranging from high-level descriptions of distributed algorithms to detailed code for controlling telephone exchanges....

The FERET evaluation methodology for face-recognition algorithms

Two of the most critical requirements in support of producing reliable face-recognition systems are a large database of facial images and a testing procedure to evaluate systems. The Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program has addressed both issues...

Information flow and cooperative control of vehicle formations

We consider the problem of cooperation among a collection of vehicles performing a shared task using intervehicle communication to coordinate their actions. Tools from algebraic graph theory prove useful in modeling the communication network and relating...

The mathematics of statistical machine translation: parameter estimation

We describe a series of five statistical models of the translation process and give algorithms for estimating the parameters of these models given a set of pairs of sentences that are translations of one another. We define a concept of word-by-word alignment...

As we may think

As Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Dr. Vannevar Bush has coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare. In this significant article he holds up an incentive...

An introduction to efficiency and productivity analysis

The second edition of An Introduction to Efficiency and Productivity Analysis is designed to be a general introduction for those who wish to study efficiency and productivity analysis. The book provides an accessible, well-written introduction to the...

OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks

This whitepaper proposes OpenFlow: a way for researchers to run experimental protocols in the networks they use every day. OpenFlow is based on an Ethernet switch, with an internal flow-table, and a standardized interface to add and remove flow entries....

Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals

A coding technique is described which improves error performance of synchronous data links without sacrificing data rate or requiring more bandwidth. This is achieved by channel coding with expanded sets of multilevel/phase signals in a manner which increases...

Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: a survey

Wireless sensor networks consist of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an...

Tabu Search—Part II

This paper presents the fundamental principles underlying tabu search as a strategy for combinatorial optimization problems. Tabu search has achieved impressive practical successes in applications ranging from scheduling and computer channel balancing...

The Eigentrust algorithm for reputation management in P2P networks

Peer-to-peer file-sharing networks are currently receiving much attention as a means of sharing and distributing information. However, as recent experience shows, the anonymous, open nature of these networks offers an almost ideal environment for the...

Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process

The consensus problem involves an asynchronous system of processes, some of which may be unreliable. The problem is for the reliable processes to agree on a binary value. In this paper, it is shown that every protocol for this problem has the possibility...

Instance-Based Learning Algorithms

Storing and using specific instances improves the performance of several supervised learning algorithms. These include algorithms that learn decision trees, classification rules, and distributed networks. However, no investigation has analyzed algorithms...

Linear network coding

Consider a communication network in which certain source nodes multicast information to other nodes on the network in the multihop fashion where every node can pass on any of its received data to others. We are interested in how fast each node can receive...

Discrete Cosine Transform

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) is defined and an algorithm to compute it using the fast Fourier transform is developed. It is shown that the discrete cosine transform can be used in the area of digital processing for the purposes of pattern recognition...

Electronic markets and electronic hierarchies

By reducing the costs of coordination, information technology will lead to an overall shift toward proportionately more use of markets—rather than hierarchies—to coordinate economic activity.

Learning to Predict by the Methods of Temporal Differences

This article introduces a class of incremental learning procedures specialized for prediction – that is, for using past experience with an incompletely known system to predict its future behavior. Whereas conventional prediction-learning methods assign...

Pattern recognition principles

Julius T. Tou, Rafael C. Gonzalez

A generalized processor sharing approach to flow control in integrated services networks: the multiple node case

Worst-case bounds on delay and backlog are derived for leaky bucket constrained sessions in arbitrary topology networks of generalized processor sharing (GPS) servers. The inherent flexibility of the service discipline is exploited to analyze broad classes...

Blast2GO: a universal tool for annotation, visualization and analysis in functional genomics research

Summary: We present here Blast2GO (B2G), a research tool designed with the main purpose of enabling Gene Ontology (GO) based data mining on sequence data for which no GO annotation is yet available. B2G joints in one application GO annotation based on...

Bayesian Networks and Decision Graphs

This is a brand new edition of an essential work on Bayesian networks and decision graphs. It is an introduction to probabilistic graphical models including Bayesian networks and influence diagrams. The reader is guided through the two types of frameworks...

Neural network-based face detection

We present a neural network-based upright frontal face detection system. A retinally connected neural network examines small windows of an image and decides whether each window contains a face. The system arbitrates between multiple networks to improve...

The Byzantine Generals Problem

Reliable computer systems must handle malfunctioning components that give conflicting information to different parts of the system. This situation can be expressed abstractly in terms of a group of generals of the Byzantine army camped with their troops...

Mitigating routing misbehavior in mobile ad hoc networks

This paper describes two techniques that improve throughput in an ad hoc network in the presence of nodes that agree to forward packets but fail to do so. To mitigate this problem, we propose categorizing nodes based upon their dynamically measured behavior....

Formal Ontology and Information Systems

Research on ontology is becoming increasingly widespread in the com- puter science community, and its importance is being recognized in a multiplicity of research fields and application areas, including knowledge engineering, database design and integration,...

Object tracking: A survey

The goal of this article is to review the state-of-the-art tracking methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Object tracking, in general, is a challenging problem. Difficulties in tracking objects can arise due to abrupt...

Probabilistic neural networks

By replacing the sigmoid activation function often used in neural networks with an exponential function, a probabilistic neural network (PNN) that can compute nonlinear decision boundaries which approach the Bayes optimal is formed. Alternate activation...

Distributed space-time-coded protocols for exploiting cooperative diversity in wireless networks

We develop and analyze space-time coded cooperative diversity protocols for combating multipath fading across multiple protocol layers in a wireless network. The protocols exploit spatial diversity available among a collection of distributed terminals...

The Mathematica Book

From the Publisher:Mathematica has defined the state of the art in technical computing for over a decade, and has become a standard in many of the world's leading companies and universities. From simple calculator operations to large-scale programming...

Mining and summarizing customer reviews

Merchants selling products on the Web often ask their customers to review the products that they have purchased and the associated services. As e-commerce is becoming more and more popular, the number of customer reviews that a product receives grows...

Groupware: some issues and experiences

Clarence A. Ellis, Simon Gibbs, Gail L. Rein

Basic concepts and taxonomy of dependable and secure computing

This paper gives the main definitions relating to dependability, a generic concept including a special case of such attributes as reliability, availability, safety, integrity, maintainability, etc. Security brings in concerns for confidentiality, in addition...

The Internet of Things: A survey

This paper addresses the Internet of Things. Main enabling factor of this promising paradigm is the integration of several technologies and communications solutions. Identification and tracking technologies, wired and wireless sensor and actuator networks,...

Efficient Graph-Based Image Segmentation

This paper addresses the problem of segmenting an image into regions. We define a predicate for measuring the evidence for a boundary between two regions using a graph-based representation of the image. We then develop an efficient segmentation algorithm...

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