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Biology

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Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers

T. D. Kocher, W K Thomas, Axel Meyer, Scott V. Edwards, Svante Pääbo, A C Wilson

Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: genetic analysis

Approximately 70 percent of the mutations in cystic fibrosis patients correspond to a specific deletion of three base pairs, which results in the loss of a phenylalanine residue at amino acid position 508 of the putative product of the cystic fibrosis...

Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals

Many species of birds and mammals are faithful to their natal and breeding site or group. In most of them one sex is more philopatric than the other. In birds it is usually females which disperse more than males; in mammals it is usually males which disperse...

World Reference Base for Soil Resources

Paul H. Driessen, Freddy Nachtergaele, O. C. Spaargaren, Jozef Seppe Deckers

Interaction of Estrogenic Chemicals and Phytoestrogens with Estrogen Receptor β

The rat, mouse and human estrogen receptor (ER) exists as two subtypes, ERα and ERβ, which differ in the C-terminal ligand-binding domain and in the N-terminal transactivation domain. In this study, we investigated the estrogenic activity of environmental...

Inositol phosphates and cell signalling

Michael J. Berridge, Robin F. Irvine

An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest.

The worldwide obesity epidemic is stimulating efforts to identify host and environmental factors that affect energy balance. Comparisons of the distal gut microbiota of genetically obese mice and their lean littermates, as well as those of obese and lean...

An Integrated Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in the Human Genome

Bradley E. Bernstein, Ewan Birney, Ian Dunham, Eric D. Green, Chris Gunter, Michael Snyder, Tim Hubbard

MicroRNA Gene Expression Deregulation in Human Breast Cancer

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by targeting mRNAs and triggering either translation repression or RNA degradation. Their aberrant expression may be involved in human diseases, including cancer. Indeed,...

Oxidative stress, caloric restriction and aging

Under normal physiological conditions, the use of oxygen by cells of aerobic organisms generates potentially deleterious reactive oxygen metabolites. A chronic state of oxidative stress exists in cells because of an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants....

Heritable true fitness and bright birds: a role for parasites?

Combination of seven surveys of blood parasites in North American passerines reveals weak, highly significant association over species between incidence of chronic blood infections (five genera of protozoa and one nematode) and striking display (three...

The systematic identification of flavonoids.

Tom J. Mabry, K. R. Markham, M. B. Thomas

A new regulatory motif in cell-cycle control causing specific inhibition of cyclin D/CDK4

THE division cycle of eukaryotic cells is regulated by a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The sequential activation of individual members of this family and their consequent phosphorylation of critical substrates...

Genome maintenance mechanisms for preventing cancer.

The early notion that cancer is caused by mutations in genes critical for the control of cell growth implied that genome stability is important for preventing oncogenesis. During the past decade, knowledge about the mechanisms by which genes erode and...

Cleavage of BID by Caspase 8 Mediates the Mitochondrial Damage in the Fas Pathway of Apoptosis

We report here that BID, a BH3 domain–containing proapoptotic Bcl2 family member, is a specific proximal substrate of Casp8 in the Fas apoptotic signaling pathway. While full-length BID is localized in cytosol, truncated BID (tBID) translocates to mitochondria...

Experimental quantum teleportation

D. Bouwmeester, Jian-Wei Pan, K. Mattle, Manfred Eibl, Harald Weinfurter, Anton Zeilinger

Gain-of-Function Mutations of c-kit in Human Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the human digestive tract, but their molecular etiology and cellular origin are unknown. Sequencing of c- kit complementary DNA, which encodes a proto-oncogenic receptor...

Tandem repeats finder: a program to analyze DNA sequences

A tandem repeat in DNA is two or more contiguous, approximate copies of a pattern of nucleotides. Tandem repeats have been shown to cause human disease, may play a variety of regulatory and evolutionary roles and are important laboratory and analytic...

NITRIC OXIDE AND MACROPHAGE FUNCTION

▪ Abstract At the interface between the innate and adaptive immune systems lies the high-output isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 or iNOS). This remarkable molecular machine requires at least 17 binding reactions to assemble a functional dimer....

PLANT CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR RESPONSES TO HIGH SALINITY

▪ Abstract Plant responses to salinity stress are reviewed with emphasis on molecular mechanisms of signal transduction and on the physiological consequences of altered gene expression that affect biochemical reactions downstream of stress sensing....

Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Based on Position-specific Scoring Matrices

A two-stage neural network has been used to predict protein secondary structure based on the position specific scoring matrices generated by PSI-BLAST. Despite the simplicity and convenience of the approach used, the results are found to be superior to...

How Matrix Metalloproteinases Regulate Cell Behavior

▪ Abstract The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a multigene family of over 25 secreted and cell surface enzymes that process or degrade numerous pericellular substrates. Their targets include other proteinases, proteinase inhibitors, clotting...

MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform

A multiple sequence alignment program, MAFFT, has been developed. The CPU time is drastically reduced as compared with existing methods. MAFFT includes two novel techniques. (i) Homologous regions are rapidly identified by the fast Fourier transform (FFT),...

Cancer-related inflammation.

Alberto Mantovani, Paola Allavena, Antonio Sica, Frances R. Balkwill

A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics

Quantum computers promise to increase greatly the efficiency of solving problems such as factoring large integers, combinatorial optimization and quantum physics simulation. One of the greatest challenges now is to implement the basic quantum-computational...

Expression monitoring by hybridization to high density oligonucleotide arrays

This invention provides methods of monitoring the expression levels of a multiplicity of genes. The methods involve hybridizing a nucleic acid sample to a high density array of oligonucleotide probes where the high density array contains oligonucleotide...

The 3′-Terminal Sequence of Escherichia coli 16S Ribosomal RNA: Complementarity to Nonsense Triplets and Ribosome Binding Sites

With a stepwise degradation and terminal labeling procedure the 3′-terminal sequence of E. coli 16S ribosomal RNA is shown to be Pyd-A-C-C-U-C-C-U-U-AOH. It is suggested that this region of the RNA is able to interact with mRNA and that the 3′-terminal...

Muscle Regeneration by Bone Marrow-Derived Myogenic Progenitors

Growth and repair of skeletal muscle are normally mediated by the satellite cells that surround muscle fibers. In regenerating muscle, however, the number of myogenic precursors exceeds that of resident satellite cells, implying migration or recruitment...

An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels.

Rigat B, Charles Hubert, François Alhenc-Gelas, François Cambien, Pierre Corvol, Florent Soubrier

A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding

Masamitsu Nakazato, Noboru Murakami, Yukari Date, Masayasu Kojima, Hisayuki Matsuo, Kenji Kangawa, Shigeru Matsukura

Self-Assembly at All Scales

Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. Self-assembling processes are common throughout nature and technology. They involve components from the molecular (crystals) to the planetary...

The 21-nucleotide let-7 RNA regulates developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans

Brenda J. Reinhart, Frank J. Slack, Michael Basson, Amy E. Pasquinelli, Jill C. Bettinger, Ann E. Rougvie, H. Robert Horvitz, Gary Ruvkun

Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review

Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing...

A comprehensive genetic map of the human genome based on 5,264 microsatellites.

Fauré S, Cécile Fizames, Samson D, Nathalie Drouot, Alain Vignal, Philippe Millasseau, Sophie Marc, Jamilé Hazan, Eric Seboun, Mark Lathrop, Gabor Gyapay, J. Morissette, Jean Weissenbach

Protein Structure Comparison by Alignment of Distance Matrices

With a rapidly growing pool of known tertiary structures, the importance of protein structure comparison parallels that of sequence alignment. We have developed a novel algorithm (DALI) for optimal pairwise alignment of protein structures. The three-dimensional...

Naturally arising CD4+ regulatory t cells for immunologic self-tolerance and negative control of immune responses.

▪ Abstract Naturally occurring CD4+ regulatory T cells, the majority of which express CD25, are engaged in dominant control of self-reactive T cells, contributing to the maintenance of immunologic self-tolerance. Their depletion or functional alteration...

Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ

Adipose tissue is a complex, essential, and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Besides adipocytes, adipose tissue contains connective tissue matrix, nerve tissue, stromovascular cells, and immune cells. Together these components function as...

SHAPE CONTROL OF CDSE NANOCRYSTALS

Xiaogang Peng, Liberato Manna, Weidong Yang, Juanita Wickham, Erik C. Scher, Andreas Kadavanich, A. P. Alivisatos

Parasitology Meets Ecology on Its Own Terms: Margolis et al. Revisited

Albert O. Bush, Kevin D. Lafferty, Jeffrey M. Lotz, A.W. Shostak

A safe operating space for humanity

The article presents a study that investigates on the importance of identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries to prevent human activities in affecting environmental condition. The author states the industrial revolution and advancement in human...

Abnormal blood vessel development and lethality in embryos lacking a single VEGF allele

Peter Carmeliet, Valérie Ferreira, Saskia Pollefeyt, Lena Kieckens, Marina Gertsenstein, M. Fahrig, Ann Vandenhoeck, Kendraprasad Harpal, Carmen Eberhardt, Lieve Moons, Désiré Collen, Werner Risau, Andras Nagy

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways Mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 Protein Kinases

Multicellular organisms have three well-characterized subfamilies of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that control a vast array of physiological processes. These enzymes are regulated by a characteristic phosphorelay system in which a series...

Bcl-2 functions in an antioxidant pathway to prevent apoptosis

SummaryBcl-2 inhibits most types of apoptotic cell death, implying a common mechanism of lethality. Bcl-2 is localized to intracellular sites of oxygen free radical generation including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticula, and nuclear membranes. Antioxidants...

Delayed neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampus following ischemia.

In the CA1 subfield of the gerbil hippocampus, an unusual series of changes were noticed after ischemia. Mongolian gerbils were subjected to bilateral carotid occlusion for 5 min. Perfusion fixation was performed 3, 6 and 12 h or 1, 2, 4, 7 and 21 days...

Orexins and Orexin Receptors: A Family of Hypothalamic Neuropeptides and G Protein-Coupled Receptors that Regulate Feeding Behavior

The hypothalamus plays a central role in the integrated control of feeding and energy homeostasis. We have identified two novel neuropeptides, both derived from the same precursor by proteolytic processing, that bind and activate two closely related (previously)...

Mutations in the p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene: Clues to Cancer Etiology and Molecular Pathogenesis

Marc S. Greenblatt, William P. Bennett, Michael Hollstein, Curtis C. Harris

Identification of c-MYC as a target of the APC pathway

The adenomatous polyposis coli gene ( APC ) is a tumor suppressor gene that is inactivated in most colorectal cancers. Mutations of APC cause aberrant accumulation of β-catenin, which then binds T cell factor–4 (Tcf-4), causing increased transcriptional...

SINGLE CELL GEL/COMET ASSAY: GUIDELINES FOR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO GENETIC TOXICOLOGY TESTING

Tice Rr, E. Agurell, D. Anderson, B. Burlinson, H. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamae, Jae-Myoung Ryu, Yu F Sasaki

Mutation in blood coagulation factor V associated with resistance to activated protein C.

Rogier M. Bertina, Bobby P.C. Koeleman, Richard J. Dirven, Hans De Ronde, Pieter A. van der Velden, Pieter H. Reitsma

Somatic generation of antibody diversity

This chapter reviews the somatic generation of antibody diversity. It was shown that a typical antibody molecule is composed of two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains. It had also been found that each of these two types of chain exhibits...

Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data

Prediction of species' distributions is central to diverse applications in ecology, evolution and conservation science. There is increasing electronic access to vast sets of occurrence records in museums and herbaria, yet little effective guidance on...

A gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human melanoma

Many human melanoma tumors express antigens that are recognized in vitro by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) derived from the tumor-bearing patient. A gene was identified that directed the expression of antigen MZ2-E on a human melanoma cell line. This...

Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA.

Lisa A. Matsuda, Stephen J. Lolait, Michael J. Brownstein, Alice C. Young, Tom I. Bonner

Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription by hypoxia-inducible factor 1.

Janice Forsythe, Biao Jiang, Narayan V. Iyer, Faton A. Agani, S W Leung, Robert D. Koos, Gregg L Semenza

Homozygous Defect in HIV-1 Coreceptor Accounts for Resistance of Some Multiply-Exposed Individuals to HIV-1 Infection

Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4 + T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophage-tropic virus but are readily infectable...

Genome-Wide Insertional Mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana

Over 225,000 independent Agrobacterium transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion events in the genome of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been created that represent near saturation of the gene space. The precise locations were determined for more...

Summaries of Affymetrix GeneChip probe level data

High density oligonucleotide array technology is widely used in many areas of biomedical research for quantitative and highly parallel measurements of gene expression. Affymetrix GeneChip arrays are the most popular. In this technology each gene is typically...

GETTING STARTED WITH YEAST

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is recognized as an ideal eukaryotic microorganism for biological studies. Although yeasts have greater genetic complexity than bacteria, they share many of the technical advantages that permitted rapid progress in...

A haplotype map of the human genome

Inherited genetic variation has a critical but as yet largely uncharacterized role in human disease. Here we report a public database of common variation in the human genome: more than one million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for which accurate...

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Proteolytic Pathway: Destruction for the Sake of Construction

Between the 1960s and 1980s, most life scientists focused their attention on studies of nucleic acids and the translation of the coded information. Protein degradation was a neglected area, considered to be a nonspecific, dead-end process. Although it...

High-resolution profiling of histone methylations in the human genome

SummaryHistone modifications are implicated in influencing gene expression. We have generated high-resolution maps for the genome-wide distribution of 20 histone lysine and arginine methylations as well as histone variant H2A.Z, RNA polymerase II, and...

An Antidiabetic Thiazolidinedione Is a High Affinity Ligand for Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ)

Jürgen M. Lehmann, Linda B. Moore, Tracey Smith-Oliver, William O. Wilkison, Timothy M. Willson, Steven A. Kliewer

Rab proteins as membrane organizers

Marino Zerial, Heidi M. McBride

Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome

Shigetada Furukawa, Takuya Fujita, Michio Shimabukuro, Masanori Iwaki, Yukio Yamada, Yoshimitsu Nakajima, Osamu Nakayama, Makoto Makishima, Morihiro Matsuda, Iichiro Shimomura

[21] Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction

This chapter discusses the specific synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in vitro through the medium of a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction. A method whereby a nucleic acid sequence can be exponentially amplified in vitro is described in the...

Exaptation; a missing term in the science of form

Adaptation has been defined and recognized by two different criteria: historical genesis (fea- tures built by natural selection for their present role) and current utility (features now enhancing fitness no matter how they arose). Biologists have often...

Normal keratinization in a spontaneously immortalized aneuploid human keratinocyte cell line.

Petra Boukamp, Petrussevska Rt, Dirk Breitkreutz, Jean-Pierre Hornung, A F Markham, Norbert E. Fusenig

Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8.

Double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) serves as a danger signal associated with viral infection and leads to stimulation of innate immune cells. In contrast, the immunostimulatory potential of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) is poorly understood and innate...

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL APOPTOSIS- INDUCING FACTOR

Santos A. Susin, Hans K. Lorenzo, Naoufal Zamzami, Isabel Marzo, Bryan E. Snow, Joan Mangion, Etienne Jacotot, Paola Costantini, Markus Loeffler, Nathanael Larochette, David R. Goodlett, Ruedi Aebersold, David P. Siderovski, Josef M. Penninger, Guido Kroemer

A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses

Recombinant adenoviruses provide a versatile system for gene expression studies and therapeutic applications. We report herein a strategy that simplifies the generation and production of such viruses. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid is generated with...

Apaf-1, a Human Protein Homologous to C. elegans CED-4, Participates in Cytochrome c-Dependent Activation of Caspase-3

We report here the purification and cDNA cloning of Apaf-1, a novel 130 kd protein from HeLa cell cytosol that participates in the cytochrome c–dependent activation of caspase-3. The NH 2 -terminal 85 amino acids of Apaf-1 show 21% identity and 53%...

Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness

Species richness is a fundamental measurement of community and regional diversity, and it underlies many ecological models and conservation strategies. In spite of its importance, ecologists have not always appreciated the effects of abundance and sampling...

Plant Productivity and Environment

An analysis of major U.S. crops shows that there is a large genetic potential for yield that is unrealized because of the need for better adaptation of the plants to the environments in which they are grown. Evidence from native populations suggests that...

dbSNP: the NCBI database of genetic variation

In response to a need for a general catalog of genome variation to address the large-scale sampling designs required by association studies, gene mapping and evolutionary biology, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) has established...

HOW CELLS RESPOND TO INTERFERONS

▪ Abstract Interferons play key roles in mediating antiviral and antigrowth responses and in modulating immune response. The main signaling pathways are rapid and direct. They involve tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of signal transducers and...

Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-|[beta]| family signalling

Transforming growth factor- (TGF-) proteins regulate cell function, and have key roles in development and carcinogenesis. The intracellular effectors of TGF- signalling, the Smad proteins, are activated by receptors and translocate into the nucleus, where...

Cell cycle analysis of a cell proliferation-associated human nuclear antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67.

Johannes Gerdes, Hilmar Lemke, H. Baisch, Wacker Hh, Ulrich Schwab, Harald Stein

Bcl-2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death.

Hockenbery Dm, Gabriel Núñez, Curt L. Milliman, Schreiber Rd, Korsmeyer Sj

Molecular computation of solutions to combinatorial problems

The tools of molecular biology were used to solve an instance of the directed Hamiltonian path problem. A small graph was encoded in molecules of DNA, and the "operations" of the computation were performed with standard protocols and enzymes. This experiment...

Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

Background Intratumor heterogeneity may foster tumor evolution and adaptation and hinder personalized-medicine strategies that depend on results from single tumor-biopsy samples. Methods To examine intratumor heterogeneity, we performed exome sequencing,...

Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture, SILAC, as a Simple and Accurate Approach to Expression Proteomics

Quantitative proteomics has traditionally been performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, but recently, mass spectrometric methods based on stable isotope quantitation have shown great promise for the simultaneous and automated identification and...

Porosity of 3D biomaterial scaffolds and osteogenesis.

Porosity andpore size of biomaterial scaffolds play a critical role in bone formation in vitro andin vivo. This review explores the state of knowledge regarding the relationship between porosity and pore size of biomaterials used for bone regeneration....

Direct gene transfer into mouse muscle in vivo

RNA and DNA expression vectors containing genes for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, luciferase, and beta-galactosidase were separately injected into mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. Protein expression was readily detected in all cases, and no special...

Absolute quantification of mRNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays

The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most sensitive method for the detection of low-abundance mRNA, often obtained from limited tissue samples. However, it is a com- plex technique, there are substantial problems associated...

Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks

The recent positional cloning of the mouse ob gene and its human homology has provided the basis to investigate the potential role of the ob gene product in body weight regulation. A biologically active form of recombinant mouse OB protein was overexpressed...

KERNEL METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE UTILIZATION DISTRIBUTION IN HOME-RANGE STUDIES'

In this paper kernel methods for the nonparametric estimation of the uti- lization distribution from a random sample of locational observations made on an animal in its home range are described. They are of flexible form, thus can be used where simple...

Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications.

Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (9.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. 407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477Images...

Unidirectional digestion with exonuclease III creates targeted breakpoints for DNA sequencing

A method is described for the rapid generation and cloning of deletion derivatives well-suited for the sequencing of long stretches of DNA. This method is based on two useful features of exonuclease III: (1) processive digestion at a very uniform rate...

Multilocus sequence typing: A portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms

Martin C. J. Maiden, Jane A. Bygraves, Edward J. Feil, Giovanna Morelli, Joanne E. Russell, Rachel Urwin, Qing Zhang, Jiaji Zhou, Kerstin Zurth, Dominique A. Caugant, Ian M. Feavers, Mark Achtman, Brian G. Spratt

Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2.

Pamela J. Bjorkman, Mark A. Saper, B. Samraoui, W.S Bennett, Jack L. Strominger, D. C. Wiley

Lethality and centrality in protein networks

: In this paper we present the first mathematical analysis of the protein interaction network found in the yeast, S. cerevisiae. We show that, (a) the identified protein network display a characteristic scale-free topology that demonstrate striking similarity...

Reactive oxygen gene network of plants

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) control many different processes in plants. However, being toxic molecules, they are also capable of injuring cells. How this conflict is resolved in plants is largely unknown. Nonetheless, it is clear that the steady-state...

Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation

SUMMARY Both the magnitude and the urgency of the task of assessing global biodiversity require that we make the most of what we know through the use of estimation and extrapolation. Likewise, future biodiversity inventories need to be designed around...

Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems

Marten Scheffer, Steve Carpenter, Jonathan A. Foley, Carl Folke, Brian R. Walker

Sap Pressure in Vascular Plants

A method is described which permits measurement of sap pressure in the xylem of vascular plants. As long predicted, sap pressures during transpiration are normally negative, ranging from -4 or -5 atmospheres in a damp forest to -80 atmospheres in the...

METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF STREPTOMYCES SPECIES

The methods used by collaborators in the International Streptomyces Project (ISP) for emendation of descriptions of type and neotype strains of the genus Streptomyces (Actinomycetales) are presented.

THE EPIGENOMICS OF CANCER

Peter A. Jones, Stephen B. Baylin

Gene Action in the X-chromosome of the Mouse (Mus musculus L.)

Gene Action in the X-chromosome of the Mouse (Mus musculus L.)

Selective Colorimetric Detection of Polynucleotides Based on the Distance-Dependent Optical Properties of Gold Nanoparticles

A highly selective, colorimetric polynucleotide detection method based on mercaptoalkyloligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticle probes is reported. Introduction of a single-stranded target oligonucleotide (30 bases) into a solution containing the appropriate...

Human microRNA genes are frequently located at fragile sites and genomic regions involved in cancers

A large number of tiny noncoding RNAs have been cloned and named microRNAs (miRs). Recently, we have reported that

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