# The fluctuation-dissipation theorem

**Ryogo Kubo**

CiteWeb id: 19660000060

CiteWeb score: 1856

DOI: 10.1088/0034-4885/29/1/306

The linear response theory has given a general proof of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which states that the linear response of a given system to an external perturbation is expressed in terms of fluctuation properties of the system in thermal equilibrium. This theorem may be represented by a stochastic equation describing the fluctuation, which is a generalization of the familiar Langevin equation in the classical theory of Brownian motion. In this generalized equation the friction force becomes retarded or frequency-dependent and the random force is no more white. They are related to each other by a generalized Nyquist theorem which is in fact another expression of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This point of view can be applied to a wide class of irreversible process including collective modes in many-particle systems as has already been shown by Mori. As an illustrative example, the density response problem is briefly discussed.

Links:- www.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/genomes/madanm/balaji/kubo.pdf
- bio.ph.tum.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Vorlesungsmaterial/Biophysik_Bausch_WS11_12/FTD_Kubo_review.pdf
- www-f1.ijs.si/%7Eramsak/km1/kubo.pdf
- www.scs.illinois.edu/mgweb/Course_Notes/chem544/notes/Ch20.pdf
- iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0034-4885/29/1/306/pdf
- iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0034-4885/29/1/306/meta
- adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1966RPPh...29..255K
- stacks.iop.org/0034-4885/29/i=1/a=306?key=crossref.d8453ffc416cd2064d6ccd38e7c06a41
- iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/29/1/306/pdf/0034-4885_29_1_306.pdf

Ryogo Kubo,

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