CiteWeb id: 20120000115

CiteWeb score: 2359

DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2012.190

typically based on n-type metal oxides, our device is solutionprocessed at room temperature, enabling easy processibility over a large area. Accordingly, the approach is fully amenable to highthroughput roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques, may be used to fabricate vacuum-deposition-free PSCs of large area, and find practical applications in future mass production. Moreover, our discovery overturns a well-accepted belief (the inferior performance of inverted PSCs) and clearly shows that the characteristics of high performance, improved stability and ease of use can be integrated into a single device, as long as the devices are optimized, both optically and electrically, by means of a meticulously designed device structure. We also anticipate that our findings will catalyse the development of new device structures and may move the efficiency of devices towards the goal of 10% for various material systems. Previously, we reported that PFN can be incorporated into polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) to enhance electron injection from high-work-function metals such as aluminium (work function w of 4.3 eV) 22,23 and has thus been used to realize high-efficiency, air-stable PLEDs 24 . Furthermore, we also found that efficient electron injection can be obtained even in the most noble metals with extremely high work functions, such as gold (w ¼ 5.2 eV), by lowering the effective work function (for example lowering w in gold by 1.0 eV), which has previously been ascribed to the formation of a strong interface dipole 25 .