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Intuitionistic fuzzy sets

A definition of the concept 'intuitionistic fuzzy set' (IFS) is given, the latter being a generalization of the concept 'fuzzy set' and an example is described. Various properties are proved, which are connected to the operations and relations over sets,...

Operations Research

Kanti Swarup, P. K. Gupta, M. Mohan, G. Gopalakrishnan Nair

Numerical Analysis

Normal 0 false false false Numerical Analysis, Second Edition, is a modern and readable text. This book covers not only the standard topics but also some more advanced numerical methods being used by computational scientists and engineerstopics...

Markov Decision Processes: Discrete Stochastic Dynamic Programming

From the Publisher:The past decade has seen considerable theoretical and applied research on Markov decision processes, as well as the growing use of these models in ecology, economics, communications engineering, and other fields where outcomes are uncertain...

A system of logic, ratiocinative and inductive : being a connected view of the principles of evidence and the methods of scientific investigation

A system of logic, ratiocinative and inductive : being a connected view of the principles of evidence and the methods of scientific investigation

On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version)

Demonstrates that Ethernet LAN traffic is statistically self-similar, that none of the commonly used traffic models is able to capture this fractal-like behavior, that such behavior has serious implications for the design, control, and analysis of high-speed,...

The entity-relationship model—toward a unified view of data

A data model, called the entity-relationship model, is proposed. This model incorporates some of the important semantic information about the real world. A special diagrammatic technique is introduced as a tool for database design. An example of database...

An Introduction to the Kalman Filter

In 1960, R.E. Kalman published his famous paper describing a recursive solution to the discrete-data linear filtering problem. Since that time, due in large part to advances in digital computing, the Kalman filter has been the subject of extensive research...

Fast approximate energy minimization via graph cuts

Many tasks in computer vision involve assigning a label (such as disparity) to every pixel. A common constraint is that the labels should vary smoothly almost everywhere while preserving sharp discontinuities that may exist, e.g., at object boundaries....

Phenix - a comprehensive python-based system for macromolecular structure solution

Jeffrey J. Headd, Ralf W. Grosse Kunstleve, Nigel W. Moriarty, R.D. Oeffner, Randy J. Read, Jane S. Richardson

Object-Oriented Software Construction

From the Publisher:Object-Oriented Software Construction, second edition is the comprehensive reference on all aspects of object technology, from design principles to Object-Oriented techniques, Design by Contract, Object-Oriented analysis, concurrency,...

Nonlinear component analysis as a kernel eigenvalue problem

A new method for performing a nonlinear form of principal component analysis is proposed. By the use of integral operator kernel functions, one can efficiently compute principal components in high-dimensional feature spaces, related to input space by...

Content-based image retrieval at the end of the early years

Presents a review of 200 references in content-based image retrieval. The paper starts with discussing the working conditions of content-based retrieval: patterns of use, types of pictures, the role of semantics, and the sensory gap. Subsequent sections...

Wrappers for feature subset selection

In the feature subset selection problem, a learning algorithm is faced with the problem of selecting a relevant subset of features upon which to focus its attention, while ignoring the rest. To achieve the best possible performance with a particular learning...

Communicating sequential processes

This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When combined with a development of Dijkstra's guarded command,...

Random early detection gateways for congestion avoidance

The authors present random early detection (RED) gateways for congestion avoidance in packet-switched networks. The gateway detects incipient congestion by computing the average queue size. The gateway could notify connections of congestion either by...

Statistical pattern recognition: a review

The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice....

A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols

An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless network interfaces,...

Case-based reasoning: foundational issues, methodological variations, and system approaches

Case-based reasoning is a recent approach to problem solving and learning that has got a lot of attention over the last few years. Originating in the US, the basic idea and underlying theories have spread to other continents, and we are now within a period...

A survey of augmented reality

This paper surveys the field of augmented reality AR, in which 3D virtual objects are integrated into a 3D real environment in real time. It describes the medical, manufacturing, visualization, path planning, entertainment, and military applications that...

Mining sequential patterns

We are given a large database of customer transactions, where each transaction consists of customer-id, transaction time, and the items bought in the transaction. We introduce the problem of mining sequential patterns over such databases. We present three...

The vision of autonomic computing

A 2001 IBM manifesto observed that a looming software complexity crisis -caused by applications and environments that number into the tens of millions of lines of code - threatened to halt progress in computing. The manifesto noted the almost impossible...

Image registration methods: a survey

This paper aims to present a review of recent as well as classic image registration methods. Image registration is the process of overlaying images (two or more) of the same scene taken at different times, from different viewpoints, and/or by different...

The Google file system

We have designed and implemented the Google File System, a scalable distributed file system for large distributed data-intensive applications. It provides fault tolerance while running on inexpensive commodity hardware, and it delivers high aggregate...

A tutorial on support vector regression

In this tutorial we give an overview of the basic ideas underlying Support Vector (SV) machines for function estimation. Furthermore, we include a summary of currently used algorithms for training SV machines, covering both the quadratic (or convex) programming...

Time series: theory and methods

Peter J. Brockwell, Richard A. Davis

Novel approach to nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian state estimation

An algorithm, the bootstrap filter, is proposed for implementing recursive Bayesian filters. The required density of the state vector is represented as a set of random samples, which are updated and propagated by the algorithm. The method is not restricted...

Cellular neural networks: theory

A novel class of information-processing systems called cellular neural networks is proposed. Like neural networks, they are large-scale nonlinear analog circuits that process signals in real time. Like cellular automata, they consist of a massive aggregate...

A taxonomy and evaluation of dense two-frame stereo correspondence algorithms

Stereo matching is one of the most active research areas in computer vision. While a large number of algorithms for stereo correspondence have been developed, relatively little work has been done on characterizing their performance. In this paper, we...

Parallel and distributed computation

Dimitri P. Bertsekas, John N. Tsitsiklis

A comparison of methods for multiclass support vector machines

Support vector machines (SVMs) were originally designed for binary classification. How to effectively extend it for multiclass classification is still an ongoing research issue. Several methods have been proposed where typically we construct a multiclass...

Parallel and Distributed Computation: Numerical Methods

Dimitri P. Bertsekas, John N. Tsitsiklis

Mobility support in IPv6

This document specifies a protocol which allows nodes to remainreachable while moving around in the IPv6 Internet. Each mobile nodeis always identified by its home address, regardless of its currentpoint of attachment to the Internet. While situated away...

A Complexity Measure

This paper describes a graph-theoretic complexity measure and illustrates how it can be used to manage and control program complexity. The paper first explains how the graph-theory concepts apply and gives an intuitive explanation of the graph concepts...

A metrics suite for object oriented design

Given the central role that software development plays in the delivery and application of information technology, managers are increasingly focusing on process improvement in the software development area. This demand has spurred the provision of a number...

Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology

From the Publisher:This thoroughly revised edition presents important methods in the quantitative analysis of geologic data. Retains the basic arrangement of the previous edition but expands sections on probability, nonparametric statistics, and Fourier...

Robot Vision

From the Publisher:This book presents a coherent approach to the fast-moving field of computer vision, using a consistent notation based on a detailed understanding of the image formation process. It covers even the most recent research and will provide...

Neural computation of decisions in optimization problems

Highly-interconnected networks of nonlinear analog neurons are shown to be extremely effective in computing. The networks can rapidly provide a collectively-computed solution (a digital output) to a problem on the basis of analog input information. The...

A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling

Randall E. Schumacker, Richard G. Lomax

An axiomatic basis for computer programming

In this paper an attempt is made to explore the logical foundations of computer programming by use of techniques which were first applied in the study of geometry and have later been extended to other branches of mathematics. This involves the elucidation...

Face recognition using eigenfaces

An approach to the detection and identification of human faces is presented, and a working, near-real-time face recognition system which tracks a subject's head and then recognizes the person by comparing characteristics of the face to those of known...

An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks

This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium-access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application...

Building a large annotated corpus of English: the penn treebank

Mitchell P. Marcus, Mary Ann Marcinkiewicz, Beatrice Santorini

CONDENSATION—Conditional Density Propagation for Visual Tracking

The problem of tracking curves in dense visual clutter is challenging. Kalman filtering is inadequate because it is based on Gaussian densities which, being unimodal, cannot represent simultaneous alternative hypothe- ses. The Condensation algorithm uses...

A study of cross-validation and bootstrap for accuracy estimation and model selection

We review accuracy estimation methods and compare the two most common methods crossvalidation and bootstrap. Recent experimental results on artificial data and theoretical re cults in restricted settings have shown that for selecting a good classifier...

The DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success: A Ten-Year Update

Ten years ago, we presented the DeLone and McLean Information Systems (IS) Success Model as a framework and model for measuring the complex-dependent variable in IS research. In this paper, we discuss many of the important IS success research contributions...

Bilateral filtering for gray and color images

Bilateral filtering smooths images while preserving edges, by means of a nonlinear combination of nearby image values. The method is noniterative, local, and simple. It combines gray levels or colors based on both their geometric closeness and their photometric...

A universal algorithm for sequential data compression

A universal algorithm for sequential data compression is presented. Its performance is investigated with respect to a nonprobabilistic model of constrained sources. The compression ratio achieved by the proposed universal code uniformly approaches the...

Space/time trade-offs in hash coding with allowable errors

In this paper trade-offs among certain computational factors in hash coding are analyzed. The paradigm problem considered is that of testing a series of messages one-by-one for membership in a given set of messages. Two new hash-coding methods are examined...

Item-based collaborative filtering recommendation algorithms

Badrul M. Sarwar, George Karypis, Joseph A. Konstan, John Riedl

Cognitive radio: making software radios more personal

Software radios are emerging as platforms for multiband multimode personal communications systems. Radio etiquette is the set of RF bands, air interfaces, protocols, and spatial and temporal patterns that moderate the use of the radio spectrum. Cognitive...

Fast and robust fixed-point algorithms for independent component analysis

Independent component analysis (ICA) is a statistical method for transforming an observed multidimensional random vector into components that are statistically as independent from each other as possible. We use a combination of two different approaches...

On the criteria to be used in decomposing systems into modules

This paper discusses modularization as a mechanism for improving the flexibility and comprehensibility of a system while allowing the shortening of its development time. The effectiveness of a “modularization” is dependent upon the criteria used in...

Differential Power Analysis

Cryptosystem designers frequently assume that secrets will be manipulated in closed, reliable computing environments. Unfortunately, actual computers and microchips leak information about the operations they process. This paper examines specific methods...

Beyond Bags of Features: Spatial Pyramid Matching for Recognizing Natural Scene Categories

This paper presents a method for recognizing scene categories based on approximate global geometric correspondence. This technique works by partitioning the image into increasingly fine sub-regions and computing histograms of local features found inside...

Regression Analysis of Count Data

Students in both social and natural sciences often seek regression methods to explain the frequency of events, such as visits to a doctor, auto accidents, or new patents awarded. This book, now in its second edition, provides the most comprehensive and...

Flows in Networks

In this classic book, first published in 1962, L. R. Ford, Jr., and D. R. Fulkerson set the foundation for the study of network flow problems. The models and algorithms introduced in Flows in Networks are used widely today in the fields of transportation...

NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: a survey

Today's wireless networks are characterized by a fixed spectrum assignment policy. However, a large portion of the assigned spectrum is used sporadically and geographical variations in the utilization of assigned spectrum ranges from 15% to 85% with a...

Intelligence without representation

Brooks, R.A., Intelligence without representation, Artificial Intelligence 47 (1991) 139159. Artificial intelligence research has foundered on the issue of representation. When intelligence is approached in an incremental manner, with strict reliance...

Communicating sequential processes

This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When combined with a development of Dijkstra's guarded command,...

Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures

Hough has proposed an interesting and computationally efficient procedure for detecting lines in pictures. This paper points out that the use of angle-radius rather than slope-intercept parameters simplifies the computation further. It also shows how...

Robust Face Recognition via Sparse Representation

We consider the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise. We cast the recognition problem as one of classifying among multiple linear regression models...

Distributed Algorithms

In Distributed Algorithms, Nancy Lynch provides a blueprint for designing, implementing, and analyzing distributed algorithms. She directs her book at a wide audience, including students, programmers, system designers, and researchers.Distributed Algorithms...

k -anonymity: a model for protecting privacy

Consider a data holder, such as a hospital or a bank, that has a privately held collection of person-specific, field structured data. Suppose the data holder wants to share a version of the data with researchers. How can a data holder release a version...

Reinforcement learning: a survey

This paper surveys the field of reinforcement learning from a computer-science perspective. It is written to be accessible to researchers familiar with machine learning. Both the historical basis of the field and a broad selection of current work are...

EEGLAB: an open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics including independent component analysis

We have developed a toolbox and graphic user interface, EEGLAB, running under the crossplatform MATLAB environment (The Mathworks, Inc.) for processing collections of single-trial and/or averaged EEG data of any number of channels. Available functions...

Least Squares Support Vector Machine Classifiers

In this letter we discuss a least squares version for support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Due to equality type constraints in the formulation, the solution follows from solving a set of linear equations, instead of quadratic programming for classical...

GROMACS: A MESSAGE-PASSING PARALLEL MOLECULAR DYNAMICS IMPLEMENTATION

A parallel message-passing implementation of a molecular dynamics (MD) program that is useful for bio(macro)molecules in aqueous environment is described. The software has been developed for a custom-designed 32-processor ring GROMACS (GROningen MAchine...

Perturbation Methods

A. H. Nayfeh, Vimal Singh

A key-management scheme for distributed sensor networks

Distributed Sensor Networks (DSNs) are ad-hoc mobile networks that include sensor nodes with limited computation and communication capabilities. DSNs are dynamic in the sense that they allow addition and deletion of sensor nodes after deployment to grow...

Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN; The Art of Scientific Computing

From the Publisher:This is the revised and greatly expanded Second Edition of the hugely popular Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing. The product of a unique collaboration among four leading scientists in academic research and industry,...

Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts

We present a novel approach to measuring similarity between shapes and exploit it for object recognition. In our framework, the measurement of similarity is preceded by: (1) solving for correspondences between points on the two shapes; (2) using the correspondences...

Kernel-based object tracking

A new approach toward target representation and localization, the central component in visual tracking of nonrigid objects, is proposed. The feature histogram-based target representations are regularized by spatial masking with an isotropic kernel. The...

Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications

A fundamental problem in neural network research, as well as in many other disciplines, is finding a suitable representation of multivariate data, i.e. random vectors. For reasons of computational and conceptual simplicity, the representation is often...

The viterbi algorithm

The Viterbi algorithm (VA) is a recursive optimal solution to the problem of estimating the state sequence of a discrete-time finite-state Markov process observed in memoryless noise. Many problems in areas such as digital communications can be cast in...

An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets

Analysis and interpretation of functional MRI (fMRI) data have traditionally been based on identifying areas of significance on a thresholded statistical map of the entire imaged brain volume. This form of analysis can be likened to a “fishing expedition.”...

The Concept of a Linguistic Variable and its Application to Approximate Reasoning-I

By a linguistic variable we mean a variable whose values are words or sentences in a natural or artificial language. I:or example, Age is a linguistic variable if its values are linguistic rather than numerical, i.e., young, not young, very young, quite...

A review of current routing protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks

An ad hoc mobile network is a collection of mobile nodes that are dynamically and arbitrarily located in such a manner that the interconnections between nodes are capable of changing on a continual basis. In order to facilitate communication within the...

Performance of optical flow techniques

J.L. Barron, S. S. Beauchemin

Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: an idea whose time has come

The general technique of parallel transmission on many carriers, called multicarrier modulation (MCM), is explained. The performance that can be achieved on an undistorted channel and algorithms for achieving that performance are discussed. Ways of dealing...

BLEU: a method for automatic evaluation of machine translation

Human evaluations of machine translation are extensive but expensive. Human evaluations can take months to finish and involve human labor that can not be reused. We propose a method of automatic machine translation evaluation that is quick, inexpensive,...

GroupLens: an open architecture for collaborative filtering of netnews

Collaborative filters help people make choices based on the opinions of other people. GroupLens is a system for collaborative filtering of netnews, to help people find articles they will like in the huge stream of available articles. News reader clients...

Fast learning in networks of locally-tuned processing units

We propose a network architecture which uses a single internal layer of locally-tuned processing units to learn both classification tasks and real-valued function approximations (Moody and Darken 1988). We consider training such networks in a completely...

Pfinder: real-time tracking of the human body

Pfinder is a real-time system for tracking people and interpreting their behavior. It runs at 10 Hz on a standard SGI Indy computer, and has performed reliably on thousands of people in many different physical locations. The system uses a multiclass statistical...

Query by image and video content: the QBIC system

Research on ways to extend and improve query methods for image databases is widespread. We have developed the QBIC (Query by Image Content) system to explore content-based retrieval methods. QBIC allows queries on large image and video databases based...

Muiltiobjective optimization using nondominated sorting in genetic algorithms

In trying to solve multiobjective optimization problems, many traditional methods scalarize the objective vector into a single objective. In those cases, the obtained solution is highly sensitive to the weight vector used in the scalarization process...

Statistical and structural approaches to texture

In this survey we review the image processing literature on the various approaches and models investigators have used for texture. These include statistical approaches of autocorrelation function, optical transforms, digital transforms, textural edgeness,...

Training feedforward networks with the Marquardt algorithm

The Marquardt algorithm for nonlinear least squares is presented and is incorporated into the backpropagation algorithm for training feedforward neural networks. The algorithm is tested on several function approximation problems, and is compared with...

Statistical Comparisons of Classifiers over Multiple Data Sets

While methods for comparing two learning algorithms on a single data set have been scrutinized for quite some time already, the issue of statistical tests for comparisons of more algorithms on multiple data sets, which is even more essential to typical...

The R*-tree: an efficient and robust access method for points and rectangles

The R-tree, one of the most popular access methods for rectangles, is based on the heuristic optimization of the area of the enclosing rectangle in each inner node. By running numerous experiments in a standardized testbed under highly varying data, queries...

An introduction to efficiency and productivity analysis

The second edition of An Introduction to Efficiency and Productivity Analysis is designed to be a general introduction for those who wish to study efficiency and productivity analysis. The book provides an accessible, well-written introduction to the...

A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications

The spectrum sensing problem has gained new aspects with cognitive radio and opportunistic spectrum access concepts. It is one of the most challenging issues in cognitive radio systems. In this paper, a survey of spectrum sensing methodologies for cognitive...

Role-based access control models

Security administration of large systems is complex, but it can be simplified by a role-based access control approach. This article explains why RBAC is receiving renewed attention as a method of security administration and review, describes a framework...

An Introduction To Compressive Sampling

Conventional approaches to sampling signals or images follow Shannon's theorem: the sampling rate must be at least twice the maximum frequency present in the signal (Nyquist rate). In the field of data conversion, standard analog-to-digital converter...

A logic for default reasoning

The need to make default assumptions is frequently encountered in reasoning about incompletely specified worlds. Inferences sanctioned by default are best viewed as beliefs which may well be modified or rejected by subsequent observations. It is this...

Adaptive Filtering Prediction and Control

This unified survey focuses on linear discrete-time systems and explores the natural extensions to nonlinear systems. In keeping with the importance of computers to practical applications, the authors emphasize discrete-time systems. Their approach summarizes...

Untraceable electronic mail, return addresses, and digital pseudonyms

A technique based on public key cryptography is presented that allows an electronic mail system to hide who a participant communicates with as well as the content of the communication--in of an unsecured underlying telecommunication system. The technique...

The R Book

The high-level language of R is recognized as one of the most powerful and flexible statistical software environments, and is rapidly becoming the standard setting for quantitative analysis, statistics and graphics. R provides free access to unrivalled...

Markov Chains and Stochastic Stability

Meyn & Tweedie is back! The bible on Markov chains in general state spaces has been brought up to date to reflect developments in the field since 1996 - many of them sparked by publication of the first edition. The pursuit of more efficient simulation...

Gene Selection for Cancer Classification using Support Vector Machines

DNA micro-arrays now permit scientists to screen thousands of genes simultaneously and determine whether those genes are active, hyperactive or silent in normal or cancerous tissue. Because these new micro-array devices generate bewildering amounts of...

Concurrency control and recovery in database systems

Philip A. Bernstein, Vassco Hadzilacos, Nathan Goodman

Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms: a comparative case study and the strength Pareto approach

Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are often well-suited for optimization problems involving several, often conflicting objectives. Since 1985, various evolutionary approaches to multiobjective optimization have been developed that are capable of searching...

An introduction to Support Vector Machines

This book is the first comprehensive introduction to Support Vector Machines (SVMs), a new generation learning system based on recent advances in statistical learning theory. The book also introduces Bayesian analysis of learning and relates SVMs to Gaussian...

The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies.

The VideoToolbox is a free collection of two hundred C subroutines for Macintosh computers that calibrates and controls the computer-display interface to create accurately specified visual stimuli. High-level platform-independent languages like MATLAB...

Smalltalk-80: the language and its implementation

From the Preface (See Front Matter for full Preface)Advances in the design and production of computer hardware have brought many more people into direct contact with computers. Similar advances in the design and production of computer software are required...

Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

James Bailey, Latifur Khan, Takashi Washio, Gill Dobbie, Joshua Zhexue Huang, Ruili Wang

Computer and Robot Vision

From the Publisher:This two-volume set is an authoritative, comprehensive, modern work on computer vision that covers all of the different areas of vision with a balanced and unified approach. The discussion in "Volume I" focuses on image in, and image...

On Spectral Clustering: Analysis and an algorithm

Andrew Y. Ng, Michael I. Jordan, Yair Weiss

Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems

This book on scheduling covers theoretical models as well as scheduling problems in the real world. Author Michael Pinedo also includes a CD that contains slide-shows from industry and movies dealing with implementations of scheduling systems. The book...

Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1 Functional Specification

This memo describes version 1 of RSVP, a resource reservation setup protocol designed for an integrated services Internet. RSVP provides receiver-initiated setup of resource reservations for multicast or unicast data flows, with good scaling and robustness...

Cortical Surface-Based Analysis

Several properties of the cerebral cortex, including its columnar and laminar organization, as well as the topographic organization of cortical areas, can only be properly understood in the context of the intrinsic two-dimensional structure of the cortical...

Digital Control of Dynamic Systems

From the Publisher:This well-respected, market-leading text discusses the use of digital computers in the real-time control of dynamic systems. The emphasis is on the design of digital controls that achieve good dynamic response and small errors while...

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