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INNATE IMMUNE RECOGNITION

▪ Abstract The innate immune system is a universal and ancient form of host defense against infection. Innate immune recognition relies on a limited number of germline-encoded receptors. These receptors evolved to recognize conserved products of microbial...

The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system.

David N. Louis, Hiroko Ohgaki, Otmar D. Wiestler, Webster K. Cavenee, Peter C. Burger, Anne Jouvet, Bernd W. Scheithauer, Paul Kleihues

Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: cloning and characterization of complementary DNA

Overlapping complementary DNA clones were isolated from epithelial cell libraries with a genomic DNA segment containing a portion of the putative cystic fibrosis (CF) locus, which is on chromosome 7. Transcripts, approximately 6500 nucleotides in size,...

Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling

12 Pathology and Microbiology, and 13 Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is clinically heterogeneous: 40% of patients respond well to current therapy and have prolonged survival, whereas the remainder...

Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals

Jeffrey M. Friedman, Jeffrey L. Halaas

Bioconductor: open software development for computational biology and bioinformatics

The Bioconductor project is an initiative for the collaborative creation of extensible software for computational biology and bioinformatics. The goals of the project include: fostering collaborative development and widespread use of innovative software,...

Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in late onset families.

The apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (APOE-epsilon 4) is genetically associated with the common late onset familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Risk for AD increased from 20% to 90% and mean age at onset decreased from 84 to 68 years...

Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach

Masayasu Kojima, Hiroshi Hosoda, Yukari Date, Masamitsu Nakazato, Hisayuki Matsuo, Kenji Kangawa

Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome

A random-primed complementary DNA library was constructed from plasma containing the uncharacterized non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) agent and screened with serum from a patient diagnosed with NANBH. A complementary DNA clone was isolated that was shown...

Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase.

High-affinity nucleic acid ligands for a protein were isolated by a procedure that depends on alternate cycles of ligand selection from pools of variant sequences and amplification of the bound species. Multiple rounds exponentially enrich the population...

The capsaicin receptor : a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway

Michael J. Caterina, Mark A. Schumacher, Makoto Tominaga, Tobias A. Rosen, Jon D. Levine, David Julius

Differential display of eukaryotic messenger RNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction

Effective methods are needed to identify and isolate those genes that are differentially expressed in various cells or under altered conditions. This report describes a method to separate and clone individual messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by means of the polymerase...

The C. elegans Heterochronic Gene lin-4 Encodes Small RNAs with Antisense Complementarity to lin-14

Summary h-4 is essential for the normal temporal control of diverse postembryonic developmental events in C. elegans. /in-4 acts by negatively regulating the level of LIN-14 protein, creating a temporal decrease in LIN-14 protein starting in the first...

A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals.

J. C. Zadoks, T. T. Chang, C. F. Konzak

Bone: Formation by Autoinduction

Wandering histiocytes, foreign body giant cells, and inflammatory connective-tissue cells are stimulated by degradation products of dead matrix to grow in and repopulate the area of an implant of decalcified bone. Histiocytes are more numerous than any...

Opposing Effects of ERK and JNK-p38 MAP Kinases on Apoptosis

Apoptosis plays an important role during neuronal development, and defects in apoptosis may underlie various neurodegenerative disorders. To characterize molecular mechanisms that regulate neuronal apoptosis, the contributions to cell death of mitogen-activated...

Cell death: the significance of apoptosis.

The classification of cell death can be based on morphological or biochemical criteria or on the circumstances of its occurrence. Currently, irreversible structural alteration provides the only unequivocal evidence of death; biochemical indicators of...

p53 mutations in human cancers

Mutations in the evolutionarily conserved codons of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are common in diverse types of human cancer. The p53 mutational spectrum differs among cancers of the colon, lung, esophagus, breast, liver, brain, reticuloendothelial tissues,...

Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions.

Rg Morris, P. Garrud, J.N.P. Rawlins, J O'Keefe

Fundamentals of ecology

Fundamentals of ecology

Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells.

Tannishtha Reya, Sean J. Morrison, Irving L. Weissman

Surface plasmon subwavelength optics

W. L. Barnes, Alain Dereux, Thomas W. Ebbesen

Sequencing technologies — the next generation

Demand has never been greater for revolutionary technologies that deliver fast, inexpensive and accurate genome information. This challenge has catalysed the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. The inexpensive production of large...

THE UBIQUITIN SYSTEM

▪ Abstract The selective degradation of many short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells is carried out by the ubiquitin system. In this pathway, proteins are targeted for degradation by covalent ligation to ubiquitin, a highly conserved small protein....

Selenium: Biochemical Role as a Component of Glutathione Peroxidase

When hemolyzates from erythrocytes of selenium-deficient rats were incubated in vitro in the presence of ascorbate or H2O2, added glutathione failed to protect the hemoglobin from oxidative damage. This occurred because the erythrocytes were practically...

THE STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY

Analyses of steroid receptors are important for understanding molecular details of transcriptional control, as well as providing insight as to how an individual transacting factor contributes to cell identity and function. These studies have led to the...

Immunobiology of Dendritic Cells

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells with a unique ability to induce primary immune responses. DCs capture and transfer information from the outside world to the cells of the adaptive immune system. DCs are not only critical for the induction...

Rho GTPases and the Actin Cytoskeleton

The actin cytoskeleton mediates a variety of essential biological functions in all eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing a structural framework around which cell shape and polarity are defined, its dynamic properties provide the driving force for...

Graphene-based composite materials

Sasha Stankovich, Dmitriy A. Dikin, Geoffrey H. B. Dommett, Kevin M. Kohlhaas, Eric J. Zimney, Eric A. Stach, Richard D. Piner, SonBinh T. Nguyen, Rodney S. Ruoff

THE EVOLUTION OF RECIPROCAL ALTRUISM

A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the system. Three instances of altruistic behavior are discussed,...

Human Malaria Parasites in Continuous Culture

Plasmodium falciparum can now be maintained in continuous culture in human erythrocytes incubated at 38°C in RPMI 1640 medium with human serum under an atmosphere with 7 percent carbon dioxide and low oxygen (1 or 5 percent). The original parasite material,...

BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees

The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present...

The role of protein kinase C in cell surface signal transduction and tumour promotion.

The role of protein kinase C in cell surface signal transduction and tumour promotion.

[57] Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages

This chapter discusses the sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. In the chemical DNA sequencing method, one end-labels the DNA, partially cleaves it at each of the four bases in four reactions, orders the products by size on...

MEGA2: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software

Summary: We have developed a new software package, Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 2 (MEGA2), for exploring and analyzing aligned DNA or protein sequences from an evolutionary perspective. MEGA2 vastly extends the capabilities of MEGA...

Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for identifying genes end determining their functions. Here we report the analysis of the genomic sequence of Arabidopsis. The sequenced regions cover 115.4 megabases of the 125-megabase...

The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes

This chapter discusses the fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes. The fluid mosaic model has evolved by a series of stages from earlier versions. Thermodynamic considerations about membranes and membrane components initiated, and are still...

Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications

The purpose of this study was to classify breast carcinomas based on variations in gene expression patterns derived from cDNA microarrays and to correlate tumor characteristics to clinical outcome. A total of 85 cDNA microarray experiments representing...

Vascular endothelial growth factor is a secreted angiogenic mitogen

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was purified from media conditioned by bovine pituitary folliculostellate cells (FC). VEGF is a heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells that is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo....

A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity

. Like Drosophila Toll, human Toll is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular domain consisting of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, and a cytoplasmic domain homologous to the cytoplasmic domain of the human interleukin (IL)-1 receptor....

Site-directed mutagenesis by overlap extension using the polymerase chain reaction.

Overlap extension represents a new approach to genetic engineering. Complementary oligodeoxyribo-nucleotide (oligo) primers and the polymerase chain reaction are used to generate two DNA fragments having overlapping ends. These fragments are combined...

NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

Caroline Schneider, Wayne Rasband, Kevin W. Eliceiri

Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence.

Countless millions of people have died from tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus. The complete genome sequence of the best-characterized strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv, has been determined and analysed...

Precise Measurement of the G + C Content of Deoxyribonucleic Acid by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

High-performance liquid chromatography is a promising alternative for determining the G+C content of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The method which we evaluated involves enzymatic degradation of the DNA to nucleosides by P1 nuclease and bovine...

Generic Assignments, Strain Histories and Properties of Pure Cultures of Cyanobacteria

Summary: On the basis of a comparative study of 178 strains of cyanobacteria, representative of this group of prokaryotes, revised definitions of many genera are proposed. Revisions are designed to permit the generic identification of cultures, often...

tRNAscan-SE: a program for improved detection of transfer RNA genes in genomic sequence.

We describe a program, tRNAscan-SE, which identifies 99‐100% of transfer RNA genes in DNA sequence while giving less than one false positive per 15 gigabases. Two previously described tRNA detection programs are used as fast, first-pass prefilters to...

A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli.

J. C. H. de Man, M. Elisabeth Sharpe

EMBOSS: The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite

Peter Rice, Ian Longden, Alan J. Bleasby

16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study.

William G. Weisburg, Susan M. Barns, Dale A. Pelletier, David J. Lane

A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from micro-organisms †

A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from micro-organisms †

Oncomirs — microRNAs with a role in cancer

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that function as negative gene regulators. They regulate diverse biological processes, and bioinformatic data indicates that each miRNA can control hundreds of gene targets, underscoring...

The biochemistry of apoptosis

Apoptosis - the regulated destruction of a cell - is a complicated process. The decision to die cannot be taken lightly, and the activity of many genes influence a cell's likelihood of activating its self-destruction programme. Once the decision is taken,...

An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome

The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor...

New functions for the matrix metalloproteinases in cancer progression

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have long been associated with cancer-cell invasion and metastasis. This provided the rationale for clinical trials of MMP inhibitors, unfortunately with disappointing results. We now know, however, that the MMPs have...

Induction of Apoptotic Program in Cell-Free Extracts: Requirement for dATP and Cytochrome c

A cell-free system based on cytosols of normally growing cells is established that reproduces aspects of the apoptotic program in vitro. The apoptotic program is initiated by addition of dATP. Fractionation of cytosol yielded a 15 kDa protein that is...

Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-|[kappa]|B by Toll-like receptor 3

Lena Alexopoulou, Agnieszka Czopik Holt, Ruslan Medzhitov, Richard A. Flavell

Human Domination of Earth's Ecosystems

This article provides an overview of human effects on Earths ecosystems and presents specific policy recommendations concerning major human-dominated ecosystems. It is clear that humans control much of Earth and their activities affect the rest. This...

NF-κB AND REL PROTEINS: Evolutionarily Conserved Mediators of Immune Responses

▪ Abstract The transcription factor NF-κB, more than a decade after its discovery, remains an exciting and active area of study. The involvement of NF-κB in the expression of numerous cytokines and adhesion molecules has supported its role as an...

Cancer Cell Cycles

Uncontrolled cell proliferation is the hallmark of cancer, and tumor cells have typically acquired damage to genes that directly regulate their cell cycles. Genetic alterations affecting p16 INK4a and cyclin D1, proteins that govern phosphorylation of...

Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids.

R. Boom, C. J. A. Sol, M. M. M. Salimans, C. L. Jansen, P. M. E. Wertheim-van Dillen, J. van der Noordaa

Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes ☆

A gene expression system based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase has been developed. T7 RNA polymerase is highly selective for its own promoters, which do not occur naturally in Escherichia coli. A relatively small amount of T7 RNA polymerase provided...

Specific association of human telomerase activity with immortal cells and cancer

Synthesis of DNA at chromosome ends by telomerase may be necessary for indefinite proliferation of human cells. A highly sensitive assay for measuring telomerase activity was developed. In cultured cells representing 18 different human tissues, 98 of...

The SWISS-MODEL workspace: a web-based environment for protein structure homology modelling

Motivation: Homology models of proteins are of great interest for planning and analysing biological experiments when no experimental three-dimensional structures are available. Building homology models requires specialized programs and up-to-date sequence...

Central nervous system control of food intake

Model for energy homeostasis Adiposity signals: leptin and insulin Leptin resistance and obesity Neuropeptide effectors of adiposity signals Neuropeptide Y stimulates food intake Melanocortins suppress food intake Neuropeptide signalling pathways in the...

Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the triassic

Advances in sequence stratigraphy and the development of depositional models have helped explain the origin of genetically related sedimentary packages during sea level cycles. These concepts have provided the basis for the recognition of sea level events...

MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations.

With the advent of RFLPs, genetic linkage maps are now being assembled for a number of organisms in­ cluding both inbred experimental populations such as maize and outbred natural populations such as humans. Accurate construction of such genetic maps...

Building better batteries

M. Armand, Jean-Marie Tarascon

Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays

T. W. Ebbesen, Henri J. Lezec, Hadi F. Ghaemi, Tineke Thio, P. A. Wolff

The River Continuum Concept

From headwaters to mouth, the physical variables within a river system present a continuous gradient of physical conditions. This gradient should elicit a series of responses within the constituent populations resulting in a continuum of biotic adjustments...

Fishes of the world

Joseph S. Nelson

Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing

Living in an oxygenated environment has required the evolution of effective cellular strategies to detect and detoxify metabolites of molecular oxygen known as reactive oxygen species. Here we review evidence that the appropriate and inappropriate production...

Construction and characterization of amplifiable multicopy DNA cloning vehicles derived from the P15A cryptic miniplasmid.

Construction andcharacterization ofa class ofmulticopy plasmid cloning vehicles containing thereplication systemofminiplasmid P15Aare described. Theconstructed plasmids havecleavage sites within antibiotic resistance genes for a variety ofcommonly employed...

Statistical Tests of Neutrality of Mutations Against Population Growth, Hitchhiking and Background Selection

The main purpose of this article is to present several new statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against a class of alternative models, under which DNA polymorphisms tend to exhibit excesses of rare alleles or young mutations. Another purpose is...

A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry.

Corticosteroids, calcium ionophores and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies kill mouse thymocytes incubated in vitro. Cell death is preceded by extensive DNA fragmentation into oligonucleosomal subunits. This type of cell death (apoptosis), which physiologically...

The origin of species by means of natural selection, or, The preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life

The origin of species by means of natural selection, or, The preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life

Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling

Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling

Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors

Marcel Margulies, Michael Egholm, William E. Altman, Said Attiya, Joel S. Bader, Lisa A. Bemben, Jan Berka, Michael Braverman, Yi-Ju Chen, Zhoutao Chen, Scott Dewell, Lei Du, Joseph M. Fierro, Xavier V. Gomes, Brian C. Godwin, Wen He, Scott Helgesen, Chun He Ho, Gerard P. Irzyk, Szilveszter C. Jando, Maria L. I. Alenquer, Thomas Jarvie, Kshama B. Jirage, Jong-Bum Kim, James R. Knight, Janna R. Lanza, John H. Leamon, Steven M. Lefkowitz, Ming Lei, Jing Li, Kenton Lohman, Hong Lu, Vinod Makhijani, Keith Mcdade, Michael P. McKenna, Eugene W. Myers, Elizabeth Nickerson, John Nobile, Ramona Plant, Bernard P. Puc, M. T. Ronan, George T. Roth, Gary J. Sarkis, Jan Fredrik Simons, John W. Simpson, Maithreyan Srinivasan, Karrie R. Tartaro, Alexander Tomasz, Kari A. Vogt, Greg A. Volkmer

A plant DNA minipreparation: Version II

Stephen L. Dellaporta, J. Wood, J. B. Hicks

EPITHELIAL-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITIONS IN TUMOUR PROGRESSION

EPITHELIAL-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITIONS IN TUMOUR PROGRESSION

A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification

Lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials. The entire procedure can be carried out in approximately 10 minutes; it is efficient,...

A simple, rapid, and sensitive DNA assay procedure.

A simple and rapid assay for quantitative determinations of DNA in crude homogenates is described. The method is based on the enhancement of fluorescence seen when bisbenzimidazole (Hoechst 33258) binds to DNA. Crude homogenates in which chromatin has...

Studies and perspectives of protein kinase C.

Protein kinase C, an enzyme that is activated by the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids, relays information in the form of a variety of extracellular signals across the membrane to regulate many Ca2+-dependent processes. At an early...

Cytoscape: A Software Environment for Integrated Models of Biomolecular Interaction Networks

Paul Shannon, Andrew Markiel, Owen Ozier, Nitin S. Baliga, Jonathan T. Wang, Daniel Ramage, Nada Amin, Benno Schwikowski, Trey Ideker

MicroRNA expression profiles classify human cancers.

Jun Lu, Gad Getz, Eric A. Miska, Ezequiel Alvarez-Saavedra, Justin Lamb, David Peck, Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Benjamin L. Ebert, Raymond H. Mak, James R. Downing, Tyler Jacks, H. Robert Horvitz, Todd R. Golub

Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal

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Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes

Problems associated with large-scale pattern growth of graphene constituteone of the mainobstacles tousing thismaterial indevice applications 1 . Recently, macroscopic-scale graphene films were prepared by two-dimensional assembly of graphene sheets chemically...

Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer

Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for...

Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours

Lawrence A. Donehower, Michele Harvey, Betty L. Slagle, Mark J. McArthur, Charles A. Montgomery, Janet S. Butel, Allan Bradley

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