# Observers for multivariable systems

**David G. Luenberger**

CiteWeb id: 19660000103

CiteWeb score: 1330

DOI: 10.1109/TAC.1966.1098323

Often in control design it is necessary to construct estimates of state variables which are not available by direct measurement. If a system is linear, its state vector can be approximately reconstructed by building an observer which is itself a linear system driven by the available outputs and inputs of the original system. The state vector of an n th order system with m independent outputs can be reconstructed with an observer of order n-m . In this paper it is shown that the design of an observer for a system with M outputs can be reduced to the design of m separate observers for single-output subsystems. This result is a consequence of a special canonical form developed in the paper for multiple-output systems. In the special case of reconstruction of a single linear functional of the unknown state vector, it is shown that a great reduction in observer complexity is often possible. Finally, the application of observers to control design is investigated. It is shown that an observer's estimate of the system state vector can be used in place of the actual state vector in linear or nonlinear feedback designs without loss of stability.

**Observers for multivariable systems**" is placed in the Top 10000 in category Mathematics.

David G. Luenberger,

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