CiteWeb id: 19450000005

CiteWeb score: 2656

DOI: 10.1063/1.1723985

The ideas of the first and second papers in this series, which make it possible to interpret entropy data in terms of a physical picture, are applied to binary solutions, and equations are derived relating energy and volume changes when a solution is formed to the entropy change for the process. These equations are tested against data obtained by various authors on mixtures of normal liquids, and on solutions of non‐polar gases in normal solvents. Good general agreement is found, and it is concluded that in such solutions the physical picture of molecules moving in a ``normal'' manner in each others' force fields is adequate. As would be expected, permanent gases, when dissolved in normal liquids, loosen the forces on neighboring solvent molecules producing a solvent reaction which increases the partial molal entropy of the solute.Entropies of vaporization from aqueous solutions diverge strikingly from the normal behavior established for non‐aqueous solutions. The nature of the deviations found for non‐polar solutes in water, together with the large effect of temperature upon them, leads to the idea that the water forms frozen patches or microscopic icebergs around such solute molecules, the extent of the iceberg increasing with the size of the solute molecule. Such icebergs are apparently formed also about the non‐polar parts of the molecules of polar substances such as alcohols and amines dissolved in water, in agreement with Butler's observation that the increasing insolubility of large non‐polar molecules is an entropy effect. The entropies of hydration of ions are discussed from the same point of view, and the conclusion is reached that ions, to an extent which depends on their sizes and charges, may cause a breaking down of water structure as well as a freezing or saturation of the water nearest them. Various phenomena recorded in the literature are interpreted in these terms. The influence of temperature on certain salting‐out coefficients is interpreted in terms of entropy changes. It appears that the salting‐out phenomenon is at least partly a structural effect. It is suggested that structural influences modify the distribution of ions in an electrolytesolution, and reasons are given for postulating the existence of a super‐lattice structure in solutions of LaCl3 and of EuCl3. An example is given of a possible additional influence of structural factors upon reacting tendencies in aqueous solutions.