CiteWeb id: 20030000375

CiteWeb score: 2605

DOI: 10.1146/annurev.immunol.16.1.137

▪ Abstract The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of proteins are a set of pleiotropic secreted signaling molecules with unique and potent immunoregulatory properties. TGF-β1 is produced by every leukocyte lineage, including lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and its expression serves in both autocrine and paracrine modes to control the differentiation, proliferation, and state of activation of these immune cells. TGF-β can modulate expression of adhesion molecules, provide a chemotactic gradient for leukocytes and other cells participating in an inflammatory response, and inhibit them once they have become activated. Increased production and activation of latent TGF-β have been linked to immune defects associated with malignancy and autoimmune disorders, to susceptibility to opportunistic infection, and to the fibrotic complications associated with chronic inflammatory conditions. In addition to these roles in disease pathogenesis, TGF-β is now established as a principal mediator of ...