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Dissecting self-renewal in stem cells with RNA interference

We present an integrated approach to identify genetic mechanisms that control self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem cells. We use short hairpin RNA (shRNA) loss-of-function techniques to downregulate a set of gene products whose expression patterns suggest...

Revealing the world of RNA interference

Craig C. Mello, Darryl Conte

Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example

Forest managers need a comprehensive scientific understanding of natural stand development processes when designing silvicultural systems that integrate ecological and economic objectives, including a better appreciation of the nature of disturbance regimes...

An evolutionarily conserved function of the Drosophila insulin receptor and insulin-like peptides in growth control

Background: Size regulation is fundamental in developing multicellular organisms and occurs through the control of cell number and cell size. Studies in Drosophila have identified an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that regulates organismal...

Gitelman's variant of Bartter's syndrome, inherited hypokalaemic alkalosis, is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter

David B. Simon, Carol Nelson-Williams, Margaret J. Bia, David H. Ellison, Fiona E. Karet, Antonio Molina, Ivar Vaara, Fujihiko Iwata, Howard M. Cushner, Marianne Koolen, F. J. Gainza, Hillel J. Gitelman, Richard P. Lifton

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome caused by mutations in the transcriptional co-activator CBP

Fred Petrif, Rachel H. Giles, Hans G. Dauwerse, Jasper J. Saris, Raoul C. M. Hennekam, Mitsuo Masuno, Niels Tommerup, Gert-Jan B. van Ommen, Richard H. Goodman, Dorien J.M. Peters, Martijn H. Breuning

Myogenic and morphogenetic defects in the heart tubes of murine embryos lacking the homeo box gene Nkx2-5.

Ian Lyons, Parsons Lm, Lynne Hartley, R Li, J E Andrews, Lorraine Robb, Richard P. Harvey

A mutant epidermal growth factor receptor common in human glioma confers enhanced tumorigenicity

Ryo Nishikawa, Xiangdong Ji, R. C. Harmon, C S Lazar, Gordon N. Gill, Webster K. Cavenee, H J Huang

Formation and activation of a cyclin E-cdk2 complex during the G1 phase of the human cell cycle

Human cyclin E, originally identified on the basis of its ability to function as a G1 cyclin in budding yeast, associated with a cell cycle-regulated protein kinase in human cells. The cyclin E-associated kinase activity peaked during G1, before the appearance...

Phosphorylated proteins as physiological effectors

A variety of neurotransmitters, hormones, and other regulatory agents affect the phosphorylation of specific proteins in their target tissues. The types of stimuli that share this common effect on protein phosphorylation include numerous substances that...

Targeting DNA double-strand breaks with TAL effector nucleases.

Engineered nucleases that cleave specific DNA sequences in vivo are valuable reagents for targeted mutagenesis. Here we report a new class of sequence-specific nucleases created by fusing transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to the catalytic...

Abscisic acid inhibits PP2Cs via the PYR/PYL family of ABA-binding START proteins

Summary—Analysis of a synthetic ABA agonist uncovers a new family of ABA binding proteins that control signal transduction by directly regulating the activity of type 2C protein phosphatases. —PP2Cs are vital phosphatases that play important roles...

A Distinct Pathway Remodels Mitochondrial Cristae and Mobilizes Cytochrome c during Apoptosis

The mechanism during apoptosis by which cytochrome c is rapidly and completely released in the absence of mitochondrial swelling is uncertain. Here, we show that two distinct pathways are involved. One mediates release of cytochrome c across the outer...

Common Developmental Requirement for Olig Function Indicates a Motor Neuron/Oligodendrocyte Connection

The oligodendrocyte lineage genes Olig1 and Olig2 encode related bHLH proteins that are coexpressed in neural progenitors. Targeted disruption of these two genes sheds light on the ontogeny of oligodendroglia and genetic requirements for their development...

Regulation of clock and NPAS2 DNA binding by the redox state of NAD cofactors.

Clock:BMAL1 and NPAS2:BMAL1 are heterodimeric transcription factors that control gene expression as a function of the light-dark cycle. Although built to fluctuate at or near a 24-hour cycle, the clock can be entrained by light, activity, or food. Here...

SMART: a web-based tool for the study of genetically mobile domains

SMART (a Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool) allows the identification and annotation of genetically mobile domains and the analysis of domain architectures (http://SMART.embl-heidelberg.de ). More than 400 domain families found in signalling,...

Low temperature regulation of theArabidopsisCBF family of AP2 transcriptional activators as an early step in cold‐inducedCORgene expression

Sarah J. Gilmour, Daniel G. Zarka, Eric J. Stockinger, Maite P. Salazar, Jaimie M. Houghton, Michael F. Thomashow

World atlas of desertification

Nick Middleton, David S.G. Thomas, United Nations Environment Programme

Reiterative use of the EGF receptor triggers differentiation of all cell types in the Drosophila eye.

The Drosophila eye has contributed much to our knowledge of cell differentiation. This understanding has primarily come from the study of the R7 photoreceptor; much less is known about the development of the other classes of photoreceptor or the nonneuronal...

Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins

Tyrosine-based signals within the cytoplasmic domain of integral membrane proteins mediate clathrin-dependent protein sorting in the endocytic and secretory pathways. A yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that bind to tyrosine-based...

Genetic mapping of a locus predisposing to human colorectal cancer

Genetic linkage analysis was used to determine whether a specific chromosomal locus could be implicated in families with a history of early onset cancer but with no other unique features. Close linkage of disease to anonymous microsatellite markers on...

Nucleotide sequence of a t(14;18) chromosomal breakpoint in follicular lymphoma and demonstration of a breakpoint-cluster region near a transcriptionally active locus on chromosome 18

The t(14;18)(q32;21) chromosomal translocation characteristic of follicular lymphomas is the most common cytogenetic abnormality known to be associated with any specific type of hematolymphoid malignancy. A fragment of DNA containing the crossover point...

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