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Types and programming languages

A type system is a syntactic method for automatically checking the absence of certain erroneous behaviors by classifying program phrases according to the kinds of values they compute. The study of type systems--and of programming languages from a type-theoretic...

Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals

We report measurements of stimulated emission and single pass light amplification in Si nanocrystals obtained by ion implantation. We argue that population inversion involves SiO interface states.

The Economics of Exhaustible Resources

1. The Peculiar Problems of Mineral Wealth. Contemplation of the world's disappearing supplies of minerals, forests, and other exhaustible assets has led to demands for regulation of their exploitation. The feeling that these products are now too cheap...

Self‐Consistent Molecular‐Orbital Methods. IX. An Extended Gaussian‐Type Basis for Molecular‐Orbital Studies of Organic Molecules

An extended basis set of atomic functions expressed as fixed linear combinations of Gaussian functions is presented for hydrogen and the first‐row atoms carbon to fluorine. In this set, described as 4–31 G, each inner shell is represented by a single...

On the Determination of the Public Debt

A public debt theory is constructed in which the Ricardian invariance theorem is valid as a first-order proposition but where the dependence of excess burden on the timing of taxation implies an optimal time path of debt issue. A central proposition is...

THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF DEHYDRATION TOLERANCE IN PLANTS

▪ Abstract Molecular studies of drought stress in plants use a variety of strategies and include different species subjected to a wide range of water deficits. Initial research has by necessity been largely descriptive, and relevant genes have been...

Regulatory T Cell Lineage Specification by the Forkhead Transcription Factor Foxp3

Regulatory T cell-mediated dominant tolerance has been demonstrated to play an important role in the prevention of autoimmunity. Here, we present data arguing that the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 acts as the regulatory T cell lineage specification...

A Simplified Model for Portfolio Analysis

This paper describes the advantages of using a particular model of the relationships among securities for practical applications of the Markowitz portfolio analysis technique. A computer program has been developed to take full advantage of the model:...

tRNAscan-SE: a program for improved detection of transfer RNA genes in genomic sequence.

We describe a program, tRNAscan-SE, which identifies 99‐100% of transfer RNA genes in DNA sequence while giving less than one false positive per 15 gigabases. Two previously described tRNA detection programs are used as fast, first-pass prefilters to...

Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, 1966.

Robert T. Hersh, R. V. Eck, Margaret O. Dayhoff

The Unified Modeling Language user guide

In The Unified Modeling Language User Guide, the original developers of the UML--Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh, and Ivar Jacobson--provide a tutorial to the core aspects of the language in a two-color format designed to facilitate learning. Starting with...

The energy landscapes and motions of proteins.

Recent experiments, advances in theory, and analogies to other complex systems such as glasses and spin glasses yield insight into protein dynamics. The basis of the understanding is the observation that the energy landscape is complex: Proteins can assume...

The Pfam protein families database

Pfam is a widely used database of protein families, currently containing more than 13 000 manually curated protein families as of release 26.0. Pfam is available via servers in the UK (http://pfam. ...

New Tools in Comparative Political Economy: The Database of Political Institutions

This article introduces a large new cross-country database, the database of political institutions. It covers 177 countries over 21 years, 1975-95. The article presents the intuition, construction, and definitions of the different variables. Among the...

Shift Register Sequences

From the Publisher:Shift register sequences are used in a broad range of applications, particularly in random number generation, multiple access and polling techniques, secure and privacy communication systems, error detecting and correcting codes, and...

Probability and statistics with reliability, queuing and computer science applications

Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing and Computer Science Applications, Second Edition, offers a comprehensive introduction to probabiliby, stochastic processes, and statistics for students of computer science, electrical and computer...

Metal-semiconductor contacts

A review is given of our present knowledge of metal-semiconductor contacts. Topics covered include the factors that determine the height of the Schottky barrier, its current/voltage characteristics, and its capacitance. A short discussion is also given...

Wnt signalling in stem cells and cancer

Tannishtha Reya, Hans Clevers

Photoinduced Electron Transfer from a Conducting Polymer to Buckminsterfullerene

Evidence for photoinduced electron transfer from the excited state of a conducting polymer onto buckminsterfullerene, C60, is reported. After photo-excitation of the conjugated polymer with light of energy greater than the π-π* gap, an electron transfer...

Insulin resistance : a multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Diabetes mellitus is commonly associated with systolic/diastolic hypertension, and a wealth of epidemiological data suggest that this association is independent of age and obesity. Much evidence indicates that the link between diabetes and essential hypertension...

Fractals everywhere

Focusing on how fractal geometry can be used to model real objects in the physical world, this up-to-date edition featurestwo 16-page full-color inserts, problems and tools emphasizing fractal applications, and an answers section. A bonus CD of an IFS...

Principal Component Analysis

Jian Guo Liu, Philippa J. Mason

A textbook of histology

Alexander A. Maximow, William Bloom

Hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers of the Alzheimer's pathological cascade

Currently available evidence strongly supports the position that the initiating event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is related to abnormal processing of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, ultimately leading to formation of Aβ plaques in the brain. This process...

Premiums for High Quality Products as Returns to Reputations

This paper derives an equilibrium price-quality schedule for markets in which buyers cannot observe product quality prior to purchase. In such markets there is an incentive for sellers to reduce quality and take short-run gains before buyers catch on....

Intensity and Frequency: Dimensions Underlying Positive and Negative Affect

Research on emotions and several happiness scales suggest that positive and negative affect are strongly inversely correlated. However, work on subjective wellbeing indicates that over time, positive and negative affect are independent across persons....

Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-|[beta]| family signalling

Transforming growth factor- (TGF-) proteins regulate cell function, and have key roles in development and carcinogenesis. The intracellular effectors of TGF- signalling, the Smad proteins, are activated by receptors and translocate into the nucleus, where...

Radical Prostatectomy versus Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer

Radical prostatectomy reduces mortality among men with localized prostate cancer; however, important questions regarding long-term benefit remain. Between 1989 and 1999, we randomly assigned 695 men with early prostate cancer to watchful waiting or radical...

Sexual Dysfunction in the United States: Prevalence and Predictors

Context While recent pharmacological advances have generated increased public interest and demand for clinical services regarding erectile dysfunction, epidemiologic data on sexual dysfunction are relatively scant for both women and men.Objective To assess...

Theory of rational option pricing

The long history of the theory of option pricing began in 1900 when the French mathematician Louis Bachelier deduced an option pricing formula based on the assumption that stock prices follow a Brownian motion with zero drift. Since that time, numerous...

A Quantitative Measure Of Fairness And Discrimination For Resource Allocation In Shared Computer Systems

: Fairness is an important performance criterion in all resource allocation schemes, including those in distributed computer systems. However, it is often specified only qualitatively. The quantitative measures proposed in the literature are either too...

The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning1

Richard Schmidt presents on the role of consciousness in second language learning at the 1988 Second Language Research Forum (SLRF) held in at the University of Hawai‘i.

Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification

Simple sequence repeats (SSR), or microsatellites, are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Here we demonstrate the utility of microsatellite-directed DNA fingerprinting by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the interrepeat region. No sequencing...

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