# The fluctuation-dissipation theorem

**Ryogo Kubo**

CiteWeb id: 19660000060

CiteWeb score: 1856

DOI: 10.1088/0034-4885/29/1/306

The linear response theory has given a general proof of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which states that the linear response of a given system to an external perturbation is expressed in terms of fluctuation properties of the system in thermal equilibrium. This theorem may be represented by a stochastic equation describing the fluctuation, which is a generalization of the familiar Langevin equation in the classical theory of Brownian motion. In this generalized equation the friction force becomes retarded or frequency-dependent and the random force is no more white. They are related to each other by a generalized Nyquist theorem which is in fact another expression of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This point of view can be applied to a wide class of irreversible process including collective modes in many-particle systems as has already been shown by Mori. As an illustrative example, the density response problem is briefly discussed.

**The fluctuation-dissipation theorem**" is placed in the Top 10000 in category Physics.

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- adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1966RPPh...29..255K
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Ryogo Kubo,

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