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CiteWeb id: 19810000093

CiteWeb score: 2900

An important purpose in pooling time-series and cross-section data is to control for individual-specific unobservable effects which may be correlated with other explanatory variables, e.g. latent ability in measuring returns to schooling in earnings equations or managerial ability in measuring returns to scale in firm cost functions. Using instrumental variables and the time-invariant characteristics of the latent variable, we derive: 1. (1) a test for the presence of this effect and for the over-identifying restriction we use;2. (2) necessary and sufficient conditions for identification of all the parameters in the model; and3. (3) the asymptotically efficient instrumental variables estimator and conditions under which it differs from the within-groups estimator.We calculate efficient estimates of a wage equation from the Michigan income dynamics data which indicate substantial differences from within-groups and Balestra-Nerlove estimates — particularly a significantly higher estimate of the returns to schooling.

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