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A biomarker that identifies senescent human cells in culture and in aging skin in vivo.

Lee X, Basile G, Acosta M, Scott G, Medrano Ee, Olivia M. Pereira-Smith

Posttranscriptional regulation of the heterochronic gene lin-14 by lin-4 mediates temporal pattern formation in C. elegans

During C. elegans development, the temporal pattern of many cell lineages is specified by graded activity of the heterochronic gene Lin-14. Here we demonstrate that a temporal gradient in Lin-14 protein is generated posttranscriptionally by multiple elements...

Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices

The emerging field of plasmonics has yielded methods for guiding and localizing light at the nanoscale, well below the scale of the wavelength of light in free space. Now plasmonics researchers are turning their attention to photovoltaics, where design...

Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance

The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cellular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits...

Proapoptotic BAX and BAK: A Requisite Gateway to Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Death

Multiple death signals influence mitochondria during apoptosis, yet the critical initiating event for mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo has been unclear. tBID, the caspase-activated form of a “BH3-domain–only” BCL-2 family member, triggers the homooligomerization...

BIOTIC INVASIONS: CAUSES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, GLOBAL CONSEQUENCES, AND CONTROL

Biotic invaders are species that establish a new range in which they proliferate, spread, and persist to the detriment of the environment. They are the most important ecological outcomes from the unprecedented alterations in the distribution of the earth's...

Interleukin 17-producing CD4 + effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages

Laurie E. Harrington, Paul Mangan, Henrietta Turner, Theresa L. Murphy, Kenneth M. Murphy, Casey T. Weaver

Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.

Robert G. Webster, William J. Bean, Owen T. Gorman, Thomas M. Chambers, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

SALT AND DROUGHT STRESS SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN PLANTS

▪ Abstract Salt and drought stress signal transduction consists of ionic and osmotic homeostasis signaling pathways, detoxification (i.e., damage control and repair) response pathways, and pathways for growth regulation. The ionic aspect of salt stress...

Novel Proteinaceous Infectious Particles Cause Scrapie

After infection and a prolonged incubation period, the scrapie agent causes a degenerative disease of the central nervous system in sheep and goats. Six lines of evidence including sensitivity to proteases demonstrate that this agent contains a protein...

Novel regulators of bone formation: molecular clones and activities

Protein extracts derived from bone can initiate the process that begins with cartilage formation and ends in de novo bone formation. The critical components of this extract, termed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), that direct cartilage and bone formation...

Multiferroic and magnetoelectric materials

W. Eerenstein, N. D. Mathur, J. F. Scott

Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance

Insulin resistance arises from the inability of insulin to act normally in regulating nutrient metabolism in peripheral tissues. Increasing evidence from human population studies and animal research has established correlative as well as causative links...

Embedding in Epoxy Resins for Ultrathin Sectioning in Electron Microscopy

Fixed tissue is dehydrated with tertiary butyl alcohol overnight. The following day it is cleared in toluene, infiltrated and embedded in Araldite resin-hardener-accelerator mixture without dibutyl phthalate, and polymerized at 60° C. More rapid than...

Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies

Population stratification—allele frequency differences between cases and controls due to systematic ancestry differences—can cause spurious associations in disease studies. We describe a method that enables explicit detection and correction of population...

The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity.

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27, where the gene encoding adiponectin is located. Here we show that decreased expression...

Prediction of Complete Gene Structures in Human Genomic DNA

We introduce a general probabilistic model of the gene structure of human genomic sequences which incorporates descriptions of the basic transcriptional, translational and splicing signals, as well as length distributions and compositional features of...

Tumor suppressor p53 is a direct transcriptional activator of the human bax gene

The bax gene promoter region contains four motifs with homology to consensus p53-binding sites. In co-transfection assays using p53-deficient tumor cell lines, wild-type but not mutant p53 expression plasmids transactivated a reporter gene plasmid that...

CD14, a receptor for complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein.

Leukocytes respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at nanogram per milliliter concentrations with secretion of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Excess secretion of TNF-alpha causes endotoxic shock, an often fatal complication of...

Parent-Offspring Conflict

during the period of parental care, and offspring are expected to employ psychological weapons in order to compete with their parents. Detailed data on mother-offspring relations in mammals are consistent with the arguments presented. Conflict in some...

Apolipoprotein E: cholesterol transport protein with expanding role in cell biology

Apolipoprotein E is a plasma protein that serves as a ligand for low density lipoprotein receptors and, through its interaction with these receptors, participates in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids among various cells of the body. A mutant...

Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage.

Musculoskeletal tissue, bone and cartilage are under extensive investigation in tissue engineering research. A number of biodegradable and bioresorbable materials, as well as scaffold designs, have been experimentally and/or clinically studied. Ideally,...

The Molecular Biology of Axon Guidance

Neuronal growth cones navigate over long distances along specific pathways to find their correct targets. The mechanisms and molecules that direct this pathfinding are the topics of this review. Growth cones appear to be guided by at least four different...

Identification and Expression Cloning of a Leptin Receptor, OB-R

Louis A. Tartaglia, Marlene Dembski, Xun Weng, Nanhua Deng, Janice A. Culpepper, Rene Devos, Grayson Richards, L. Arthur Campfield, Frederick T. Clark, Jim Deeds, Craig Muir, Sean Sanker, Ann Moriarty, Karen J. Moore, John S. Smutko, Gail G. Mays, Elizabeth A. Wool, Cheryl A. Monroe, Robert I. Tepper

Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells

Exosomes are vesicles of endocytic origin released by many cells. These vesicles can mediate communication between cells, facilitating processes such as antigen presentation. Here, we show that exosomes from a mouse and a human mast cell line (MC/9 and...

Rho GTPases in cell biology

Sandrine Etienne-Manneville, Alan Hall

A microRNA expression signature of human solid tumors defines cancer gene targets

Stefano Volinia, George A. Calin, Chang-Gong Liu, Stefan Ambs, Amelia Cimmino, Fabio Petrocca, Rosa Visone, Marilena V. Iorio, Claudia Roldo, Manuela Ferracin, Robyn L. Prueitt, Nozumu Yanaihara, Giovanni Lanza, Aldo Scarpa, Andrea Vecchione, Massimo Negrini, Curtis C. Harris, Carlo M. Croce

Failure of blood-island formation and vasculogenesis in Flk-1-deficient mice.

Fouad Shalaby, Janet Rossant, Terry P. Yamaguchi, Marina Gertsenstein, Xiang-Fu Wu, Martin L. Breitman, Andre C. Schuh

SPECIES ASSEMBLAGES AND INDICATOR SPECIES:THE NEED FOR A FLEXIBLE ASYMMETRICAL APPROACH

This paper presents a new and simple method to find indicator species and species assemblages characterizing groups of sites. The novelty of our approach lies in the way we combine a species relative abundance with its relative frequency of occurrence...

A Map of Human Genome Variation from Population Scale Sequencing

The 1000 Genomes Project aims to provide a deep characterization of human genome sequence variation as a foundation for investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Here we present results of the pilot phase of the project, designed...

Genetic Dissection of Complex Traits

Medical genetics was revolutionized during the 1980s by the application of genetic mapping to locate the genes responsible for simple Mendelian diseases. Most diseases and traits, however, do not follow simple inheritance patterns. Genetics have thus...

Characteristics of a human cell line transformed by DNA from human adenovirus type 5.

SummaryHuman embryonic kidney cells have been transformed by exposing cells to sheared fragments of adenovirus type 5 DNA. The transformed cells (designated 293 cells) exhibited many of the characteristics of transformation including the elaboration of...

Caspases: the executioners of apoptosis

Apoptosis is a major form of cell death, characterized initially by a series of stereotypic morphological changes. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , the gene ced-3 encodes a protein required for developmental cell death. Since the recognition that...

Relative expression software tool (REST©) for group-wise comparison and statistical analysis of relative expression results in real-time PCR

Real-time reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) is the most suitable method for the detection and quantification of mRNA. It offers high sensitivity, good reproducibility and a wide quantification range. Today, relative...

The large-scale organization of metabolic networks.

Hawoong Jeong, B. Tombor, Réka Albert, Zoltán N. Oltvai, A.-L. Barabási

CHROMOSOME PREPARATIONS OF LEUKOCYTES CULTURED FROM HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD

Paul S. Moorhead, D.M. Battips, David A. Hungerford

Cloning of a gene bearing missense mutations in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease.

Some cases of Alzheimer's disease are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Genetic linkage studies have mapped a locus (AD3) associated with susceptibility to a very aggressive form of Alzheimer's disease to chromosome 14q24.3. We have defined a...

Naturally secreted oligomers of amyloid |[beta]| protein potently inhibit hippocampal long-term potentiation in vivo

Dominic M. Walsh, Igor Klyubin, Julia V. Fadeeva, William K. Cullen, Roger Anwyl, Michael S. Wolfe, Michael J. Rowan, Dennis J. Selkoe

The plant immune system

Jonathan D. G. Jones, Jeffery L. Dangl

Network Motifs: Simple Building Blocks of Complex Networks

Complex networks are studied across many fields of science. To uncover their structural design principles, we defined “network motifs,” patterns of interconnections occurring in complex networks at numbers that are significantly higher than those...

PLAQUE FORMATION AND ISOLATION OF PURE LINES WITH POLIOMYELITIS VIRUSES

Plaques have been produced with the three types of poliomyelitis viruses on monolayer tissue cultures of monkey kidney and monkey testis. The number of plaques was proportional to the concentration of the virus. Each plaque originates, therefore, from...

On the number of segregating sites in genetical models without recombination.

The distribution is obtained for the number of segregating sites observed in a sample from a population which is subject to recurring, new, mutations but not subject to recombination. After allowance is made for the different effective population sizes,...

Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action

Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin’s beneficial effects...

Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets

Therese Sørlie, Robert Tibshirani, Joel S. Parker, Trevor Hastie, J. S. Marron, Andrew B. Nobel, Shibing Deng, Hilde Johnsen, Robert Pesich, Stephanie Geisler, Janos Demeter, Charles M. Perou, Per Eystein Lønning, Patrick O. Brown, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, David Botstein

Revised American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the publication of the American Thyroid Association's guidelines for the management of these disorders was published...

Lead-free piezoceramics

Yasuyoshi Saito, Hisaaki Takao, Tatsuhiko Nonoyama, Kazumasa Takatori, Toshiatsu Nagaya, Masaya Nakamura

Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants

Terry L. Root, Jeff T. Price, Kimberly R. Hall, Stephen H. Schneider, Cynthia Rosenzweig, J. Alan Pounds

IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation

Claire L. Langrish, Yi Chen, Wendy M. Blumenschein, Jeanine D. Mattson, Beth Basham, Jonathan D. Sedgwick, Terrill McClanahan, Robert A. Kastelein, Daniel J. Cua

A National Cancer Institute Workshop on Microsatellite Instability for Cancer Detection and Familial Predisposition: Development of International Criteria for the Determination of Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal Cancer

In December 1997, the National Cancer Institute sponsored “The International Workshop on Microsatellite Instability and RER Phenotypes in Cancer Detection and Familial Predisposition,” to review and unify the field. The following recommendations were...

Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases

Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with complex human diseases and traits, and have provided valuable insights into their genetic architecture. Most variants identified so far confer relatively small...

Comparative physiology of salt and water stress

Plant responses to salt and water stress have much in common. Salinity reduces the ability of plants to take up water, and this quickly causes reductions in growth rate, along with a suite of metabolic changes identical to those caused by water stress....

Immunization with amyloid-beta attenuates Alzheimer-disease-like pathology in the PDAPP mouse

Dale Schenk, Robin Barbour, W R Dunn, Grace Gordon, Henry Grajeda, Teresa Guido, Kang Hu, Jiping Huang, Kelly Johnson-Wood, Karen Khan, Dora Kholodenko, Mike Lee, Zhenmei Liao, Ivan Lieberburg, Ruth Motter, L. C. Mutter, Ferdie Soriano, George M. Shopp, Nicki Vasquez, Christopher Vandevert, Shannan Walker, Mark Wogulis, Ted A. Yednock, Dora Games, Peter Seubert

Cellular Motility Driven by Assembly and Disassembly of Actin Filaments

Motile cells extend a leading edge by assembling a branched network of actin filaments that produces physical force as the polymers grow beneath the plasma membrane. A core set of proteins including actin, Arp2/3 complex, profilin, capping protein, and...

Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents

Matthias H. Tschöp, David L. Smiley, Mark L. Heiman

Recognition of Commensal Microflora by Toll-Like Receptors Is Required for Intestinal Homeostasis

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in host defense against microbial infection. The microbial ligands recognized by TLRs are not unique to pathogens, however, and are produced by both pathogenic and commensal microorganisms. It is thought...

Molecular evolution and phylogenetics.

Masatoshi Nei, Sudhir Kumar

Design and synthesis of an exceptionally stable and highly porous metal-organic framework

Hailian Li, Mohamed Eddaoudi, Michael O'Keeffe, Omar M. Yaghi

A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition.

Summary The mammalian olfactory system can recognize and discriminate a large number of different odorant molecules. The detection of chemically distinct odorants presumably results from the association of odorous Ugands with specific receptors on olfactory...

The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus

Angus G. Dalgleish, Peter C. L. Beverley, Paul R. Clapham, Melvyn F. Greaves, Robin A. Weiss

Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants

Various chronic antidepressant treatments increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, using genetic and radiological methods, we show that disrupting antidepressantinduced neurogenesis...

CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Graham D. Farquhar, and J R Ehleringer, K. T. Hubick

Motor neuron degeneration in mice that express a human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase mutation

Mutations of human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) are found in about 20 percent of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Expression of high levels of human SOD containing a substitution of glycine to alanine at position 93--a change...

Dietary Modulation of the Human Colonic Microbiota: Introducing the Concept of Prebiotics

Prebiotics are non-digestible (by the host) food ingredients that have a beneficial effect through their selective metabolism in the intestinal tract. Key to this is the specificity of microbial changes. The present paper reviews the concept in terms...

Calcium signalling: dynamics, homeostasis and remodelling

Ca 2+ is a highly versatile intracellular signal that operates over a wide temporal range to regulate many different cellular processes. An extensive Ca 2+ -signalling toolkit is used to assemble signalling systems with very different spatial and temporal...

Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems

Ecological extinction caused by overfishing precedes all other pervasive human disturbance to coastal ecosystems, including pollution, degradation of water quality, and anthropogenic climate change. Historical abundances of large consumer species were...

Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity

Heterogeneity of the macrophage lineage has long been recognized and, in part, is a result of the specialization of tissue macrophages in particular microenvironments. Circulating monocytes give rise to mature macrophages and are also heterogeneous themselves,...

The Glut athione S-Transferase Supergene Family: Regulation of GST and the Contribution of the lsoenzymes to Cancer Chemoprotection and Drug Resistance Part I

The glutathione S-transferases (GST) represent a major group of detoxification enzymes. All eukaryotic species possess multiple cytosolic and membrane-bound GST isoenzymes, each of which displays distinct catalytic as well as noncatalytic binding properties:...

Targeting the DNA repair defect in BRCA mutant cells as a therapeutic strategy

Targeting the DNA repair defect in BRCA mutant cells as a therapeutic strategy BRCA1 and BRCA2 are important for DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination(1), and mutations in these genes predispose to breast and other cancers(2). Poly(ADP-...

Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation.

The molecular details of mammalian stress-activated signal transduction pathways have only begun to be dissected. This, despite the fact that the impact of these pathways on the pathology of chronic inflammation, heart disease, stroke, the debilitating...

HUMAN ALTERATION OF THE GLOBAL NITROGEN CYCLE: SOURCES AND CONSEQUENCES

SUMMARY Human activities are greatly increasing the amount of nitrogen cycling between the living world and the soil, water, and atmosphere. In fact, humans have already doubled the rate of nitrogen entering the land-based nitrogen cycle, and that rate...

The Ecological Role of Water-Column Microbes in the Sea*

Recently developed techniques for estimating bacterial biomass and productivity indicate that bacterial biomass in the sea is related to phytoplankton concentration and that bacteria utilise 10 to 50 % of carbon fixed by photosynthesis. Evidence is presented...

The Human Genome Browser at UCSC

W. James Kent, Charles W. Sugnet, Terrence S. Furey, Krishna M. Roskin, Thomas H. Pringle, Alan M. Zahler, and David Haussler

Point mutations define a sequence flanking the AUG initiator codon that modulates translation by eukaryotic ribosomes

By analyzing the effects of single base substitutions around the ATG initiator codon in a cloned preproinsulin gene, I have identified ACCATGG as the optimal sequence for initiation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Mutations within that sequence modulate the...

Oncogenic ras Provokes Premature Cell Senescence Associated with Accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a

Oncogenic ras can transform most immortal rodent cells to a tumorigenic state. However, transformation of primary cells by ras requires either a cooperating oncogene or the inactivation of tumor suppressors such as p53 or p16. Here we show that expression...

Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors.

Kenji Nomura, Hiromichi Ohta, Akihiro Takagi, Toshio Kamiya, Masahiro Hirano, Hideo Hosono

The versatility and universality of calcium signalling

The universality of calcium as an intracellular messenger depends on its enormous versatility. Cells have a calcium signalling toolkit with many components that can be mixed and matched to create a wide range of spatial and temporal signals. This versatility...

A comprehensive two-hybrid analysis to explore the yeast protein interactome

Protein‐protein interactions play crucial roles in the execution of various biological functions. Accordingly, their comprehensive description would contribute considerably to the functional interpretation of fully sequenced genomes, which are flooded...

Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping.

The detection of genes that control quantitative characters is a problem of great interest to the genetic mapping community. Methods for locating these quantitative trait loci (QTL) relative to maps of genetic markers are now widely used. This paper addresses...

Rapid and sensitive detection of point mutations and DNA polymorphisms using the polymerase chain reaction.

We report a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of base changes in given sequences of genomic DNA. This technique is based on the facts that specific regions of genomic sequences can be efficiently labeled and amplified simultaneously by using...

The p53 tumour suppressor gene.

Arnold J. Levine, Jamil Momand, Cathy A. Finlay

Principles of plant nutrition.

Konrad Mengel, E. A. Kirkby

Global Consequences of Land Use

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to...

Multiple sequence alignment with the Clustal series of programs

The Clustal series of programs are widely used in molecular biology for the multiple alignment of both nucleic acid and protein sequences and for preparing phylogenetic trees. The popularity of the programs depends on a number of factors, including not...

Transcript assembly and abundance estimation from RNA-Seq reveals thousands of new transcripts and switching among isoforms

High-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) holds the promise of simultaneous transcript discovery and abundance estimation 1-3 . We introduce an algorithm for transcript assembly coupled with a statistical model for RNA-Seq experiments that produces estimates...

An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III.

An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II

AN EVALUATION OF TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL INFECTION IN ROOTS

SUMMARY Assessment of infection is an essential part of many studies involving VA mycorrhiza. A summary is given of the range of techniques that have been used. We calculated the standard error of four methods of assessment based on observations of stained...

Model-based analysis of oligonucleotide arrays: Expression index computation and outlier detection

proper treatment of probe effects is an essential component of any approach to the analysis of such expression array data. Below, we introduce a statistical model for the probe-level data to account for probe-specific effects in the computation of expression...

Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein

Nathan C. Shaner, Robert E. Campbell, Paul Steinbach, Ben N. G. Giepmans, Amy E Palmer, Roger Y. Tsien

Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection

We have systematically made a set of precisely defined, single‐gene deletions of all nonessential genes in Escherichia coli K‐12. Open‐reading frame coding regions were replaced with a kanamycin cassette flanked by FLP recognition target sites by...

The small GTP-binding protein rac regulates growth factor-induced membrane ruffling

The function of rac, a ras-related GTP-binding protein, was investigated in fibroblasts by microinjection. In confluent serum-starved Swiss 3T3 cells, rac1 rapidly stimulated actin filament accumulation at the plasma membrane, forming membrane ruffles....

Inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers.

Inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers.

Ecological and Evolutionary Responses to Recent Climate Change

Ecological changes in the phenology and distribution of plants and animals are occurring in all well-studied marine, freshwater, and terrestrial groups. These observed changes are heavily biased in the directions predicted from global warming and have...

Ecological responses to recent climate

Eric Post, Peter Convey, Annette Menzel, Trevor J. C. Beebee, Jean-Marc Fromentin, Franz Bairlein

Amino acid metabolism in mammalian cell cultures.

Amino acid metabolism in mammalian cell cultures.

Microglia: a sensor for pathological events in the CNS

The most characteristic feature of microglial cells is their rapid activation in response to even minor pathological changes in the CNS. Microglia activation is a key factor in the defence of the neural parenchyma against infectious diseases, inflammation,...

REGULATION OF THE MEVALONATE PATHWAY

Joseph L. Goldstein, Michael S. Brown

Identification and characterization of a new member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis

A novel tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member has been cloned and characterized. This protein, designated TNF-related apoptosis-Inducing ligand (TRAIL), consists of 281 and 291 as in the human and murine forms, respectively, which share 65% as identity....

A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease

Yasunori Ogura, Denise K. Bonen, Naohiro Inohara, Dan L. Nicolae, Felicia F. Chen, Richard Ramos, Heidi M. Britton, Thomas Moran, Reda Karaliuskas, Richard H. Duerr, Jean-Paul Achkar, Steven R. Brant, Theodore M. Bayless, Barbara S. Kirschner, Stephen B. Hanauer, Gabriel Núñez, Judy H. Cho

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